M band (NATO)

Last updated
NATO M band
Frequency range
60 - 100 GHz
Wavelength range
5 – 3 mm
Related bands
  • V  / W (IEEE)
  • EHF (ITU)

The NATO M band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 60 to 100 GHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 5 and 3 mm) during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). [1]

Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an alternating electric current or voltage or of a magnetic, electric or electromagnetic field or mechanical system in the frequency range from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second. This is roughly between the upper limit of audio frequencies and the lower limit of infrared frequencies; these are the frequencies at which energy from an oscillating current can radiate off a conductor into space as radio waves. Different sources specify different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range.

Wavelength spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the waves shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. Wavelength is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). The term wavelength is also sometimes applied to modulated waves, and to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids.

NJFA

NJFA stands for NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement and is the universal NATO common civil/military treaty to regulate the military access to the radio frequency spectrum in the range of 14 kHz to 100 GHz in peacetime, during exercises, in times of crisis, and in military operations. This document has been the basis for the frequency utilisation in NATO-Europe since 1982. Nations and organisations, e.g. partnership for peace countries, are invited to participate as deemed to be necessary.

However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

Electronic warfare (EW) is any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack an enemy, or impede enemy assaults. The purpose of electronic warfare is to deny the opponent the advantage of, and ensure friendly unimpeded access to, the EM spectrum. EW can be applied from air, sea, land, and/or space by manned and unmanned systems, and can target humans, communication, radar, or other assets.

The NATO M band is also a subset of the EHF band as defined by the ITU. [2] It intersects with the V (50–75 GHz) and W band (75–110 GHz) of the older IEEE classification system. [3]

Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz). It lies between the super high frequency band, and the far infrared band, the lower part of which is also referred to as the terahertz gap. Radio waves in this band have wavelengths from ten to one millimetre, so it is also called the millimetre band and radiation in this band is called millimetre waves, sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW or mmWave. Millimetre-length electromagnetic waves were first investigated in the 1890s by Indian scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose.

International Telecommunication Union Specialised agency of the United Nations

The International Telecommunication Union, originally the International Telegraph Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN.

The V band ("vee-band") is a standard designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a band of frequencies in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 40 to 75 gigahertz (GHz). The V band is not heavily used, except for millimeter wave radar research and other kinds of scientific research. It should not be confused with the 600–1000 MHz range of Band V of the UHF frequency range.

NATO LETTER BAND DESIGNATIONBROADCASTING
BAND
DESIGNATION
NEW NOMENCLATUREOLD NOMENCLATURE
BANDFREQUENCY (MHz)BANDFREQUENCY (MHz)
A 0 – 250I100 – 150Band I
47 – 68 MHz (TV)
Band II
87.5 – 108 MHz (FM)
G150 – 225Band III
174 – 230 MHz (TV)
B 250 – 500P225 – 390
C 500 – 1 000L390 – 1 550Band IV
470 – 582 MHz (TV)
Band V
582 – 862 MHz (TV)
D 1 000 – 2 000
S1 550 – 3 900
E 2 000 – 3 000
F 3 000 – 4 000
G 4 000 – 6 000C3 900 – 6 200
H 6 000 – 8 000 X 6 200 – 10 900
I 8 000 – 10 000
J 10 000 – 20 000Ku10 900 – 20 000
K 20 000 – 40 000Ka20 000 – 36 000
L 40 000 – 60 000Q36 000 – 46 000
V46 000 – 56 000
M 60 000 – 100 000W56 000 – 100 000
US- MILITARY / SACLANT
N 100 000 – 200 000
O100 000 – 200 000

Related Research Articles

Frequency allocation

Frequency allocation is the allocation and regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum into radio frequency bands, which is normally done by governments in most countries. Because radio propagation does not stop at national boundaries, governments have sought to harmonise the allocation of RF bands and their standardization.

The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In some cases, such as in communication engineering, the frequency range of the X band is rather indefinitely set at approximately 7.0–11.2 GHz. In radar engineering, the frequency range is specified by the IEEE at 8.0–12.0 GHz. The X band is used for radar, satellite communication, and wireless computer networks.

Radio spectrum part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz to 3000 GHz (3 THz)

The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies from 30 Hertz to 300 GHz. Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, called radio waves, are extremely widely used in modern technology, particularly in telecommunication. To prevent interference between different users, the generation and transmission of radio waves is strictly regulated by national laws, coordinated by an international body, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

The NATO A band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 0 to 250 MHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement. However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO B band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 250 to 500 MHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA).

The NATO I band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 8 000 to 10 000 MHz during the Cold War period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO F band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 3 000 to 4 000 MHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The Q band is a range of frequencies contained in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Common usage places this range between 33 and 50 GHz, but may vary depending on the source using the term. The foregoing range corresponds to the recommended frequency band of operation of WR22 waveguides. These frequencies are equivalent to wavelengths between 6 mm and 9.1 mm in air/vacuum. The Q band is in the EHF range of the radio spectrum.

Aeronautical mobile (OR) service

Aeronautical mobile (OR) service is – according to Article 1.34 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «An aeronautical mobile service intended for communications, including those relating to flight coordination, primarily outside national or international civil air routes

The NATO L band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 40 to 60 GHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA).

The NATO C-band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 500 to 1000 MHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO D band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 1.0 to 2.0 GHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO E band is a designation given to the radio frequencies from 2 000 to 3 000 MHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 detailed frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to generically identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, radar or in military operations, the Nato band system is often used.

The NATO G band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 4 000 to 6 000 MHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO H band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 6 000 to 8 000 MHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO J band is the designation given to the radio frequencies from 10 to 20 GHz. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, Electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO K band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 20 to 40 GHz during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA). However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g. for crises management planning, training, electronic warfare activities, or in military operations, this system is still in use.

The NATO N band is the designation given to the radio frequencies from 100 to 200 GHz used by US armed forces and SACLANT in ITU Region 2.

References

  1. NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA)
  2. "V.431: Nomenclature of the frequency and wavelength bands used in telecommunications". ITU-R. 2006-01-04. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  3. 521-2002 - IEEE Standard Letter Designations for Radar-Frequency Bands. IEEE. 2003-01-14. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2003.94224. ISBN   978-0-7381-3355-3.