| IUPAC name |
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||308.33 g/mol|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Monocerin is a dihydroisocoumarin and a polyketide metabolite that originates from various fungal species. It has been shown to display antifungal, plant pathogenic, and insecticidal characteristics. Monocerin has been isolated from Dreschlera monoceras , D. ravenelii , Exserohilum turcicum , and Fusarium larvarum .
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) of fungi are Type I PKSs. Monocerin has been confirmed by biosynthesis studies to have heptaketide origins. Monocerin PKS produces an intermediate with initially a high degree of reductive modification but ends with a classical β-polyketide moiety. Dihydroisocoumarin is the first PKS-free intermediate which would be formed from the reduced heptaketide whose assembly pathway is shown in figure 1.Ketosynthase, ketoreductase, dehydrates, enol reductases and cyclisases are shown as domains of the Monocerin PKS and methyl transferase is considered to be a tailoring enzyme.
Monocerin produced by Exserohilum turcicum causes Northern Corn Leaf blight disease in maize. The maize will develop brown lesions on its leaves and will have decreased viability in its root cap cells.Monocerin has also been shown to be an effective insecticide against wooly aphids. Monocerin is also an effective herbicide against Johnson grass by inhibiting seedling growth. It has a lesser effect against cucumber.
Mupirocin, sold under the brand name Bactroban among others, is a topical antibiotic useful against superficial skin infections such as impetigo or folliculitis. It may also be used to get rid of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) when present in the nose without symptoms. Due to concerns of developing resistance, use for greater than ten days is not recommended. It is used as a cream or ointment applied to the skin.
Gingerol, properly as -gingerol, is a chemical compound found in fresh ginger. Chemically, gingerol is a relative of capsaicin and piperine, the compounds which give chilli peppers and black pepper their respective spiciness. It is normally found as a pungent yellow oil, but also can form a low-melting crystalline solid.
The epothilones are a class of potential cancer drugs. Like taxanes, they prevent cancer cells from dividing by interfering with tubulin, but in early trials epothilones have better efficacy and milder adverse effects than taxanes.
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are a family of multi-domain enzymes or enzyme complexes that produce polyketides, a large class of secondary metabolites, in bacteria, fungi, plants, and a few animal lineages. The biosyntheses of polyketides share striking similarities with fatty acid biosynthesis.
Chalcone synthase or naringenin-chalcone synthase (CHS) is an enzyme ubiquitous to higher plants and belongs to a family of polyketide synthase enzymes (PKS) known as type III PKS. Type III PKSs are associated with the production of chalcones, a class of organic compounds found mainly in plants as natural defense mechanisms and as synthetic intermediates. CHS was the first type III PKS to be discovered. It is the first committed enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 4-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to naringenin chalcone.
(S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine or DHPG is a potent agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mGluR1 and mGluR5.
Doxorubicin (DXR) is a 14-hydroxylated version of daunorubicin, the immediate precursor of DXR in its biosynthetic pathway. Daunorubicin is more abundantly found as a natural product because it is produced by a number of different wild type strains of streptomyces. In contrast, only one known non-wild type species, streptomyces peucetius subspecies cesius ATCC 27952, was initially found to be capable of producing the more widely used doxorubicin. This strain was created by Arcamone et al. in 1969 by mutating a strain producing daunorubicin, but not DXR, at least in detectable quantities. Subsequently, Hutchinson's group showed that under special environmental conditions, or by the introduction of genetic modifications, other strains of streptomyces can produce doxorubicin. His group has also cloned many of the genes required for DXR production, although not all of them have been fully characterized. In 1996, Strohl's group discovered, isolated and characterized dox A, the gene encoding the enzyme that converts daunorubicin into DXR. By 1999, they produced recombinant Dox A, a Cytochrome P450 oxidase, and found that it catalyzes multiple steps in DXR biosynthesis, including steps leading to daunorubicin. This was significant because it became clear that all daunorubicin producing strains have the necessary genes to produce DXR, the much more therapeutically important of the two. Hutchinson's group went on to develop methods to improve the yield of DXR, from the fermentation process used in its commercial production, not only by introducing Dox A encoding plasmids, but also by introducing mutations to deactivate enzymes that shunt DXR precursors to less useful products, for example baumycin-like glycosides. Some triple mutants, that also over-expressed Dox A, were able to double the yield of DXR. This is of more than academic interest because at that time DXR cost about $1.37 million per kg and current production in 1999 was 225 kg per annum. More efficient production techniques have brought the price down to $1.1 million per kg for the non-liposomal formulation. Although DXR can be produced semi-synthetically from daunorubicin, the process involves electrophilic bromination and multiple steps and the yield is poor. Since daunorubicin is produced by fermentation, it would be ideal if the bacteria could complete DXR synthesis more effectively.
Streptogramin A is a group of antibiotics within the larger family of antibiotics known as streptogramins. They are synthesized by the bacteria Streptomyces virginiae. The streptogramin family of antibiotics consists of two distinct groups: group A antibiotics contain a 23-membered unsaturated ring with lactone and peptide bonds while group B antibiotics are depsipeptides. While structurally different, these two groups of antibiotics act synergistically, providing greater antibiotic activity than the combined activity of the separate components. These antibiotics have until recently been commercially manufactured as feed additives in agriculture, although today there is increased interest in their ability to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly vancomycin-resistant bacteria.
Macrophomic acid is a fungal metabolite isolated from the fungus Macrophoma commelinae. The enzyme macrophomate synthase converts 5-acetyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone to 4-acetyl-3-methoxy-5-methyl-benzoic acid through an unusual intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction. The pathway to formation of macrophomic acid suggests that the enzyme is a natural Diels-Alderase. Formation of this type of aromatic ring compound normally proceeds via the shikimate and polyketide pathways; however, the production of macrophomic acid by macrophomate synthase proceeds totally differently. Learning about the production of macrophomic acid by a possible natural Diels-Alderase enzyme is important in understanding enzyme catalytic mechanisms. This knowledge can then be applied to organic synthesis.
6-Deoxyerythronolide B Synthase or DEBS has been identified as a Type 1 polyketide synthase. DEBS is found in Saccharopolyspora erythraea and responsible for the synthesis of the macrolide ring which is the precursor of the antibiotic erythromycin. There have been three categories of polyketide synthases identified to date, type 1, 2 and 3. Type one synthases involve large multidomain proteins containing all the sites necessary for polyketide synthesis. Type two synthases contain active sites distributed among several smaller polypeptides, and type three synthases are large multi-protein complexes containing modules which have a single active site for each and every step of polyketide synthesis. In the case of DEBS, there are three large multi-functional proteins, DEBS 1,2, and 3, that each exist as a dimer of two modules. Each module consists of a minimum of a Ketosynthase (KS), Acyl carrier protein (ACP) site, and acyltransferase (AT), but may also contain a Ketoreductase (KR), Dehydrotase (DH), and Enol Reductase (ER) for additional reduction reactions. The DEBS complex also contains a Loading Domain on module 1 consisting of an acyl carrier protein and an acyltransferase. The terminal Thioesterase acts solely to terminate DEBS polyketide synthesis and cyclize the macrolide ring.
Codinaeopsin is an antimalarial isolated from a fungal isolate found in white yemeri trees (Vochysia guatemalensis) in Costa Rica. It is reported to have bioactivity against Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 = 2.3 μg/mL (4.7 μM). Pure codinaeopsin was reported to be isolated with a total yield of 18 mg/mL from cultured fungus. The biosynthesis of codinaeopsin involves a polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) hybrid.
Apratoxin A - is a cyanobacterial secondary metabolite, known as a potent cytotoxic marine natural product. It is a derivative of the Apratoxin family of cytotoxins. The mixed peptide-polyketide natural product comes from a polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase pathway (PKS/NRPS). This cytotoxin is known for inducing G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This natural product's activity has made it a popular target for developing anticancer derivatives.
Ketoacyl synthases (KSs) catalyze the condensation reaction of acyl-CoA or acyl-acyl ACP with malonyl-CoA to form 3-ketoacyl-CoA or with malonyl-ACP to form 3-ketoacyl-ACP. This reaction is a key step in the fatty acid synthesis cycle, as the resulting acyl chain is two carbon atoms longer than before. KSs exist as individual enzymes, as they do in type II fatty acid synthesis and type II polyketide synthesis, or as domains in large multidomain enzymes, such as type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs). KSs are divided into five families: KS1, KS2, KS3, KS4, and KS5.
Leinamycin is an 18-membered macrolactam produced by several species of Streptomyces atroolivaceus. This macrolactam has also been shown to exhibit antitumor properties as well as antimicrobial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The presence of a spiro-fused 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety was a unique structural property at the time of this compound's discovery and it plays an important role in leinamycin's antitumor and antibacterial properties due to its ability to inhibit DNA synthesis.
Portentol is a complex polyketide first isolated in 1967 from the lichen Roccella portentosa and has since been extracted from various other lichen. It has exhibited moderate activity toward several cancer cell lines. Of greater interest is the structural skeleton and chemical space the molecule possesses, which were ultimately determined by detailed NMR studies and X-ray analysis. The spiro tricyclic core contains nine consecutive stereocenters, two of which are adjacent quaternary centers, and a β-keto-δ-lactone moiety. The densely functionalized natural product offered an exciting challenge to total synthesis.
Gephyronic acid is a polyketide that exists as an equilibrating mixture of structural isomers. In nature, Gephyronic acid is produced by slow growing myxobacterium: Archangium gephyra strain Ar3895 and Cystobacter violaceus strain Cb vi76. It is the first antibiotic in myxobacteria that was reported to specifically inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis.
BY1 is a taxonomically unidentified basidiomycete fungus. ITS sequencing has placed it in the Russulales and is referred to as a stereaceous basidiomycete. Chemotaxonomically supporting its placement in this group, it produces fomannoxins and vibralactones. The fungus' mycelia were isolated from dead aspen in Minnesota, USA. It is presumed to decompose wood by white rot.
Fostriecin is a type I polyketide synthase (PKS) derived natural product, originally isolated from the soil bacterium Streptomyces pulveraceus. It belongs to a class of natural products which characteristically contain a phosphate ester, an α,β-unsaturated lactam and a conjugated linear diene or triene chain produced by Streptomyces. This class includes structurally related compounds cytostatin and phoslactomycin. Fostriecin is a known potent and selective inhibitor of protein serine/threonine phosphatases, as well as DNA topoisomerase II. Due to its activity against protein phosphatases PP2A and PP4 which play a vital role in cell growth, cell division, and signal transduction, fostriecin was looked into for its antitumor activity in vivo and showed in vitro activity against leukemia, lung cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. This activity is thought to be due to PP2A's assumed role in regulating apoptosis of cells by activating cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells involved in tumor surveillance, along with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) transcription and replication.
Borrelidin is an 18-membered polyketide macrolide derived from several Streptomyces species. First discovered in 1949 from Streptomyces rochei, Borrelidin shows antibacterial activity by acting as an inhibitor of threonyl-tRNA synthetase and features a nitrile moiety, a unique functionality in natural products., Borrelidin also exhibits potent angiogenesis inhibition, which was shown in a rat aorta matrix model. Other studies have been performed to show that low concentrations of borrelidin can suppress growth and induce apoptosis in malignant acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Borredlidin’s antimalarial activity has also been shown in vitro and in vivo.
Swinholides are dimeric 42 carbon-ring polyketides that exhibit a 2-fold axis of symmetry. Found mostly in the marine sponge Theonella, swinholides encompass cytotoxic and antifungal activities via disruption of the actin skeleton. Swinholides were first described in 1985 and the structure and stereochemistry were updated in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Thirteen swinholides have been described in the literature, including close structural compounds such as misakinolides/bistheonellides, ankaraholides, and hurgholide A It is suspected that symbiotic microbes that inhabit the sponges rather than the sponges themselves produce swinholides since the highest concentration of swinholides are found in the unicellular bacterial fraction of sponges and not in the sponge fraction or cyanobacteria fraction that also inhabit the sponges.