Norton Simon Museum

Last updated
Norton Simon Museum
Norton Simon Museum Pasadena CA (51081778692).jpg
Norton Simon Museum
Former name
Pasadena Art Institute, Pasadena Art Museum
Established1969 (1969)
Location Pasadena, California
Coordinates 34°08′46″N118°09′33″W / 34.146203°N 118.159097°W / 34.146203; -118.159097
TypeArt museum
ArchitectLadd + Kelsey

The Norton Simon Museum is an art museum located in Pasadena, California, United States. It was previously known as the Pasadena Art Institute and the Pasadena Art Museum and displays numerous sculptures on its grounds.



The Norton Simon collections include: European paintings, sculptures, and tapestries; Asian sculptures, paintings, and woodblock prints. Outside sculptures surround the museum, with notable Rodin sculptures near its entrance and other sculptures along Colorado Boulevard and in a landscape setting around a large pond. [1] The museum contains the Norton Simon Theater which shows film programs daily, and hosts lectures, symposia, and dance and musical performances year-round. The museum is located on Colorado Boulevard along the route of the Tournament of Roses's Rose Parade, where its distinctive, brown tile exterior can be seen in the background of television broadcasts.


The museum entrance hall Norton Simon Lobby.JPG
The museum entrance hall

After receiving approximately 400 German Expressionist pieces from collector Galka Scheyer in 1953, [2] the Pasadena Art Institute changed its name to the Pasadena Art Museum in 1954 and occupied the Chinoiserie-style "The Grace Nicholson Treasure House of Oriental Art" building (now the Pacific Asia Museum) on North Los Robles Avenue until 1970. [3] The museum filled a void, being the only modern art museum between San Francisco and La Jolla in California at the time. It was renowned for progressive art exhibits and supported the work of local contemporary artists such as Helen Lundeberg, John McLaughlin, and Sam Francis. In 1962, curator Walter Hopps arrived from the Ferus gallery, organizing an early Pop art show in 1962 and a Marcel Duchamp retrospective in 1963, as well as solo shows of the work of Kurt Schwitters and Joseph Cornell. [4]

Hopps later drew up a short list of California architects for a new museum building, including Richard Neutra, Charles Eames, John Lautner, Craig Ellwood, and Thornton Ladd. [5] Hopps insisted on a local architect because he expected a high level of interaction throughout the design process. [5] A new Pasadena Art Museum building was completed in 1969, designed by Pasadena architects Thornton Ladd and John Kelsey of the firm Ladd & Kelsey. General contractor selected to build the museum was Del E. Webb Corporation. [6] [7] The distinctive and modern curvilinear exterior facade is faced in 115,000 glazed tiles, in varying rich brown tones with an undulating surface, made by renowned ceramic artisan Edith Heath. [8] Hopps resigned before the museum opened. [5]

In the early 1970s, due to an ambitious schedule of exhibits and the new building project, the museum began to experience serious financial hardships. By that time industrialist Norton Simon, who had risen to become one of the pre-eminent art collectors in the world during the 1960s, was searching for a permanent location for his growing collection of over 4,000 objects. He was first approached for financial assistance in 1971 by trustees of the museum. In 1974, the museum and Simon came to an agreement. According to the agreed five-year plan, Simon took over an $850,000 loan on the building and other financial obligations, including a $1 million accumulated operating deficit, in return for using 75% of the gallery space for his collection. The remainder was used to display the Pasadena museum's contemporary collection. A new 10-member board of trustees was formed, consisting of four members from Simon's group, three from the Pasadena museum board and three public members nominated by Simon. [9] Simon also became responsible for the collection and building projects; in return the museum was renamed the Norton Simon Museum and renovated at a reported cost of more than $3 million. [10] The detailed history of that process was told by former director and art critic John Coplans (who later became an artist) in Artforum. [11] This move, widely criticized by the local community as it represented the closing of the only contemporary art museum between San Francisco and La Jolla, led indirectly to the founding of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 1979, a project largely driven by Norton Simon's sister Marcia Weisman.

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Adam and Eve (pair), c. 1530 Lucas Cranach d.A. - Adam und Eva (Gemaldepaar), Norton Simon Museum.jpg
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Adam and Eve (pair), c. 1530

Simon died in 1993, and the actress Jennifer Jones, his widow and chairwoman of the board, made corrective, conciliatory moves that have repositioned the museum and its two collections. [2] In 1995, the museum began a major $5 million renovation with the architect Frank Gehry, a longtime trustee of the museum. [2] The redesign resulted in a procession of medium-size, more intimate galleries with raised ceilings and improved lighting, increased rotating exhibition space, an entire floor devoted to Asian art, and restored access to the gardens. The gardens were redesigned by Power and Associates to house the 20th-century sculpture collection in an engaging setting. The new Norton Simon Theater was the final element of the renovation, designed by Gensler & Associates, and is used for lectures, film, dance performances and concerts. [12]


The Norton Simon Museum, which comprises more than 11,000 objects, contains a significant permanent collection which is highly regarded internationally. The museum itself does not own the works it displays; instead, most of the art is on long-term loan from The Norton Simon Foundation and the Norton Simon Art Foundation, which each own different groups of artworks. As of 2014, their public filings placed the combined fair-market value of the artworks at about $2.5 billion. [13] The museum makes relatively little effort to expand the collection amassed by its founder, but it still receives gifts. [14] However, no more than 800 or 900 of those pieces are on display at any one time. The museum also mounts temporary exhibitions that focus on a particular artist, an art movement or artistic period, or art that was created in a specific region or country.

For more than three decades after it was founded in 1975, the Norton Simon Museum maintained a no-loans policy. In 2007, the board agreed to circulate select works to museums including the National Gallery of Art in Washington, saying it wanted the museum to become better known. [15] In 2009, it entered into a reciprocal loan agreement with the Frick Collection in New York City. [16]

Asian art

'Digambara Yaksha Sarvahna' from Karnataka, India, c. 900 CE 'Digambara Yaksha Sarvahna' from Karnataka, India, c. 900, Norton Simon Museum.JPG
'Digambara Yaksha Sarvahna' from Karnataka, India, c. 900 CE

The museum has a world-renowned collection of art from South Asia and Southeast Asia, with examples of this region's sculptural and painting traditions. On display are holdings from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, Cambodia and Thailand, as well as selected works from Afghanistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, and Japan. The collection is particularly rich in art from the Indian subcontinent, including monumental stone sculpture from the Kushana and Gupta periods, and a remarkable group of Chola bronzes from southern India. Selections of the museum's Rajput paintings from India, and thangkas, or Buddhist religious paintings, from Tibet and Nepal are well represented. The significant collection of Japanese woodblock prints includes objects that were formerly in the collection of Frank Lloyd Wright.

European art: 14th–16th centuries

Masterworks of the Early Renaissance, the High Renaissance and Mannerism make up the museum's extensive collection of 14th- to 16th-century European art. Exquisite works by Paolo Veneziano and Giovanni di Paolo, and an exceptional Guariento di Arpo altarpiece, anchor the museum's collection of gold-ground panel paintings. Jacopo Bassano, Botticelli, Filippino Lippi and Raphael are represented by rich oil paintings of religious scenes. Also represented are magnificent examples of such Northern European masters as Lucas Cranach the Elder, Dieric Bouts and Hans Memling. The portraits of Giorgione, Giovanni Bellini and El Greco reflect the great diversity of subject matter in the collection. Ownership of Cranach's Adam [17] and Eve [18] is disputed due to their history as Nazi loot. [19]

European art: 17th–18th centuries

Rembrandt, Self-portrait, c. 1640 Rembrandt self portrait 1636-38.jpg
Rembrandt, Self-portrait, c. 1640

The museum's early Baroque paintings from Italy and Spain are represented by such noted artists as Guido Reni, Guercino, Murillo and Zurbarán. The Northern Baroque collection is profoundly expressed in the works of Peter Paul Rubens. The remarkable group of 17th-century Dutch genre, portrait and landscape paintings is crowned with three portraits by Rembrandt. Capping off the 17th century are Flemish and German still lifes, and religious landscapes by the French masters Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin. The French component of the 18th century collection contains paintings by Watteau, Fragonard and Boucher, while Italy is represented with capriccios and historic glimpses into the daily life of Rome and Venice with works by Longhi, Pannini, Guardi, Canaletto, and Tiepolo.

European art: 19th century

Vincent van Gogh, The Parsonage Garden at Nuenen in the Snow, 1885, (F194) Van Gogh - Der Pfarrgarten in Nuenen im Schnee1.jpeg
Vincent van Gogh, The Parsonage Garden at Nuenen in the Snow, 1885, (F194)

The museum's paintings by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Francisco de Goya mark the beginning of the 19th century and lead to superb examples of mid-century Realism executed by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet. The museum has the most significant collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art in Southern California. Works by Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas, who alone is represented by over one hundred works of art, are displayed alongside the vibrant palettes of Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin. Complementing these works are Auguste Rodin's monumental bronze sculptures, displayed in the museum's front garden. Outstanding paintings by Édouard Vuillard and Pierre Bonnard lead to the doorstep of 20th-century Modernism.

Modern art

The museum has an extensive collection of Modern art, with seminal works by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Henri Matisse, and Diego Rivera on permanent view. The "Galka Scheyer collection of works by the Blue Four artists" boasts paintings and works on paper by Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Alexei Jawlensky, and Wassily Kandinsky. Scheyer, a German art dealer and collector who had represented these artists and settled in L.A. in 1925, left 450 works by the Blue Four and other modern artists (plus an archive of 800 documents) to the Pasadena Art Institute after plans had failed to give them to UCLA. [20]

Contemporary art

The collection of Post-War Contemporary Art, from the Norton Simon Museum's acquisition of the Pasadena Art Museum's building and collections, is noteworthy for its strength in collage, assemblage and sculpture, including works by Joseph Cornell, Robert Rauschenberg, Louise Nevelson, and Ed Kienholz. Pop Art, and Minimal Art are represented by Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Donald Judd, and Robert Irwin. Californian art from the 1950s through the 1970s is a particular strength, with artwork by Sam Francis, Richard Diebenkorn, Jay DeFeo, Ronald Davis, Larry Bell, Edward Ruscha, Kenneth Price, Charles Arnoldi, and Ed Moses, Color Field painting and Lyrical Abstraction are represented by Kenneth Noland, Ronnie Landfield, Frank Stella, Helen Frankenthaler, and Kenneth Showell.


Major sculptors of the 19th century and early 20th century, including Aristide Maillol, Constantin Brâncuși, Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, and Isamu Noguchi, are represented by works in bronze, lead and marble sculptures throughout the galleries and outside the museum, including the Front Garden and Colorado Boulevard lawn, as well as the extensive Sculpture Garden grounds.


The Norton Simon is organized as an operating foundation, devoting its resources to its own public benefit activities. The operating budget is about $6 million. [13] The museum building, which is owned by the board of trustees, stands on land leased from the City of Pasadena for $1 a year. The 75-year lease runs until 2050. Negotiations in the past included possible moves to San Francisco and UCLA, as well as an affiliation with the J. Paul Getty Trust. [21]

Jennifer Jones' Hollywood connections brought members of the film and television community, including Billy Wilder, Gregory Peck, Cary Grant, David Geffen, Tom Brokaw, and Candice Bergen, to the Norton Simon's museum board. [22]

Selected art images of Norton Simon Museum.

Art repatriation issues

In 2012, the Cambodian government asked the United States to help it recover a 10th-century Khmer sandstone statue from the Norton Simon Museum, saying the work was looted from a Cambodian temple complex during the country's political upheavals in the 1970s. The sculpture in question was owned by the Norton Simon Art Foundation and has been on display since 1980, and although Cambodian authorities have long known it was there, they had not sought its return until recently. [23] In the spring of 2014, the Norton Simon returned the sculpture to the Kingdom of Cambodia. [24]

From 2007 until 2018, the museum was embroiled in a legal dispute over rightful ownership of Lucas Cranach the Elder's 1530 paired paintings Adam and Eve. Marei van Saher filed suit, seeking the return of the paintings and alleging that they were confiscated by the Nazi's from her father-in-law, Jacques Goudstikker, a prominent Dutch Jewish art dealer. Goudstikker died on board a ship with his family while attempting to flee the Netherlands. After the war, the paintings were recovered by the Monuments Men and returned to the Dutch government. In the 1960s, the Dutch government transferred them to United States Naval Commander George Stroganoff-Scherbatoff, who claimed they had previously been stolen from his family in Russia by the Stalinist government and sold to Goudstikker in a widely criticized estate auction in Berlin. The paintings were sold in the early 1970s by the Commander to Norton Simon and his foundations, and they have been on display in the Norton Simon Museum of Art for more than 30 years. [25] Despite ethical concerns expressed by many, including the grandson of founder Norton Simon, the Norton Simon Museum continued its legal battle to keep the works. [13] The Norton Simon Museum's defense hinges on a legal sale by the Dutch government to Commander Stroganoff-Scherbatoff after the owner's widow declined a settlement with the government in 1966. During the case in 2012, the court heard that "The Dutch government itself undermined the legitimacy of [the] restitution process by describing it as 'bureaucratic, cold and often even callous." [26] The museum sought U.S. Supreme Court review of a June 2014 ruling delivered by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit that allowed van Saher to continue her claim; [25] the Supreme Court had declined to hear a prior stage of the case in 2010. [27] In 2017, the court ruled 3–0 against von Saher. [28]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexej von Jawlensky</span> German painter

Alexej Georgewitsch von Jawlensky, surname also spelt as Yavlensky, was a Russian expressionist painter active in Germany. He was a key member of the New Munich Artist's Association, Der Blaue Reiter group and later the Die Blaue Vier.

The Huntington Library, Art Museum and Botanical Gardens, known as The Huntington, is a collections-based educational and research institution established by Henry E. Huntington (1850–1927) and Arabella Huntington (c.1851–1924) in San Marino, California, United States. In addition to the library, the institution houses an extensive art collection with a focus on 18th- and 19th-century European art and 17th- to mid-20th-century American art. The property also includes approximately 120 acres (49 ha) of specialized botanical landscaped gardens, most notably the "Japanese Garden", the "Desert Garden", and the "Chinese Garden".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Los Angeles County Museum of Art</span> Encyclopedic, Art museum in Los Angeles, United States

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles</span> Art museum in Los Angeles, California

The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (MOCA) is a contemporary art museum with two locations in greater Los Angeles, California. The main branch is located on Grand Avenue in Downtown Los Angeles, near the Walt Disney Concert Hall. MOCA's original space, initially intended as a "temporary" exhibit space while the main facility was built, is now known as the Geffen Contemporary, in the Little Tokyo district of downtown Los Angeles. Between 2000 and 2019, it operated a satellite facility at the Pacific Design Center facility in West Hollywood.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hammer Museum</span> Art museum, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in Los Angeles, California

The Hammer Museum, which is affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles, is an art museum and cultural center known for its artist-centric and progressive array of exhibitions and public programs. Founded in 1990 by the entrepreneur-industrialist Armand Hammer to house his personal art collection, the museum has since expanded its scope to become "the hippest and most culturally relevant institution in town." Particularly important among the museum's critically acclaimed exhibitions are presentations of both historically over-looked and emerging contemporary artists. The Hammer Museum also hosts over 300 programs throughout the year, from lectures, symposia, and readings to concerts and film screenings. As of February 2014, the museum's collections, exhibitions, and programs are completely free to all visitors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Norton Simon</span> American industrialist and philanthropist

Norton Winfred Simon was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was at one time one of the wealthiest men in America. At the time of his death, he had amassed a net worth of nearly US$10 billion.

John Mason was an American artist who did experimental work with ceramics. Mason's work focused on exploring the physical properties of clay and its "extreme plasticity". One of a group of artists who had studied under the pioneering ceramicist Peter Voulkos, he created wall reliefs and expressionistic sculptures, often on a monumental scale.

Larry Bell is an American contemporary artist and sculptor. He is best known for his glass boxes and large-scaled illusionistic sculptures. He is a grant recipient from, among others, the National Endowment for the Arts and the Guggenheim Foundation, and his artworks are found in the collections of many major cultural institutions. He lives and works in Taos, New Mexico, and maintains a studio in Venice, California.

Walter "Chico" Hopps was an American museum director, gallerist, and curator of contemporary art. Hopps helped bring Los Angeles post-war artists to prominence during the 1960s, and later went on to redefine practices of curatorial installation internationally. He is known for contributing decisively to “the emergence of the museum as a place to show new art.”

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jacques Goudstikker</span>

Jacques Goudstikker was a Jewish Dutch art dealer who fled the Netherlands when it was invaded by Nazi Germany during World War II, leaving three furnished properties and an extensive and significant art collection including over 1200 paintings, many of which had been previously catalogued as "Old Masters". The entire collection, which had been surveyed by Hermann Goering himself, was subsequently looted by the Nazis. Between the two World Wars, Jacques Goudstikker had been the most important Dutch dealer of Old Master paintings, according to Peter C. Sutton, executive director and CEO of the Bruce Museum of Arts and Science. Despite efforts of Goudstikker's widow after the war to regain possession of the collection, it was not until after her death that the Dutch government finally restituted 202 paintings to the Goudstikker family in 2006. To finance efforts to reclaim more of the stolen art, a large portion of them were sold at auction in 2007 for almost $10 million.

Ed Moses was an American artist based in Los Angeles and a central figure of postwar West Coast art.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rembrandt in Southern California</span>

Fourteen Rembrandt paintings are held in collections in Southern California. This accumulation began with J. Paul Getty's purchase of the Portrait of Marten Looten in 1938, and is now the third-largest concentration of Rembrandt paintings in the United States. Portrait of Marten Looten is now housed at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).

The Frederick R. Weisman Art Foundation is a non-profit arts foundation located on North Carolwood Drive in the Holmby Hills district of Los Angeles, California. Modern and contemporary artwork in the Frederick R. Weisman collection are displayed in a "living with art—house museum" context, with guided public tours by appointment with the foundation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lette Valeska</span> German painter

Lette Valeska was a photographer, painter and sculptor in the Hollywood community. When her husband's chemical plant was confiscated by the Nazi regime, she left her homeland of Germany and traveled with her husband and daughter before moving to New York City in 1937. In 1938 she left her husband and moved to Los Angeles, where she spent the rest of her life. She began a photographic career of children's portraits and quickly gained notoriety among Hollywood stars. She worked as an archivist for the Pasadena Art Museum's Blue Four Collection. At the end of World War II, she organized a friendship correspondence between children in California and Ryswyck, Holland out of gratitude for Ryswyck citizens' assistance to holocaust refugees. At age 50, Valeska began painting and at age 70 began sculpting. She was featured in the Emmy award winning NBC documentary "The Heart Is Not Wrinkled" in 1969.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Galka Scheyer</span> German-American painter

Galka Scheyer was a German-American painter, art dealer, art collector, and teacher. She was the founder of the "Blue Four," an artists' group that consisted of Lyonel Feininger, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Alexej von Jawlensky.

Charlène G. von Saher is a British former competitive figure skater. The daughter of a West German skater, von Saher spent most of her life in Greenwich, Connecticut and trained alongside Nancy Kerrigan under coaches Evy Scotvold and Mary Scotvold. She won the gold medal at the 1993 British Championships and then finished 12th at the 1993 World Championships. Despite withdrawing from the 1994 national championships with a severe case of the flu, she was selected to represent Great Britain at the 1994 Winter Olympics. She finished 15th at the Lillehammer Games.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Suzanne Muchnic</span> American art historian

Suzanne Muchnic is an art writer who was a staff art reporter and art critic at the Los Angeles Times for 31 years. She has also written books on artists, collectors, and museums.

Helen Pashgian is an American visual artist who lives and works in Pasadena, California. She is a primary member of the Light and Space art movement of the 1960s, but her role has been historically under-recognized.

Pratapaditya Pal is an Indian scholar of Southeast Asian and Himalayan art and culture, specializing particularly in the history of art of India, Nepal and Tibet. He has served as a curator of South Asian art at several prominent US museums including Boston's Museum of Fine Arts, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Art Institute of Chicago, where he has organized more than 22 major exhibitions and helped build the museums' collection. He has also written over 60 books and catalogs, and over 250 articles on the subject, taught at several universities, and served as the editor of the Indian art magazine, Marg. In 2009 he was awarded Padma Shri by the Government of India for his contributions to the study of Indian art.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Norman Zammitt</span> American artist (1931–2007)

Norman Charles Zammitt was an American artist in Southern California who was at the leading edge of the Light and Space Movement, pioneering with his transparent sculptures in the early 1960s, followed in the 1970s by his large scale luminous color paintings.


  1. Barrera, Sandra (28 August 2017). "At the Norton Simon Museum Sculpture Garden, art and nature intersect". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 Giovannini, Joseph (July 18, 1999). "The Norton Simon Museum Lightens Up". The New York Times .
  3. Building and Garden Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine , Pacific Asia Museum, 2011
  4. Mizota, Sharon (December 26, 2011). "PST, A to Z: '46 N. Los Robles' at Pacific Asia, 'Proof' at Norton Simon". Los Angeles Times .
  5. 1 2 3 Poundstone, William (September 4, 2012). "How the Norton Simon Got Its Curves". Blouin Artinfo.
  6. "Webb Spinner 1965-1968" (PDF).
  7. "Webb Spinner 1969-1970" (PDF).
  8. Chang, Jade (2005). Art/Shop/Eat Los Angeles. Somerset Books. pp.  90–98. ISBN   1-905131-06-2.
  9. Muchnic, Suzanne (June 24, 1990). "Simon Finally Breaks the Silence". Los Angeles Times .
  10. Pace, Eric (June 4, 1993). "Norton Simon, Businessman and Collector, Dies at 86". The New York Times.
  11. John Coplans, «  Pasadena’s collapse and the Simon's takeover. Diary of a Disaster  », Artforum, Feb. 1975.
  12. Campbell, Sara; Knoke, C.; Williams, G. (2003). Handbook of the Norton Simon Museum. Pasadena, California: Norton Simon Museum. p.  128. ISBN   978-0-9726681-1-8.
  13. 1 2 3 Boehm, Mike (November 14, 2014). "Norton Simon grandson urges museum to be 'just' with 'Adam' and 'Eve'". Los Angeles Times.
  14. Muchnic, Suzanne (February 11, 2009). "L.A. museums' collections grow despite poor economy". Los Angeles Times.
  15. Vogel, Carol (October 5, 2007). "Masterwork From Naples, Cloaked in Mystery". The New York Times.
  16. Rosenberg, Karen (February 27, 2009). "Sharing Reflections of Tycoon Taste and Wealth". The New York Times.
  17. "Search the Collection". Norton Simon Museum. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  18. "Search the Collection". Norton Simon Museum. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  19. "FindLaw's United States Ninth Circuit case and opinions". Findlaw. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  20. Muchnic, Suzanne (November 13, 1994). "The Modernism of Galka Scheyer". Los Angeles Times.
  21. Muchnic, Suzanne (November 13, 1994). "Norton Simon Collection to Stay in Pasadena, Officials Say". Los Angeles Times.
  22. Muchnic, Suzanne (December 18, 2009). "Jennifer Jones Simon gave new life to husband's museum". Los Angeles Times.
  23. Blumenthal, Ralph (September 28, 2012). "Cambodia Is Seeking 2nd Statue". The New York Times.
  24. Boehm, Mike (May 21, 2014). "Norton Simon's Temple Wrestler Heading Home to Cambodia". Los Angeles Times.
  25. 1 2 Boehm, Mike (October 9, 2014). "Norton Simon may seek U.S. Supreme Court ruling in looted art case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  26. Boehm, Mike (22 July 2014). "Norton Simon Museum seeks rehearing after 'Adam and Eve' setback". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  27. "Von Saher v. Norton Simon Museum of Art at Pasadena". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  28. Stempel, Jonathan (July 30, 2018). "California museum can keep Cranachs looted by Nazis: U.S. appeals court". Reuters .