One guilder coin (Netherlands)

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The One guilder coin was a coin struck in the Kingdom of the Netherlands between 1818 and 2001. It remained in circulation until 2002 when the guilder currency was replaced by the euro. No guilder coins were minted in the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II.

A coin is a small, flat, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Euro European currency

The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, and counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019. The euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is divided into 100 cents.

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All of them featured the reigning monarch on the obverse, and until Queen Beatrix in 1982, the national Coat of Arms on the reverse. At the time of its demonetisation, the guilder was the third-highest denomination coin in the Netherlands.

Monarchy of the Netherlands Wikimedia list article

The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and, as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands. Consequently, a fairly large portion of the Dutch Constitution is devoted to the monarch; roughly a third of the document describes the succession, mechanisms of accession and abdication to the throne, the roles and responsibilities of the monarch and the formalities of communication between the Staten-Generaal and the role of the monarch in the creation of laws.

Coat of arms of the Netherlands Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was originally adopted in 1815 and later modified in 1907. The arms are a composite of the arms of the former Dutch Republic and the arms of the House of Nassau, it features a checkered shield with a lion grasping a sword in one hand and a bundle of arrows in the other and is the heraldic symbol of the monarch and the country. The monarch uses a version of the arms with a mantle while the government of the Netherlands uses a smaller version without the mantle (cloak) or the pavilion, sometimes only the shield and crown are used. The components of the coats of arms were regulated by Queen Wilhelmina in a royal decree of 10 July 1907, affirmed by Queen Juliana in a royal decree of 23 April 1980.

History

Pre-World War II

The first guilder coin was struck from 1818 to 1837 as a 0.893 silver coin. It measured 30mm in diameter and weighed 10.766g. The coins of the first year of mintage have a wider diameter of 30.5mm. [1] The obverse [2] featured a portrait of King William I of the Netherlands facing right, with the inscription WILLEM KONING on his left and DER NED.(erlanden) G.(root) H.(ertog) V.(an) L.(uxemburg) on the right (meaning 'William King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg'. The reverse [3] featured the Dutch coat of arms with '1' and 'G' either side of the coat of arms and '100C' below. The date was split at the top and the inscription read MUNT VAN HET KONINGRYK DER NEDERLANDEN (meaning 'Coin of the Kingdom of the Netherlands').

Silver Chemical element with atomic number 47

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

William I of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1815 - 1840

William I was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

Obverse of the 0.945 silver guilder coin featuring King William II of the Netherlands, minted from 1840 to 1849 Gulden 1848 achter 300.JPG
Obverse of the 0.945 silver guilder coin featuring King William II of the Netherlands, minted from 1840 to 1849

From 1840 to 1849, the obverse portrait was that of King William II of the Netherlands facing left, and the silver was upgraded to 0.945. The weight decreased to 10g and the diameter to 28mm. The edge was inscribed GOD * ZY * MET ONS (God be with us). [4]

William II of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1840 - 1849

William II was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg.

The third guilder coin featured King William III of the Netherlands facing right. All other aspects were identical to the coin under the reign of William II. [5]

William III of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1849 - 1890

William III was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866.

Reverse of the 0.720 silver guilder coin featuring Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. This 1929 specimen features a seahorse privy mark Gulden 1929 voor 300.JPG
Reverse of the 0.720 silver guilder coin featuring Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. This 1929 specimen features a seahorse privy mark

From 1892 to 1897 a portrait of the young new Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands featured on the obverse, with the inscription WILHELMINA KONINGIN DER NEDERLANDEN (Wilhelmina Queen of the Netherlands) as the duchy of Luxembourg had been passed to Adolphe I. Otherwise, the coin retained the same design specifications. [6] From 1898 to 1909 a different portrait featured, with the sculptor's name P. PANDER, underneath. [7] A third portrait featured from 1910 to 1917. [8]

Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Queen of the Netherlands 1898 - 1948

Wilhelmina was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948.

The coins bearing the fourth portrait of Wilhelmina, from 1922 to 1945, were downgraded to 0.720 silver, which lowered their weight to 9.9g. Three different privy marks were issued: a seahorse from 1922 to 1931, grapes from 1938 to 1940 and an acorn from 1941 to 1945. During the Nazi German occupation of the Netherlands, no guilder coins were issued of the zinc coins circualted by the Nazis, but Dutch guilder coins were struck in the United States. In 1943 they were struck at the Denver Mint in Colorado and in 1944 at the Philadelphia Mint in Pennsylvania and the San Francisco Mint in California. In 1945, 25,375,000 were issued in Philadelphia. [9]

Post-World War II

In 1954 production of the guilder coin resumed. The diameter was reduced to 25mm and the weight to 6.5g, yet the composition remained 0.720 silver. The reverse was simplified to the coat of arms with the date and denomination split on each side, with the name NEDERLAND on the bottom. A portrait of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands featured on the obverse. [10] In 1967 a version of the coin in nickel was tested, which became the sole guilder from 1968 to 1980. The weight was brought down to 6g. Different privy marks were used: a fish in 1967 to 1969 and a cock from 1969 to 1980. The final issue in 1980 had the highest mintage, 118,300,000, with a privy mark of a cock and a star. [11]

In 1980, 30.5 million commemorative guilder coins were issued, for the investiture of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. She featured on the obverse in front of her mother Juliana, with the date 30 April 1980 above. The denomination on the reverse was written in full at the bottom next to the country name. [12]

The final circulation issue of the guilder was from 1982 to 2001, in the same specifications as the previous coin. Queen Beatrix featured on the obverse, facing down, and the reverse removed the coat of arms. Different privy marks were used: from 1982 to 1988 an anvil, from 1989 to 1999 a bow, in 2000 a bow and a star, and in 2001 grapes. [13]

In 2001, the final year of the guilder, a commemorative was issued in the same specifications with 16,045,000 in circulation and 32,000 in proof. The obverse had a different portrait of Queen Beatrix with her title spiralling around her, and the reverse, designed by Tim van Melis, featured a very simplified version of the lion on the Dutch coat of arms. [14]

See also

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References

  1. 1 Gulden – Willem I – Netherlands 1818–1837 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  2. http://en.numista.com/catalogue/photos/pays-bas/g717.jpg
  3. http://en.numista.com/catalogue/photos/pays-bas/g718.jpg
  4. 1 Gulden – Willem II – Netherlands 1840–1849 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  5. 1 Gulden – Willem III – Netherlands 1850–1867 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  6. 1 Gulden – Wilhelmina – Netherlands 1892–1897 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  7. 1 Gulden – Wilhelmina – Netherlands 1898–1909 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  8. 1 Gulden – Wilhelmina – Netherlands 1910–1917 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  9. 1 Gulden – Wilhelmina – Netherlands 1922–1945 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  10. 1 Gulden – Juliana – Netherlands 1954–1967 – Numista. En.numista.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  11. 1 Gulden – Juliana – Netherlands 1967–1980 – Numista. En.numista.com (2002-02-28). Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  12. 1 Gulden – Beatrix (Investiture of New Queen) – Netherlands 1980 – Numista. En.numista.com (1980-04-30). Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  13. 1 Gulden – Beatrix – Netherlands 1982–2001 – Numista. En.numista.com (2002-02-28). Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  14. 1 Gulden – Beatrix (Last Gulden) – Netherlands 2001 – Numista. En.numista.com (2002-01-28). Retrieved on 2012-01-23.