The rijksdaalder (Dutch, "dollar of the Empire") was a Dutch coin first issued by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the late 16th century during the Dutch Revolt. Featuring an armored half bust of William the Silent, rijksdaalder was minted to the Saxon reichsthaler weight standard – 448 grains of 0.885 fine silver.Friesland, Gelderland, Holland, Kampen, Overijssel, Utrecht, West Friesland, Zeeland, and Zwolle minted armored half bust rijksdaalders until the end of the 17th century.
17th century rijksdaalder was set to be equal to from 48 to 50 stuivers (the Dutch equivalent of shillings) and circulated along with silver florins (28 stuivers), daalders (30 stuivers), leeuwendaalders (36 to 42 stuivers), silver ducats (48 stuivers), and ducatons (60 stuivers). While liondaalders were made of less pure silver at 427.16 grains of 0.750 fineness, 2 1⁄2 guilders started to be called rijksdaalders.silver ducats and rijksdaalders were almost of the same size and quality. With the disappearance of the original armored half bust rijksdaalder design, silver ducats and later
Unification of the Dutch monetary system in the beginning of the 18th century introduced guilder and set rijksdaalders and silver ducats at 2 1⁄2 guilders. Following decimalization (in 1816), 2 1⁄2-guilder coins were no longer produced because a 3-guilder coin was thought to better fit in the series of denominations. This turned out to be a mistake (due to the high silver price) and from 1840 onward 2 1⁄2-guilder coins were produced again. Production stopped in 2002 due to the introduction of the euro. 2 1⁄2-guilder coins continued to be called by their nicknames rijksdaalder, riks, and knaak until the introduction of the euro.
The Royal Dutch Mint still mints a silver ducat today.
|1840||44,409||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||William I||Diameter: 38mm; silver content: 94.5%|
|1841||53,542||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||William II|
|1842||1,009,807||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1843||642,659||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1844||278,535||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1845||3,928,381||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1846||3,629,712||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1847||9,465,005||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1848||8,333,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1849||2,049,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|439,307||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||William III|
|1850||5,008,210||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1851||3,647,493||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1852||4,547,764||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1853||234,128||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1854||4,334,526||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1855||2,082,046||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1856||909,345||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1857||3,353,072||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1858||8,357,486||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1859||4,306,594||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1860||847,104||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1861||876,003||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1862||3,304,118||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1863||50,652||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1864||2,033,644||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1865||2,287,612||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1866||3,652,608||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1867||4,984,886||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1868||4,040,021||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1869||5,046,192||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1870||6,639,847||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1871||6,875,035||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1872||13,416,378||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1873||5,515,073||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1874||12,795,726||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1875–1897: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1898||100,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||Wilhelmina|
|1899–1928: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1929||4,400,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||Silver content reduced to 72.0%|
|1930||11,600,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1931||4,720,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1932||6,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1933||3,560,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1934–1936: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1937||4,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1938||2,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1939||3,760,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1940||4,640,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1941–1942: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1943||2,000,000||Denver||Letter D, privy mark|
|1944–1958: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1959||7,200,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||Diameter reduced to 33mm|
|1960||12,800,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1961||10,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1962||5,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1963||4,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1964||2,800,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1965: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1966||5,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1967–1968: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1969||15,720,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||Silver content removed. Diameter reduced to 29mm|
|1970||22,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1971||8,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1972||20,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1972–1978: No rijksdaalders minted|
|1978||5,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1979||5,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||Union of Utrecht circulating commemorative|
|1980||37,300,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|30,500,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark||Beatrix and Juliana||Abdication circulating commemorative|
|1981: No rijksdaalders minted||Beatrix|
|1982||14,300,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1983||3,800,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1984||5,200,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1985||3,100,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1986||5,800,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1987||2,500,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1988||6,800,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1989||4,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1990||1,000,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1991||400,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1992||400,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1993||400,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1994||420,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1995||150,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1996||150,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1997||180,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1998||200,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|1999||240,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|2000||300,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|2001||600,000||Utrecht||Utrecht Mint, privy mark|
|2002||none||Discontinued due to introduction of the euro.|
The Dutch rijksdaalder or the local versions of the 2 1⁄2-guilder coin (or paper) were circulating in Dutch East India from 1602 until 1949. In this year the Netherlands Indies gulden was replaced by the Indonesian rupiah.
The Netherlands United East India Company (VOC) issued the rijksdaalder in the Cape Colony in the 16th century. The Dutch monetary system overseas of a rijksdaalder – or rixdollar – of 48 stuiver was continued in the Cape Province by the British in the early nineteenth century.
In Ceylon, the VOC issued coins during the 18th century in denominations of 1⁄8 and 1 duit, 1⁄4, 1, 2 and 4 3⁄4 stuiver and 1 rijksdaalder. The currency derived from the Dutch rijksdaalder, although again the Dutch rijksdaalder was worth 50 stuiver and the Ceylon version 48 stuiver. After the British took over Ceylon, the rixdollar was the currency of Ceylon until 1828. The rixdollar was then replaced by the British pound at a rate of 1 rixdollar = 1 shilling 6 pence (£1 = 13 1⁄3 rixdollars).
In Suriname the Surinamese Rijksdaalder circulated until 2004, when the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar. In the former Netherlands Antilles the rijksdaalder circulated until 2011. In that year the Netherlands Antillean guilder will be replaced by the American dollar and the Caribbean guilder.
The similarly named Reichsthaler , riksdaler and rigsdaler were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, respectively.
The American dollar is named after the Dutch daalder, the little brother of the rijksdaalder, with a value of 30 stuiver.
Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German gulden, originally shortened from Middle High German guldin pfenninc "gold penny". This was the term that became current in the southern and western parts of the Holy Roman Empire for the Fiorino d'oro. Hence, the name has often been interchangeable with florin.
A thaler is one of the large silver coins minted in the states and territories of the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg monarchy during the Early Modern period. A thaler size silver coin has a diameter of about 40 mm and a weight of about 25 to 30 grams, or roughly 1 ounce.
The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight, is a silver coin of approximately 38 mm (1.5 in) diameter worth eight Spanish reales. It was minted in the Spanish Empire following a monetary reform in 1497.
The solidus, nomisma, or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short's currency reform, which introduced the silver-based pound/shilling/penny system, under which the shilling functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence, eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron, which also came to be known as a "bezant". The Byzantine solidus also inspired the originally slightly less pure dinar issued by the Muslim Caliphate.
Rixdollar is the English term for silver coinage used throughout the European continent.
The Reichsthaler was a standard Thaler silver coin of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1566 by the Leipzig convention. This original Reichsthaler specie was supplemented in the 16th century by various Reichsthaler units of account in northern Germany in the 17th century and by a Prussian Reichsthaler coin in 1750.
The Dutch guilder or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro. Between 1999 and 2002, the guilder was officially a "national subunit" of the euro. However, physical payments could only be made in guilders, as no euro coins or banknotes were available. The Netherlands Antillean guilder is still in use in Curaçao and Sint Maarten, but this currency is distinct from the Dutch guilder. In 2004, the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar.
The stuiver[stœy.vər] was a pre-decimal coin used in the Netherlands. It was worth 16 penning or 8 duit. Twenty stuivers equalled a guilder. It circulated until the Napoleonic Wars. After the conflict, the Netherlands decimalised its guilder into 100 cents. Two stuivers equalled a dubbeltje - the ten-cent coin.
The Netherlands Antillean guilder is the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which until 2010 formed the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius. It is subdivided into 100 cents. The guilder was replaced by the United States dollar on 1 January 2011 on Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. On Curaçao and Sint Maarten, the Netherlands Antillean guilder was proposed to be replaced by a new currency, the Caribbean guilder, but this has been stalled indefinitely by negotiations over the establishment of a separate central bank for Curaçao.
The rixdollar was the currency of British Ceylon until 1828. It was subdivided into 48 stivers, each of 4 duit. Units called the fanam and larin were also used, worth 4 and 9½ stiver, respectively. The currency derived from the Dutch rijksdaalder and stuiver, although the rijksdaalder was worth 50 stuiver. The rixdollar was replaced by the British pound at a rate of 1 rixdollar = 1 shilling 6 pence.
The guilder was the currency of Suriname until 2004, when it was replaced by the Surinamese dollar. It was divided into 100 cents. Until the 1940s, the plural in Dutch was cents, with centen appearing on some early paper money, but after the 1940s the Dutch plural became cent.
The gulden was the unit of account of the Dutch East Indies from 1602 under the United East India Company, following Dutch practice first adopted in the 15th century. A variety of Dutch, Spanish and Asian coins were in official and common usage. After the collapse of the VOC at the end of the 18th century, control of the islands reverted to the Dutch government, which issued silver 'Netherlands Indies' gulden and fractional silver and copper coins until Indonesian independence in 1945.
The guilder was the currency of British Guiana between 1796 and 1839.
The Kronenthaler was a silver coin first issued in 1755 in the Austrian Netherlands and which became a popular trade coin in early 19th century Europe. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and three or four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler" (also Brabanter and crocione.
The history of coins in the area that is now Romania spans over a 2500-year period; coins were first introduced in significant numbers to this area by the Greeks, through their colonies on the Black Sea shore.
The Dutch Five guilder coin was the highest-denomination coin in the Netherlands from its introduction in 1988 until the adoption of the euro in 2002. Its nominal value was ƒ 5,-.
The ducaton, ducatone or ducatoon was a crown-sized silver coin of the 16th-18th centuries.
The twenty-five cent was a coin worth a quarter of decimal Dutch guilder. It was used from the decimalisation of the currency in 1817 until the Netherlands adopted the euro as sole currency in 2002. The last minting was in 2001. The coin was the third-smallest denomination of the guilder when the currency was withdrawn, and the largest of a value less than one guilder.
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company which issued a considerable series of coinage in bronze, silver and gold for its territories in the Far East between 1602 and 1799.
A dubbeltje is a small former Dutch coin, originally made of silver, with a value of a tenth of a Dutch guilder. The 10-euro-cent coin is currently also called a dubbeltje in the Netherlands.