Dutch rijksdaalder

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Rijksdaalder (1622) Rijksdaalder-1622-obverse.gif
Rijksdaalder (1622)
 GOD ( ZIJ MET ONS) on the edge of a rijksdaalder Randschrift rijksdaalder.jpg
★ GOD (★ ZIJ ★ MET ★ ONS) on the edge of a rijksdaalder

The rijksdaalder (Dutch, "dollar of the Empire") was a Dutch coin first issued by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the late 16th century during the Dutch Revolt. Featuring an armored half bust of William the Silent, rijksdaalder was minted to the Saxon reichsthaler weight standard – 448 grains of 0.885 fine silver. [1] Friesland, Gelderland, Holland, Kampen, Overijssel, Utrecht, West Friesland, Zeeland, and Zwolle minted armored half bust rijksdaalders until the end of the 17th century.

Contents

17th century rijksdaalder was set to be equal to from 48 to 50 stuivers (the Dutch equivalent of shillings) and circulated along with silver florins (28 stuivers), daalders (30 stuivers), leeuwendaalders (36 to 42 stuivers), silver ducats (48 stuivers), and ducatons (60 stuivers). While liondaalders were made of less pure silver at 427.16 grains of 0.750 fineness, [2] silver ducats and rijksdaalders were almost of the same size and quality. With the disappearance of the original armored half bust rijksdaalder design, silver ducats and later 2+12 guilders started to be called rijksdaalders.

Unification of the Dutch monetary system in the beginning of the 18th century introduced guilder and set rijksdaalders and silver ducats at 2+12 guilders. Following decimalization (in 1816), 2+12-guilder coins were no longer produced because a 3-guilder coin was thought to better fit in the series of denominations. This turned out to be a mistake (due to the high silver price) and from 1840 onward 2+12-guilder coins were produced again. Production stopped in 2002 due to the introduction of the euro. 2+12-guilder coins continued to be called by their nicknames rijksdaalder, riks, and knaak until the introduction of the euro.

The Royal Dutch Mint still mints a silver ducat today. [3]

Mintage since 1840 [4]

The first rijksdaalder of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, issued in 1840 Rijksdaalder-1840-voor.jpg
The first rijksdaalder of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, issued in 1840
YearMintageMintMint marks Monarch Notes
184044,409 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark William I Diameter: 38mm; silver content: 94.5%
184153,542 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark William II
18421,009,807 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1843642,659 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1844278,535 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18453,928,381 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18463,629,712 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18479,465,005 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18488,333,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18492,049,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
439,307 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark William III
18505,008,210 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18513,647,493 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18524,547,764 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1853234,128 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18544,334,526 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18552,082,046 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1856909,345 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18573,353,072 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18588,357,486 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18594,306,594 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1860847,104 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1861876,003 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18623,304,118 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
186350,652 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18642,033,644 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18652,287,612 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18663,652,608 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18674,984,886 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18684,040,021 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18695,046,192 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18706,639,847 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18716,875,035 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
187213,416,378 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
18735,515,073 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
187412,795,726 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1875–1897: No rijksdaalders minted
1898100,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Wilhelmina
1899–1928: No rijksdaalders minted
19294,400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy markSilver content reduced to 72.0%
193011,600,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19314,720,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19326,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19333,560,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1934–1936: No rijksdaalders minted
19374,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19382,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19393,760,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19404,640,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1941–1942: No rijksdaalders minted
19432,000,000 Denver Letter D, privy mark
1944–1958: No rijksdaalders minted
Juliana
19597,200,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy markDiameter reduced to 33mm
196012,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
196110,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19625,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19634,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19642,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1965: No rijksdaalders minted
19665,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1967–1968: No rijksdaalders minted
196915,720,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy markSilver content removed. Diameter reduced to 29mm
197022,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19718,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
197220,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1973–1977: No rijksdaalders minted
19785,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19795,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Union of Utrecht circulating commemorative
198037,300,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
30,500,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Beatrix and Juliana Abdication circulating commemorative
1981: No rijksdaalders minted Beatrix
198214,300,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19833,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19845,200,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19853,100,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19865,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19872,500,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19886,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19894,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
19901,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1991400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1992400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1993400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1994420,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1995150,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1996150,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1997180,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1998200,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1999240,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
2000300,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
2001600,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
2002noneDiscontinued due to introduction of the euro.

Former colonies

The Dutch rijksdaalder or the local versions of the 2+12-guilder coin (or paper) were circulating in Dutch East India from 1602 until 1949. In this year the Netherlands Indies gulden was replaced by the Indonesian rupiah.

The Netherlands United East India Company (VOC) issued the rijksdaalder in the Cape Colony in the 17th century. The Dutch monetary system overseas of a rijksdaalder – or rixdollar – of 48 stuiver was continued in the Cape Province by the British in the early nineteenth century.

In Ceylon, the VOC issued coins during the 18th century in denominations of 18 and 1 duit, 14, 1, 2 and 4+34 stuiver and 1 rijksdaalder. The currency derived from the Dutch rijksdaalder, although again the Dutch rijksdaalder was worth 50 stuiver and the Ceylon version 48 stuiver. After the British took over Ceylon, the rixdollar was the currency of Ceylon until 1828. The rixdollar was then replaced by the British pound at a rate of 1 rixdollar = 1 shilling 6 pence (£1 = 13+13 rixdollars).

In Suriname the Surinamese Rijksdaalder circulated until 2004, when the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar. In the former Netherlands Antilles the rijksdaalder circulated until 2011. In that year the Netherlands Antillean guilder will be replaced by the American dollar and the Caribbean guilder.

Similar coins

The similarly named Reichsthaler , riksdaler and rigsdaler were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, respectively.

The American dollar is named after the Dutch daalder, the little brother of the rijksdaalder, with a value of 30 stuiver.

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References

  1. "Rix Dollar - Introduction". coins.nd.edu.
  2. "Lion Dollar - Introduction". coins.nd.edu.
  3. "Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt - Officieel producent van de Nederlandse munten". www.knm.nl.
  4. "Nomisma, de website voor munten verzamelaars. Met o.a. een online catalogus van alle Nederlandse munten". www.nomisma.nl.