Road safety in Europe

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Pedestrian accident location sign in Stuttgart, Germany Fussgangerunfall in Stuttgart.JPG
Pedestrian accident location sign in Stuttgart, Germany

Road safety in Europe encompasses transportation safety among road users in Europe, including automobile accidents, pedestrian or cycling accidents, motor-coach accidents, and other incidents occurring within the European Union or within the European region of the World Health Organization (49 countries). Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured.

Contents

In 2016, according to the World Health Organisation, road accidents were the eighth-biggest cause of death in the world; deadlier than both diarrhoeal diseases and tuberculosis. [1] Not only is it important to consider road fatalities, but for every fatality on Europe's roads, it is estimated that 4 people will become permanently disabled, 10 will suffer brain or spinal cord damage, 10 people will be seriously injured and 40 will have sustained minor injuries. [2] On top of this, road accidents incur a large economic impact. In Europe alone, it is estimated that road accidents are a cost to society by a measure of €130 billion annually. [3] Road accidents and incidents happen for a number of reasons. The main cause of an accident is speed, this is followed by other issues such as driving whilst under the influence of drink or drugs, being distracted at the wheel by mobile devices, in-car radios or personal navigation devices. [4] These risk factors listed here are but a few reasons for road collisions to occur and they demonstrate the myriad of complex factors that are at play for road-safety policy makers.

The European Union (EU) has the safest roads in the world; in which 49 people per million inhabitants died in a road collision in 2018. [5] In the year 2000 over 50,000 people in Europe lost their lives on the roads, by 2009 this number had been reduced to over 35,000; and by 2018 the figure has been reduced further to 25,100, whilst in the same year the number of serious injuries incurred as a result of road collisions was 135,000 people. [6] [7]

The European Commission (EC) has laid out a plan entitled Vision Zero which endeavours to reduce the incidence of road induced fatalities to a rate of zero by the year 2050. [8] In order to be able to achieve their long-term ambition of zero deaths on Europe's roads, the Commission implemented a road safety strategy, The Road Safety Programme, in which they aimed to halve the number of fatalities caused by road accidents and incidents between 2011 and 2020. [9] As of 2018, European Union member states are far from this target, since there has only been a 20% reduction in road fatalities, which makes the target of a 50% reduction by 2020 now seem implausible. [10]

  • European Union: Source European Union [11]
  • European Union:, 2019 Early estimates [12]
  • United States: Source OCDE/ITF [13] for 1990, 2000 and 2010–2015 period (killed after 30 days)
  • United States: Source NHTSA (2007–2019). [14]

The Commissioner of Transport of the EU considers road safety as a key European success story. [15]

Various geographical safety organizations

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization issued a European Status Report on road safety. [16]

Ninety per cent of WHO countries have a safety agency [16] operating with their respective transport ministries, except in CIS countries where the topic falls under the interior minister.

From an EU perspective

Road safety policy making in the EU falls jointly on the European institutions and member states; and it is the European Commission (EC) which has a particularly important role in overseeing road safety policy across the Union. This is because it has oversight over product standards and regulations, as well as certain aspects of infrastructure development and management. Road safety is based upon the EU principle of subsidiarity: national and local authorities are responsible for most decisions, including enforcement and awareness-raising, while the EU operates a general framework for improved road safety via legislation and recommendations e.g. introducing minimum safety requirements for the Trans-European Transport Networks, and technical requirements for the transport of dangerous goods. [17]

The EU publishes various legal texts regarding road safety. [18]

European Road Safety NGOs

The European Transport Safety Council is an NGO based in Brussels. It aims to reduce the numbers of deaths and injuries in transport in Europe. The Council reported an increase in fatalities in most European countries in 2015. [19]

Definitions

Killed definition

U.S. Army General George S. Patton's grave in Luxembourg City: On December 8, 1945, while still in Europe, while upon going to an invitation of Patton's chief of staff, Major General Hobart Gay, his car collided with an American army truck at low speed. General Patton's grave 300806.jpg
U.S. Army General George S. Patton's grave in Luxembourg City: On December 8, 1945, while still in Europe, while upon going to an invitation of Patton's chief of staff, Major General Hobart Gay, his car collided with an American army truck at low speed.

The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a fatal road accident as an accident in which a person died of their injuries at the scene or within thirty days. This definition has been adopted across most EU countries.

Some countries have applied this definition retrospectively where possible. For instance, until 2004 France counted its killed at six days, but in an effort to enable comparison with neighbor countries a multiplicative coefficient 1.057 was used up to 2004 and 1.069 since 2005 to convert the killed at six days into killed at thirty days, before France adopted the international definition in 2005.

Injuries

Each year road crashes generate about 120,000 fatalities and 2.4 million injuries in the European region of the World Health Organization. Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults. [16]

In 2015, the European Commission published a figure for the number of people seriously injured on Europe's roads: 135,000 people in 2014. To obtain this figure all countries of the EU needed to align on a common standardized medical definition of what constitutes a serious road injury. [21]

In Europe, for every person killed in traffic crashes, many more suffer serious injuries with life-changing consequences.

Serious injuries are more costly to society because of the long-term rehabilitation and healthcare needed. Vulnerable road users, such us pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists or elderly road users, are especially concerned. [17]

Between 2010 and 2018, between 206 and 222 thousands serious injured were counted yearly for 23 EU members [22]

Other issues

The level of transport-related air pollution is also a major public health concern in most countries of Europe. [16]

Main road casualties indicators

Road safety in Europe
Fatality rates in 2017 (in fatality per population) source Europa.eu
  • https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/sites/roadsafety/files/pdf/statistics/dacota/bfs2017_main_figures.pdf
  • https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/sites/roadsafety/files/pdf/statistics/dacota/bfs2017_main_figures.pdf Legend:    < 35 killed/M <    < 55 killed/M <    < 65 killed/M <    < 80 killed/M <    < 100 killed/M (in killed per million inhabitants)

Many differences between countries are linked to demography, development level and population density. According to Siem Oppe of the SWOW a learning behavior appears in the changes in the level of fatalities over time:


European Union Road Safety Facts and Figures
CountryArea

(thousands of km2) [23]

Population in 2018 [24] GDP per capita in 2018 [25] Population density

(inhabitants per km2) in 2017 [26]

Vehicle ownership

(per thousand inhabitants) in 2016 [27]

Road Network Length

(in km) in 2013 [28]

Total Road Deaths in 2018 [29] Road deaths

per Million Inhabitants in 2018 [29]

Number of People Killed

per Billion km [29]

Number of Seriously Injured in 2017/2018 [29]
Austria83.98,822,26738,000107665124,115409455.2 (2015–2017)7,664 (2017)
Belgium30.511,398,58935,300376585155,21059052n/a3,757 (2017)
Bulgaria111.07,050,0346,5006551619,67861188n/a8,680 (2018)
Croatia56.54,105,49311,500†a7441626,8203177712.7 (2016–2018)2.776 (2018)
Cyprus9.3864,23623,3001287269,7654957n/a348 (2018)
Czech Republic78.910,610,05517,600137570130,6806566210.1 (2015–2015)2,395 (2018)
Denmark42.95,781,19047,60013750874,130175303.7 (2016–2018)1,756 (2017)
Estonia45.21,319,13315,1003062058,78767515.7 (2016–2018)460 (2018)
Finland338.45,513,13036,6001873278,093225434.7 (2014–2016)409 (2017)
France632.866,926,16632,8001235901,071,8233,265485.8 (2015–2017)27,732 (2017)
Germany357.382.792,35135,900237610230,377†b3,177394.3 (2015–2017)67,913 (2018)
Greece132.010,741,16517,80083605117,32169064n/a706 (748)
Hungary93.09,778,37112,500108394203,31062964n/a5,496 (2018)
Ireland69.84,830,39259,4007052596,017146313.5 (2015–2017)966†d
Italy302.160,483,97326,700206707256,0393,310556.5 (2015–2017)17,309 (2017) †e
Latvia64.61,934,37912,3003138770,4431437812.1 (2015–2017)542 (2018)
Lithuania65.32,808,90113,3004550172,59117061n/a81 (2018)
Luxembourg2.6602,00580,8002457402,8803660n/a256 (2017)
Malta0.3475,70121,6001,462726203,31018386.6 (2016–2017)317 (2018)
Netherlands41.517,181,08441,500508543138,641678314.7 (2015–2017)20,800 (2017)
Poland312.737,976,68712,400124672415,1222,8627614.6 (2013–2015)10,963 (2018)
Portugal92.210,291,02717,90011247914,310†c606598.5 (2016–2018)1,974 (2018)
Romania238.419,530,6318,7008532985,5311,86796n/a8,144 (2018)
Slovakia49.05,443,12015,60011345554,80622946n/a1,127 (2017)
Slovenia20.32,066,88020,20010358738,87491446.6 (2014–2016)821 (2018)
Spain506.046,658,44725,00093611666 4151,80639n/a9,546 (2017)
Sweden438.610,120,24243,30025542216,976324323.4 (2016–2018)4,200 (2018)
United Kingdom248.566,273,57632,400273544421,1271,825283.4 (2016–2018) GB Data Only25,609 (2017)
EU 28 Total4,463.4512,379,22528,2001215874,852,24225,249495.8 (no date range available)n/a

a Data only available for 2017

b Data not available for "Other Roads" Category in source

c Data not available for "Other Roads" Category in source

d Data only available for 2016

e Data for MAIS3+ certification

Mortality within Europe, per million inhabitants in 2013
  • Source: Eurostat

Nationals means do not show local variations, so in 2015, NUTS regions with the lower fatality ratio per million inhabitants, are Stockholm (6), Vienna (7), Hamburg and Oslo (11), Berlin (14) and East Sweden (15). [30] The same year, other regions have a worst fatality ratio such as the Luxembourg province of Belgium (210) and Kastamonu in Turkey (192).

UK position

Mortality in UK is rather reduced compared with the EU.

Europe mortality by state per million inhabitant in 2013
  • source Eurostat

Les moyennes nationales ne reflètent pas les variations locales, ainsi en 2015, les régions NUTS ayant la mortalité routière la plus faible, par million d'habitants, sont Stokholm (6), Viennes (7), Hambourg et Oslo (11), Berlin (14) et Ostra Verige (15). [30] La même année, les régions les plus meurtrières sont la province de Luxembourg en Belgique (210) et Kastamonu en Turquie (192).

The "per 10 billion pkm" indicator is based on an estimated value due to missing vkm indicator. In 2016, the indicator range from 23 for Sweden to 192 for Romania, with a 52 value for 28-EU. Germany, France, UK and Italy ranks 33, 46, 28, and 44, respectively. [31]

Killed, EU, pkm, 2016
  • source Eurostat

Transportation mode effect

Car drivers and their passengers formed the greatest proportion of road fatalities in 2013 at 45%, followed by pedestrians at 22%. These vary considerably between nations with high levels of fatalities for motorcycles where their use is more common, linked to the climate of Mediterranean countries. [32]

Road accident fatalities by category of vehicles as of 2013 [33]

  Cars & taxis (44.7%)
  Light goods vehicles (3.1%)
  HGV (1.7%)
  Buses & coaches (0.6%)
  Bicycles (7.8%)
   Mopeds (2.9%)
  Motorcycles (15.0%)
  Pedestrians (21.9%)
  Other (2.3%)

In the world and within the European Union (28 members), mortality depends upon modal transportation:

Tués
  • World source: OMS, Global status report on road safety 2015 [34]
  • EU source: EC [35]

Transport safety (modal comparison)

Transport modeTraveller fatalities
per 100 million passenger-kilometres
(EU-15)
19992001–2002
M-bike1613,8
Foot7.56.4
Bike6.35.4
Car0.80.7
Small boat0.330.25
Bus & coach0.080.07
Air (civil aviation)0.080.035
Train0.040.050
Transport modeTraveller fatalities
per 100 million passenger-hours
(EU15)
19992001–2002
M-bike500440
Bike9075
Foot3025
Car3025
Air (civil aviation)36.516
Small boat10.58
Train33
Bus & coach22

Sources :

Rating roads for safety

Since 1999 the EuroRAP initiative has been assessing major roads in Europe with a road protection score. This results in a star rating for roads based on how well its design would protect car occupants from being severely injured or killed if a head-on, run-off, or intersection accident occurs, with four stars representing a road with the best survivability features. [36] The scheme states it has highlighted thousands of road sections across Europe where road users are routinely maimed and killed for want of safety features, sometimes for little more than the cost of safety fencing or the paint required to improve road markings. [37]

There are plans to extend the measurements to rate the probability of an accident for the road. These ratings are being used to inform planning and authorities' targets. For example, in Britain two thirds of all road deaths in Britain happen on rural roads, which score badly when compared with the high-quality motorway network; single carriageways claim 80% of rural deaths and serious injuries, while 40% of rural car occupant casualties are in cars that hit roadside objects, such as trees. Improvements in driver training and safety features for rural roads are hoped to reduce this statistic. [38]

The number of designated traffic officers in the UK fell from 15 to 20% of police force strength in 1966 to seven per cent of force strength in 1998, and between 1999 and 2004 by 21%. [39] It is an item of debate whether the reduction in traffic accidents per 100 million miles driven over this time [40] has been due to robotic enforcement.

Law

EU law

The European Union has some legal texts regarding Driving License, Enforcement in the field of road safety, Alcohol, Drugs and Medicine, Professional Drivers – Training, Professional Drivers – Working Conditions, Professional Drivers – Tachograph, Professional Drivers – Check of the working Conditions, Third Countries Driver Attestation, Vehicles – type approval, Vehicle – Registration, Vehicle – Technical Control, Vehicle – Front Protection of Vulnerable Users, Vehicle – Safety Belts and other Restraints Systems of Vulnerable Users, Vehicle – Tyres, Vehicle – Daytime Running Lights, Vehicle – Blind Spot Mirrors, Vehicle – Conspicuity, Vehicle – Speed limitation Devices, Vehicle – Weights and Dimensions, Transport of Dangerous Goods – Weights and Dimensions, Road Infrastructure, Emergency Calls, Accident Data Collection, and Unit of Measurement.[ clarification needed ] [18]

Some of those texts are documented in Wikipedia, such as Directive 80/1269/EEC, European driving license, European emission standards, and End of Life Vehicles Directive.

EU Directive 2008/96/EC on Road Infrastructure Safety Management (RISM) provides for the introduction of road safety impact assessments (RSIA) in the process of designing a new road or major road layout change. [41] As defined by the European Directive, RSIA is "a strategic comparative analysis of the impact of a new road or a substantial modification to the existing network on the safety performance of the road network". [42] The RISM directive was transposed into Irish law under SI 472 of 2011. [41]

Road safety within tunnels on the Trans-European Road Network is specifically covered within a separate directive. [43]

In 2018 the European Commission presented a proposal to amend the EU RISM directive with a view to reducing road fatalities and serious injuries on EU road networks, by improving the safety performance of road infrastructure. [44] The amendment was adopted in November 2019. [45]

National (local) laws

European countries usually have improvable[ clarification needed ] laws regarding speed control, drunk driving, helmets, seat belts and child car restraints. [16] Most countries have laws regarding one or another concern, but less than a third of countries have laws and control for each of them.

Drink driving limits

Blood Alcohol Content limits for drivers in Europe, measured in grams per litre of blood
CountryStandard limitLimit for commercial driversLimit for novice drivers
Austria0.50.10.1
Belgium0.50.20.5
Bulgaria0.50.50.5
Croatia0.50.50.5
Cyprus0.50.20.2
Czech Republic000
Denmark0.50.50.5
Estonia0.20.20.2
Finland0.50.50.5
France0.50.5 (0.2 for bus drivers)0.2
Germany0.500
Greece0.50.20.2
Hungary000
Ireland0.50.20.2
Italy0.500
Latvia0.50.50.2
Lithuania0.400
Luxembourg0.50.20.2
Malta0.50.20.2
Netherlands0.50.50.2
Poland0.20.20.2
Portugal0.50.20.2
Romania000
Slovakia000
Slovenia0.500
Spain0.50.30.3
Sweden0.20.20.2
Switzerland0.50.10.1
United Kingdom (i)0.80.80.8
(i) Scotland0.50.50.5

Source: https://etsc.eu/blood-alcohol-content-bac-drink-driving-limits-across-europe

Safety awards

In 2018, Ireland wins the PIN award 2019, is the best performer of the European Union for traffic safety, with 30 deaths per million inhabitants. [22] not counting the withdrawing United Kingdom. It is also the second member of the EU for deaths per billion vehicle-km, with a rate of 3.5, not as good as the rate 3.4 for Sweden, [22] not counting the withdrawing United Kingdom.

Ireland actions to improve safety included fighting against drunk driving, drunk pedestrian, drunk motorcyclist, and speeding motorcyclists. [22]

Local specificities

EU-27 differences

In the European Union differences exist from country to country.

For instance, Germany, Spain and the Netherlands only have 5387 fatalities in 2019, that is 24 % of EU fatalities for 33% of the population in 2017. This means this group of three populated countries performs better than the whole EU.

At the opposite, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania have 5401 fatalities in 2019, that is 24 % of EU fatalities also, but for only 15% of the population in 2017.

While those six countries together make 48% of EU population and 48% of EU fatalities, rate of fatalities per population is 120 % higher in the second group of three countries than in the better group.

Between both groups, France and Italy together have 6417 fatalities the same year, that is 28 % of EU fatalities for 29% of the population in 2017. This makes rate of fatalities per population in this third group is 33 % higher in this third group of countries than in the better group.

Those eight countries together make 77% of EU population and 76% of EU fatalities. The last quarter would group the 19 other EU countries which also have good and poor performers but with a smaller weight in the EU performance.

UK regions

Compared mortality in UK NUTS 1 regions.

Mortality in UK NUTS 1 regions 2015
  • source Eurostat

Expenditure

Simulator Lisbon, Portugal Lisbon50.jpg
Simulator Lisbon, Portugal

In Europe, expenditure for traffic safety is far less than the costs of road traffic injuries. [16]

Miscellaneous

Project EDWARD is the biggest Europe-wide awareness and enforcement campaign on road safety. [46]

The goal of the project European Day Without A Road Death (Project EDWARD) is that nobody dies on the roads of Europe on Wednesday 19 September 2018. [47] In 2018, project EDWARD reached a score of 37.2 million on the Twitter social media. [46]

The fourth edition occurred on 26 September 2019. [46] That day, 52 people were killed on the European roads, a few less than the daily 70 killed per day. In eleven EU countries, nobody was killed that day. [48]

The keyword used on social media for this campaign is the word #ProjectEDWARD. [46]

Next EDWARD day is planned on 16 September 2020. [48]

On 17 September 2020 was set the roadpol safety day. That day, 34 people dies on the European roads of 26 participating countries out of 27. 16 countries had zero deaths that day, while 10 countries had had at least one death. Spain, Poland and Romania had more than 5. [49]

See also

Related Research Articles

Pedestrian Person traveling on foot

A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. In modern times, the term usually refers to someone walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically.

Automotive safety Study and practice to minimize the occurrence and consequences of motor vehicle accidents

Automotive safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions involving motor vehicles. Road traffic safety more broadly includes roadway design.

Road traffic safety Methods and measures for reducing the risk of death and injury on roads

Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, horse riders, and passengers of on-road public transport.

Seat belt legislation requires the fitting of seat belts to motor vehicles and the wearing of seat belts by motor vehicle occupants to be mandatory. Laws requiring the fitting of seat belts to cars have in some cases been followed by laws mandating their use, with the effect that thousands of deaths on the road have been prevented. Different laws apply in different countries to the wearing of seat belts.

Daytime running lamp Vehicle lights

A daytime running lamp is an automotive lighting and bicycle lighting device on the front of a roadgoing motor vehicle or bicycle, automatically switched on when the vehicle's handbrake has been pulled down, or when the vehicle is in gear, emitting white, yellow, or amber light. Their intended use is not to help the driver see the road or their surroundings, but to help other road users identify an active vehicle.

Motorcycle safety

Motorcycle safety is the study of the risks and dangers of motorcycling, and the approaches to mitigate that risk, focusing on motorcycle design, road design and traffic rules, rider training, and the cultural attitudes of motorcyclists and other road users.

Killed or Seriously Injured (KSI) is a standard metric for safety policy, particularly in transportation and road safety.

<i>Reported Road Casualties Great Britain</i> Statistical publication on traffic casualties in the UK

Reported Road Casualties Great Britain (RRCGB), formerly Road Casualties Great Britain (RCGB) and before that Road Accidents Great Britain (RAGB), is the official statistical publication of the UK Department for Transport (DfT) on traffic casualties, fatalities and related road safety data. This publication, first produced in 1951, is the primary source for data on road casualties in Great Britain. It is based primarily on police STATS19 data. Data has been collected since 1926.

Transportation safety in the United States Overview of transportation safety

Transportation safety in the United States encompasses safety of transportation in the United States, including automobile crashes, airplane crashes, rail crashes, and other mass transit incidents, although the most fatalities are generated by road incidents yearly killing from 32,479 to nearly 38,680 (+19%) in the last decade. The number of deaths per passenger-mile on commercial airlines in the United States between 2000 and 2010 was about 0.2 deaths per 10 billion passenger-miles. For driving, the rate was 150 per 10 billion vehicle-miles: 750 times higher per mile than for flying in a commercial airplane.

Tram accident

A tram accident is any accident involving a tram. Alternatively, any accident involving a tram or a tram system may be considered a tram accident. The latter definition is more commonly used in public safety studies.

Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA), or intelligent speed assistance, also known as alerting, and intelligent authority, is any system that ensures that vehicle speed does not exceed a safe or legally enforced speed. In case of potential speeding, a human driver can be alerted, or the speed reduced automatically.

Transport in the European Union

Transport in the European Union is a shared competence of the Union and its member states. The European Commission includes a Commissioner for Transport, currently Adina Ioana Vălean. Since 2012, the Commission also includes a Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport which develops EU policies in the transport sector and manages funding for Trans-European Networks and technological development and innovation, worth €850 million yearly for the period 2000–2006.

Vision Zero is a multi-national road traffic safety project that aims to achieve a highway system with no fatalities or serious injuries involving road traffic. It started in Sweden and was approved by their parliament in October 1997. A core principle of the vision is that "Life and health can never be exchanged for other benefits within the society" rather than the more conventional comparison between costs and benefits, where a monetary value is placed on life and health, and then that value is used to decide how much money to spend on a road network towards the benefit of decreasing risk.

Road collision types Overview of the various types of road traffic collision

Road traffic collisions generally fall into one of four common types:

Traffic collision When a vehicle collides with another object

A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision, car accident or car crash, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building. Traffic collisions often result in injury, disability, death, and property damage as well as financial costs to both society and the individuals involved. Road transport is the most dangerous situation people deal with on a daily basis, but casualty figures from such incidents attract less media attention than other, less frequent types of tragedy.

Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions Overview of the epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions

Worldwide it was estimated that 1.25 million people were killed and many millions more were injured in motor vehicle collisions in 2013. This makes motor vehicle collisions the leading cause of death among young adults of 15–29 years of age and the ninth cause of death for all ages worldwide. In the United States, 40,100 people died and 2.8 million were injured in crashes in 2017, and around 2,000 children under 16 years old die every year.

Road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom Overview of the road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom

Road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom is the action taken by appropriately empowered authorities to attempt to persuade road vehicle users to comply with the speed limits in force on the UK's roads. Methods used include those for detection and prosecution of contraventions such as roadside fixed speed cameras, average speed cameras, and police-operated LIDAR speed guns or older radar speed guns. Vehicle activated signs and Community Speed Watch schemes are used to encourage compliance. Some classes of vehicles are fitted with speed limiters and intelligent speed adaptation is being trialled in some places on a voluntary basis.

Traffic collisions in India Overview of traffic collisions in India

Traffic collisions in India are a major source of deaths, injuries and property damage every year. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) 2016 report states there were 496,762 roads, railways and railway crossing-related traffic collisions in 2015. Of these, road collisions accounted for 464,674 collisions which caused 148,707 traffic-related deaths in India. The three highest total number of fatalities were reported in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, and together they accounted for about 33% of total Indian traffic fatalities in 2015. Adjusted for 182.45 million vehicles and its 1.31 billion population, India reported a traffic collision rate of about 0.8 per 1000 vehicles in 2015 compared to 0.9 per 1000 vehicles in 2012, and an 11.35 fatality rate per 100,000 people in 2015. According to Gururaj, the top three highest traffic fatality rates per 100,000 people in 2005 were reported by Tamil Nadu, Goa and Haryana, with a male:female fatality ratio of about 5:1. The reported total fatality, rates per 100,000 people and the regional variation of traffic collisions per 100,000 people varies by source. For example, Rahul Goel in 2018 reports an India-wide average fatality rate of 11.6 per 100,000 people and Goa to be the state with the highest fatality rate.

Vehicle-to-everything Communication between a vehicle and any entity that may affect the vehicle

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) is communication between a vehicle and any entity that may affect, or may be affected by, the vehicle. It is a vehicular communication system that incorporates other more specific types of communication as V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure), V2N (vehicle-to-network), V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle), V2P (vehicle-to-pedestrian), V2D (vehicle-to-device) and V2G (vehicle-to-grid).

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