The Spiritual Baptist faith is a Christian religion created by enslaved Africans in the plantations they came to in the former British West Indies countries predominately in the islands of a Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tobago and the Virgin Islands. It is syncretic Afro-American religion that combines elements of the different traditional African religion brought by the enslaved populations combined with Christianity. Spiritual Baptists consider themselves to be Christians.
The Baptist faith has a different beginning in the nation of Trinidad, as unlike the spiritual baptist tradition in the other countries where the religion developed in the plantations where the enslaved were sent, the religion in Trinidad was brought into the country by the Merikins, former American slaves who were recruited by the British to fight, as the Corps of Colonial Marines, against the Americans during the War of 1812. After the end of the war, these ex-slaves were settled in Trinidad, to the east of the Mission of Savannah Grande (now known as Princes Town) in six villages, since then called the Company Villages.
These American settlers brought with them the Baptist faith of the Second Great Awakening combined with, in the case of those from Georgia, the Gullah culture. With the coming of missionaries of the Baptist Missionary Society from Great Britain, the Baptist faith in the Company Villages was much affected, but despite the ensuing schism between the so-called London Baptists and the rest, the Baptist congregations of the Company Villages, even including those with Gullah origins, retained so little visible African influence in their practice that John Hackshaw was able to give a different view of the Baptists in the north of the country:
"While those that settled in the 'Company Villages' were exposed to the Baptist Missionary Society's influence, those that settled in the North practiced their beliefs as brought from America with the inclusion of African religious practice and beliefs joined by those they met here which blossomed into the group now known as 'Spiritual Baptists'."
The faith expanded to Barbados in 1957 as the Sons of God Apostolic Spiritual Baptists movement.It now ranks as one of two indigenous religions in the country, the other being the Rastafari religion. Archbishop Granville Williams, who was born in Barbados, lived for 16 years in Trinidad and Tobago, where he witnessed the local Spiritual Baptists. Becoming enthusiastic about the Trinidadian movement, he asserted that he had seen a vision and heard the voice of God. Upon returning to Barbados he held the first open-air meeting in Oistins, Christ Church. Due to a well received response in Barbados, he quickly established the Jerusalem Apostolic Spiritual Baptist Church in Ealing Grove. This church was quickly followed by Zion at Richmond Gap. As of 1999 the following in Barbados had reached around 1,900 and the Jerusalem church had been rebuilt to seat 3,000.
The local name of the Spiritual Baptist in Trinidad are called the Shouters which derives from the characteristic practice of the religion. Followers are very vocal in singing, praying, and preaching. However, shouter is seen as a derogatory term and the term spiritual is preferred due to the practice of invoking the Holy Spirit during worship.
The local name of the Spiritual Baptist in St Vincent are called the shakers due to their practice of invoking the Holy Spirit during their praise and worship.
The activities of the Spiritual Baptists in Trinidad and Tobago were prohibited in 1917 by the Shouter Prohibition Ordinance, which was eventually repealed in 1951. The late opposition parliamentarian Ashford Sinanan moved to repeal the ordinance under the PNM government and was successful. Today Spiritual Baptists can practise their religion freely. The United National Congress granted them a national holiday and also gave them land on which to establish their headquarters.
The colours of the headdress or clothes vary and represent the 'spiritual cities' or the saints with which the individual most relates. [ citation needed ]
Men can wear a headwrap however the very top of the head is usually left uncovered. Men tend to wear a gown or short cassocks. Persons of higher rank (Shepherds, Reverends, Bishops, etc.) can wear a surplice over the gown.
In 1996 the Government of Trinidad and Tobago granted a public holiday to the Spiritual Baptist faith, to be celebrated on 30 March, called Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day, in memory of the struggle and in recognition of the repeal of the prohibition law.Trinidad and Tobago is the only country that celebrates a public holiday for the Spiritual Baptist faith.
Shango Baptists was created in Trinidad and only practiced in Trinidad. It has no relation to the spiritual baptist religion. Shango is the practice of the Trinidad Orisha religion. In Trinidad, Orisha is also called Shango, and the term "Shango Baptist" is sometimes used to describe worshipers who are involved with both Spiritual Baptism and Orisha/Shango. The term "Shango Baptist" has come to have negative connotations for some worshippers of both Spiritual Baptism and Orisha/Shango, who argue that those who say "Shango Baptist" conflate the two religions, when in fact they are completely separate regions. As some have said, "There is no thing as Shango Baptist. Shango is Shango. Baptist is Baptist".Others say that Shango Baptists simply "wear two hats"; their mixture of "Baptist and Orisha practices" is a result of similar oppression by Colonial authorities in Trinidad.
In practice, the Trinidad Orisha religion is not connected with the Spiritual Baptisms. Orisha worship services are not similar to and not held at the same locations as Spiritual Baptist churches.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a Protestant Christian movement that emphasises direct personal experience of God through baptism with the Holy Spirit. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, an event that commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ, and the speaking in "foreign" tongues as described in the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. In Greek, it is the name for the Jewish Feast of Weeks.
Ọṣun, is an Orisha, a spirit, a deity, or a goddess that reflects one of the manifestations of the Yorùbá Supreme Being in the Ifá oral tradition and Yoruba-based religions of West Africa. She is one of the most popular and venerated Orishas. Oshun is an important river deity among the Yorùbá people. She is the goddess of divinity, femininity, fertility, beauty and love. She is connected to destiny and divination.
The orisha are spirits sent by Olodumare for the guidance of all creation and of humanity in particular, on how to live and be successful on Ayé (Earth). Rooted in the native religion of the Yoruba people, most orisha are said to have previously existed in the spirit world (òrún) as Irúnmọlẹ̀, and then become incarnated as human beings here on Earth. Others are said to be humans who are recognised as deities upon their death due to extraordinary feats accomplished in life.
The Apostolic Christian Church (ACC) is a worldwide Christian denomination from the anabaptist tradition that practices credobaptism, closed communion, greeting other believers with a holy kiss, a capella worship in some branches, and the headcovering of women during services. The Apostolic Christian Church only ordains men, who are authorized to administer baptism, the Lord's Supper, and the laying on of hands. Not every Apostolic Christian Church practices the women's headcovering; however, it is seen in most.
Spiritual/Shouter Baptist Liberation Day is an annual public holiday celebrated in Trinidad and Tobago on 30 March. The holiday commemorates the repeal on 30 March 1951 of the 1917 Shouter Prohibition Ordinance that prohibited the activities of the Shouter or Spiritual Baptist faith.
African diaspora religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas in various nations of the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Southern United States. They derive from traditional African religions with some influence from other religious traditions, notably Christianity.
The Yoruba religion (Ìṣẹ̀ṣe) comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practice of the Yoruba people. Its homeland is in present-day Southwestern Nigeria which comprised Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti, and Kwara as well as Lagos States, parts of Kogi state and the adjoining parts of Benin and Togo, commonly known as Yorubaland. It shares some parallels with the Vodun practiced by the neighboring Fon and Ewe peoples to the west and to the religion of the Edo people to the east. Yoruba religion is the basis for a number of religions in the New World, notably Santería, Umbanda, Trinidad Orisha, Haitian Vodou, and Candomblé. Yoruba religious beliefs are part of Itàn (history), the total complex of songs, histories, stories, and other cultural concepts which make up the Yoruba society.
Obeah is a system of spiritual healing and justice-making practices developed among enslaved West Africans in the West Indies. Obeah is difficult to define, as it is not a single, unified set of practices; the word "Obeah" was historically not often used to describe one's own practices.
Afro–Trinidadians and Tobagonians are people from Trinidad and Tobago who are largely of West African Sub-Saharan descent. Social interpretations of race in Trinidad and Tobago are often used to dictate who is of African descent. Mulatto-Creole, Dougla, Zambo-Maroon, Pardo, Quadroon, Octoroon or Hexadecaroon were all racial terms used to measure the amount of African ancestry someone possessed in Trinidad and Tobago, and throughout North American, Latin American and Caribbean history.
Siparia is a town in southern Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago, south of San Fernando, southwest of Penal and Debe and southeast of Fyzabad. Also called "The Sand City", it was originally a non-Mission Amerindian settlement. Siparia grew to be the administrative centre for Saint Patrick County, and later the Siparia Regional Corporation. Today it is a commercial centre and market town serving the surrounding agricultural areas and oil fields. Siparia is also the seat of the Siparia Regional Corporation.
The culture of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the influence of Asian, European, African, Latino, Amerindian, American, West Indians and Arab cultures. The histories of Trinidad and Tobago are different. There are differences in the cultural influences which have shaped each island. Trinidad and Tobago is an English-speaking country with strong links to the United Kingdom.
Trinidad and Tobago is a multi-religious nation. The largest religious groups are the Protestant Christians, Roman Catholic Christians, Hindus, and Muslims. Two Afro-Caribbean syncretic faiths, the Shouter or Spiritual Baptists and the Orisha faith are among the fastest growing religious groups. The fastest growing groups are a host of American-style Evangelical and Fundamentalist churches usually grouped as "Pentecostal" by most Trinidadians. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has also expanded its presence in the country since the late 1970s.
The term Black Church refers to the body of Christian congregations and denominations in the United States that minister predominantly to African-Americans, as well as their collective traditions and members. The term can also refer to individual congregations.
Aganju is an Orisha. He is syncretized with Saint Christopher in the Cuban religion known as Santería.
Religion of black Americans refers to the religious and spiritual practices of African Americans. Historians generally agree that the religious life of black Americans "forms the foundation of their community life." Before 1775 there was scattered evidence of organized religion among black people in the Thirteen Colonies. The Methodist and Baptist churches became much more active in the 1780s. Their growth was quite rapid for the next 150 years, until their membership included the majority of black Americans.
Shango is a Yoruba god.
Stephen D. Glazier is an American anthropologist. Currently, he is a research anthropologist at the Human Relations Area Files at Yale University. Since 1976, Glazier has conducted ethnographic fieldwork on the Caribbean island of Trinidad focusing on Caribbean religions such as Rastafari, Orisa/Sango, and the Spiritual Baptists <Orisa/Sango>. He has also published on Caribbean archaeology and prehistory and cataloged Irving Rouse's St. Joseph (Trinidad) and Mayo (Trinidad) collections for the Peabody Museum of Natural History. In 2016, Glazier retired as professor of anthropology and graduate faculty faculty fellow at the University of Nebraska, where he taught classes in general (four-field) anthropology, race and minority relations, and a graduate seminar on the anthropology of belief systems <https://www.wabashcenter.wabash.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Anthropology-of-Belief-and-Belief-Systems.pdf>. Glazier began graduate studies in anthropology at Princeton University studying under Martin G. Silverman, Benjamin Ray, Hildred Geertz, Alfonso Ortiz, and Vincent Crapanzano. In 1974, he earned an M.Div. from Princeton Theological Seminary. His M. Div. thesis – directed by James Loder and Hildred Geertz – was based on experiences as an assistant chaplain at New Jersey Neuro Psychiatric Institute. His thesis dealt with patterns of schizophrenic speech. Glazier was awarded a Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Connecticut in 1981. His dissertation advisors were Seth Leacock, Dennison J. Nash, and Ronald M. Wintrob. He served as book review editor of the journal Anthropology of Consciousness and was a member of the editorial board of the Journal of the Virgin Island Archaeological Society and is currently a member of the editorial advisory boards of the journals Open Theology<http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/opth?lang=en> and PentecoStudies<https://journals.equinoxpub.com/PENT/about/editorialTeamBio/11306>. Glazier served two terms as president of the Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness. In addition, he served as vice president and secretary of the Society for the Anthropology of Religion http://sar.americananthro.org and as a council member and as secretary of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.
Trinidad Orisha, also known as Shango, is a syncretic religion in Trinidad and Tobago and is of Caribbean origin, originally from West Africa. Trinidad Orisha incorporates elements of Spiritual Baptism, and the closeness between Orisha and Spiritual Baptism has led to use of the term "Shango Baptist" to refer to members of either or both religions. Anthropologist James Houk described Trinidad Orisha as an "Afro-American religious complex", incorporating elements mainly of traditional African religion and Yoruba and incorporates some elements of Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, Baháʼí, and Trinidad Kabbalah.
The Wine of Astonishment is a 1982 novel written by Trinidadian author Earl Lovelace. The story depicts the struggles of a Spiritual Baptist community from the passing of the Prohibition Ordinance to repealing of the ban, portraying a 20-year struggle from 1932 to 1951. Themes such as racism, women in society, religion, change, oppression, power and authority are featured throughout the book.