The Company of Wolves

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The Company of Wolves
Companyofwolvesposter.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Neil Jordan
Written by Angela Carter
Neil Jordan
Adaptation by
  • Angela Carter
Based on"The Company of Wolves"
by Angela Carter
Produced byChris Brown
Stephen Woolley
Starring
CinematographyBryan Loftus
Edited byRodney Holland
Music by George Fenton
Production
companies
Distributed byITC Entertainment
Release dates
  • 15 September 1984 (1984-09-15)(Toronto Festival of Festivals)
  • 21 September 1984 (1984-09-21)(UK)
Running time
95 minutes
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Budget£410,000 [1] or $2.3 million [2]
Box office$4,389,334 (USA) [3]

The Company of Wolves is a 1984 British gothic fantasy horror film directed by Neil Jordan and starring Angela Lansbury, David Warner, Micha Bergese and Sarah Patterson in her film debut. The screenplay was written by Jordan and Angela Carter, and adapted by Carter from her short story of the same name (featured in her 1979 short story collection The Bloody Chamber ) [4] and its 1980 radio adaptation. Carter's first draft of the screenplay, which contains some differences from the finished film, has been published in her anthology The Curious Room (1996).

Contents

Plot

The film begins in the present day, within a country house. A young girl named Rosaleen (Sarah Patterson) dreams that she lives in a fairytale forest during the late 18th century with her parents (Tusse Silberg and David Warner) and sister Alice (Georgia Slowe). But one night Alice is chased down and killed by wolves. While her parents are mourning, Rosaleen goes to stay with her grandmother (Angela Lansbury), who knits a bright red shawl for her granddaughter to wear. The superstitious old woman gives Rosaleen an ominous warning, "Never stray from the path, never eat a windfall apple, and never trust a man whose eyebrows meet." Rosaleen returns to her village, but finds that she must deal with the advances of an amorous boy (Shane Johnstone). Rosaleen and the boy take a walk through the forest, but the boy discovers that the village's cattle have come under attack from a wolf. The villagers set out to hunt the wolf; but once caught and killed, the wolf's corpse transforms into that of a human being.

Rosaleen later takes a basket of goods through the woods to her grandmother's cottage; but on her way, she encounters an attractive huntsman (Micha Bergese) whose eyebrows meet. He challenges her, saying that he can find his way to her grandmother's house before she can, and the pair set off. The hunter arrives at Rosaleen's grandmother's house first, where he reveals his bestial nature and kills her. Rosaleen arrives later and discovers the carnage, but her need to protect herself is complicated by her desire for the hunter. In the ensuing exchange, Rosaleen accidentally injures the huntsman with his own rifle. Upon this blow, the hunter contorts in pain and transforms into his wolf shape. A deeply remorseful Rosaleen apologizes and takes pity on the wounded beast, musing that his pack could leave him behind in his state. She sits down and begins petting the wolf caringly and tenderly, comforting him while telling him a story.

Ultimately the villagers arrive at the house sometime later, looking for a werewolf within. Instead, they discover that Rosaleen herself has become a werewolf. Together, she and the huntsman, her new mate, escape to the forest, joined by a growing pack. The wolves seem to stream into the real world, breaking into Rosaleen's house and gathering outside her bedroom. Rosaleen awakes with a scream as one leaps in through the window and sends her toys crashing to the floor, symbolizing the end of her childhood innocence.

Perrault's Le Petit Chaperon Rouge is then heard being read, with the moral warning girls to beware of charming strangers.

Granny's tales and Rosaleen's stories

Throughout the course of the film, a number of stories are interspersed into the main narrative as tales told by several of the characters:

Cast

Production

Writing

Angela Carter, author of the original short story "The Company of Wolves", worked with director Neil Jordan on the script for the film. This was Carter's first experience of writing for film. However, it was also only Jordan's second feature film as director.

Whilst ultimately based upon the short story of the same name from The Bloody Chamber , [4] the plot of the film bears closer resemblance to Angela Carter's 1980 adaptation of "The Company of Wolves" for radio, which introduced such elements as the additional stories being told within the narrative by the characters themselves, such as Granny.[ citation needed ] Originally, these stories had been placed before the main narrative.[ citation needed ]

Carter and Jordan met in Dublin in 1982 to discuss extending Carter's radio drama adaptation of her own story, which Jordan called "too short for a feature film". [5]

In an L.A. Weekly interview published to correspond with the film's US debut, Jordan said: "In a normal film you have a story with different movements that program, develop, go a little bit off the trunk, come back, and end. In this film, the different movements of the plot are actually separate stories. You start with an introduction and then move into different stories that relate to the main theme, all building to the fairy tale that everybody knows. The opening element of the dreamer gave us the freedom to move from story to story." [4] According to Jordan,[ citation needed ] it was he who suggested adding the frame story to the narrative: that of the dreaming girl Rosaleen in the modern day. This makes clear the story's focus on subconscious fears and desires. It also gives the film what Jordan called "a Chinese box structure." [5] This structure was supposedly[ citation needed ] based upon the structure of the film The Saragossa Manuscript , which both Jordan and Carter had seen.

The script reached its third draft by July 1983. [6]

Carter's proposed ending for the film would have featured Rosaleen diving into the floor of her bedroom and being swallowed up as by water. In the DVD commentary for the film, Jordan notes that the limited technology of the time prevented the production of such a sequence, whereas later CGI effects would in fact make it quite simple. [7] The original screenplay (as presented in The Curious Room) also featured an additional story being told by the huntsman, a very different final tale by Rosaleen (reminiscent of Carter's "Peter and the Wolf" from her collection Black Venus ) and a scene set in a church with an animal congregation. [8]

The budget was provided by ITC Distributors. [2]

Principal photography

The Company of Wolves was filmed in Shepperton Studios in England. The film's cast was primarily made up of British actors. Sarah Patterson made her screen debut, despite being much younger than the kind of actress the casting director had been looking for, and likely too young to understand some of the film's more adult concepts. [9] Her youth also meant having to make special arrangements with her school in order for her to be away for nine weeks while shooting took place. [9] Northern Irish actor Stephen Rea had already worked with director Neil Jordan in Angel and would later work with him again in The Crying Game , Interview with the Vampire and Breakfast on Pluto , amongst others.

Jordan worked for several weeks in pre-production with artist filmmakers Nichola Bruce and Michael Coulson to create hundreds of detailed storyboard drawings. Also involved with production was production designer Anton Furst and his draftsman Nigel Phelps, who would later go on to work on Tim Burton's Batman . The film's visuals were of particular importance, as Jordan explains:

The visual design was an integral part of the script. It was written and imagined with a heightened sense of reality in mind. [5]

In the DVD commentary, Jordan notes the difficulty of having to create the look of the film on a limited budget, having to create a fairytale forest out of essentially "twelve trees". [7] He nevertheless succeeded in creating a sunless, mystical, wondrous and claustrophobic setting saturated with fantastic elements and symbols.

The script calls for a great number of wolves to appear. Due to budgetary constraints and other factors such as cast safety, most of the 'wolves' shown in the film are in fact evidently Belgian Shepherd Dogs, mainly Terveurens and Groenendals, whose fur was specially dyed. In the DVD commentary for the film, Jordan notes the bravery of young star Sarah Patterson when acting amongst the genuine wolves. [7] Using particular light angles, the eyes of both real and "shepherd" wolves are made to glow dramatically in the film.

Jordan notes how Carter was "thrilled with the process" of making a film, as she "had never really been involved with one." [5] After the film, Jordan and Carter looked for other projects which they could work on together. However, no others came to fruition, partly because of Carter's later illness. According to Jordan, he and Carter discussed a possible adaptation of Vampirella, Carter's radio play which served as the original version of her short story "The Lady of the House of Love" from The Bloody Chamber. This is not to be confused with the actual film Vampirella , released in 1996 and based upon the comic book character of the same name.

Release

The film received its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival in Canada on 15 September 1984. It was released in the United Kingdom on 21 September and was released in the United States on 19 April 1985 where it was shown in 995 theatres.

Distribution

The film was distributed in the United States by Cannon Films. Jordan notes that Cannon pushed the concept of the film as primarily a horror film. Jordan maintains that it is not a horror film and that such a label might actually be misleading to audiences. [7]

Home video

The film was later released on VHS in numerous countries. A Region 1 DVD release came several years later on 15 October 2002. A Region 2 special edition version of the film was released on 17 October 2005, approximately 20 years after the film's initial release in theatres. This special edition came in a metal case and included an audio commentary by director Neil Jordan, stills galleries, the film's theatrical trailer and a printed "Behind the Scenes Dossier". This special edition version was also released on Universal Media Disc for the Sony PlayStation Portable on 30 January 2006. The film was released on Blu-ray in 2007 in United Kingdom by ITV. [10]

Reception

Critical response

Feminist critic Maggie Anwell decried the film for its over-emphasis on bloody werewolf special effects, [11] but another, Charlotte Crofts, argues that the film is a sensitive adaptation of Carter's reworking of Charles Perrault's Little Red Riding Hood fairy tale. [12]

Colin Greenland reviewed The Company of Wolves for Imagine magazine, and stated that "It's a Freudian fairytale with deliciously gruesome transformation scenes and deep, vigorous imagery, but not without twee patches." [13]

In April 1985, upon the film's US debut, Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, and called it a "disturbing and stylish attempt to collect some of the nightmares that lie beneath the surface of "'Little Red Riding Hood'". [14]

Years later, Louise Watson, writing for BFI Screenonline, said Neil Jordan "evokes an eerie, dreamlike atmosphere for the film's heightened reality. Its otherworldly scenery and costumes seem to have been inspired by fairytale illustrations, mixed with the studio-bound visual style of Hammer horror. The Hammer-like theatrical forest creates a sense of brooding claustrophobia where no sunlight can reach, accentuating Rosaleen's trapped existence. An intensely visual film, teeming with rich symbolism and imagery... settings and special effects dominate the film, often at the expense of the (perhaps deliberately) underdeveloped characters." [15] On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 85% based on 20 reviews, with a weighted average rating of 6.8/10. [16]

Box office performance

Financially, the film only just broke even on its opening weekend in the US, having been made for approximately $2 million and taking $2,234,776 in 995 theatres. However, in total, the film took over $4 million in the US [17]

It made £1,629,000 in the UK. [18]

Awards and nominations

Critics generally responded especially positively to the film's aesthetics. The film won one award for best film and best special effects at the 1985 International Fantasy Film Awards and was nominated for four BAFTAs for costume design, make up, production design/art direction and special visual effects.

Soundtrack

A soundtrack album, featuring the George Fenton score from the film, was released in 1985 on Varèse Sarabande Records.

Soundtrack Album:

Side A:

1. "The Message And Main Theme" 2. "Rosaleen's First Dream" 3. "The Story Of The Bride And Groom: The Village Wedding/The Return Of The Groom" 4. "The Forest And The Huntsman's Theme" 5. "The Wedding Party"

Side B:

1. "The Boy And The Devil" 2. "One Sunday Afternoon" 3. "All The Better To Eat You With: Arriving At Granny's Cottage/The Promise And Transformation" 4. "The Wolfgirl" 5. "Liberation"

The soundtrack was later released on cd on That's Entertainment Records in the UK and Ireland in 1990 and then on Jay Records on cd in Europe in 2000.

See also

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References

  1. Alexander Walker, National Heroes: British Cinema in the Seventies and Eighties, Harrap, 1985 p 261
  2. 1 2 The Sunday Times (London, England), Sunday, 23 September 1984; pg. 55; Issue 8355. (1091 words)
  3. Andrew Yule, Hollywood a Go-Go: The True Story of the Cannon Film Empire, Sphere Books, 1987 p111
  4. 1 2 3 Dare, Michael (19 April 1985). "In the Company of Neil Jordan". LA Weekly . via dareland.com (the author's official website). Retrieved 20 September 2010. Angela Carter ... told me she was interested in bringing one of the short stories in The Bloody Chamber to the screen....The story is only 12 pages long, so we built upon it in layers.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Neil Jordan quoted in the production notes to Angela Carter's The Curious Room (London: Vintage, 1997), p 507.
  6. Mark Bell, production notes to Angela Carter's The Curious Room (London: Vintage, 1997), p 507.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Neil Jordan, audio commentary to The Company of Wolves (ITC, 1984), (DVD: 2005).
  8. Angela Carter, "The Company of Wolves" in The Curious Room (London: Vintage, 1997), p 185-244.
  9. 1 2 Anonymous, "The Company of Wolves Behind the Scenes Dossier" (2005; insert with special edition DVD).
  10. "Company Of Wolves (The) (Blu-ray) (1984)". Rewind. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  11. Anwell, Maggie (1988), 'Lolita Meets the Werewolf: The Company of Wolves’ in Lorraine Gamman and Margaret Marshment (eds), The Female Gaze: Women as Viewers of Popular Culture, London: Women’s Press, pp. 76–85.
  12. Crofts, Charlotte (1999), 'Curiously Downbeat Hybrid or Radical Retelling?: Neil Jordan's and Angela Carter's The Company of Wolves’ in Cartmell, Hunter, Kaye and Whelehan (eds), Sisterhoods Across the Literature / Media Divide (London and Sterling, Virginia: Pluto Press), pp 48–63; Crofts, Charlotte (2003), Anagrams of Desire: Angela Carter's Writing for Radio, Film and Television (Manchester University Press).
  13. Greenland, Colin (December 1984). "Fantasy Media". Imagine (review). TSR Hobbies (UK), Ltd. (21): 55.
  14. Ebert, Roger (22 April 1985). "The Company of Wolves". Chicago Sun-Times . Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  15. Watson, Louise (20 September 2010). "Company of Wolves, The (1984)". BFI Screenonline.
  16. "The Company of Wolves (1984) – Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes.com. Fandango Media. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  17. The Company of Wolves at Box Office Mojo
  18. "Back to the Future: The Fall and Rise of the British Film Industry in the 1980s - An Information Briefing" (PDF). British Film Institute. 2005. p. 21.