Thoraciliacus

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Thoraciliacus
Temporal range: Lower Cretaceous, 125.0–130.0  Ma
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Thoraciliacus

Nevo, 1968 [1]
Binomial name
Thoraciliacus rostriceps

Thoraciliacus rostriceps is an extinct species of frog from the Cretaceous period and the only species of the genus Thoraciliacus, which is classified in the unranked clade Pipimorpha. [2] Fossils of T. rostriceps were found in Makhtesh Ramon, Negev Desert, Israel and it is believed they lived during the Barremian. [3] Other fossils have been found near Marydale, South Africa in an Upper Cretaceous lake. [3] [4]

Frog Member of an order of vertebrates belonging to the amphibians, and comprising largely carnivorous, short-bodied, and tailless animals

A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are over 7,000 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history.

The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide.

Pipimorpha is an unranked biological classification containing extinct Pipids who are more closely related to living Pipidae species than to living Rhinophrynus species.

Contents

Description

T. rostriceps was a small frog, 32 millimetres (1.3 in) in length, with a large head. It had short hind limbs but its hands and feet were relatively large. [5] Like its close relative Nevobatrachus gracilis , T. rostriceps was highly aquatic evidenced by its flat skull, short axial column and long metapodials. [6]

Nevobatrachus gracilis is the only species in the extinct genus Nevobatrachus, a genus of prehistoric frogs. The original generic name of this frog was Cordicephalus Nevo (1968); however, this generic name turned out to be preoccupied by a cestode genus Cordicephalus Wardle, McLeod & Stewart (1947), which remains nomenclaturally available in spite of being considered a junior synonym of the diphyllobothriid genus Pyramicocephalus. Mahony (2019) coined a replacement name Nevobatrachus. Fossils of N. gracilis were found in a lacustrine deposit in Makhtesh Ramon called "Amphibian Hill" and it is believed they lived during the Lower Cretaceous.

Skull bony structure that forms the skeleton of head in most vertebrates, supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain, composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible

The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human, these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton.

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<i>Palaeobatrachus</i> extinct genus of primitive frogs

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Eurycephalella is an extinct genus of frogs which existed in what is now Brazil during the Early Cretaceous (Aptian). It was named by Ana M. Báez, Geraldo J.B. Moura and Raúl O. Gómez in 2009, and the type species is Eurycephalella alcinae.

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References

  1. "The Paleobiology Database" . Retrieved 2009-09-27.
  2. Cannatella, David (2011-01-08). "The Tree of Life Web Project - Anura" . Retrieved 2009-09-27.
  3. 1 2 Robert L. Carroll; Harold Heatwole, Amphibian Biology: The Evolutionary History of Amphibians (PDF), 4, Surrey Beatty & Sons, p. 17, retrieved 2009-09-25
  4. Anderson, Eric (May 1998), A Late Cretaceous (Maaastrichtian) Galaxiid Fish From South Africa, Grahamstown, South Africa: Bioline International, retrieved 2009-09-28
  5. Trueb, Linda (June 1999). "The Early Cretaceous Pipoid Anuran, Thoraciliacus: Redescription, Revaluation, and Taxonomic Status". Herpetologica. Herpetologists' League. 55 (2): 139–157. JSTOR   3893074.
  6. Trueb, Linda; Ana María Báez (March 2006). "Revision of the Early Cretaceous Cordicephalus from Israel and an assessment of its relationships among pipoid frogs" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology . The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26 (1): 44–59. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2006)26[44:ROTECC]2.0.CO;2.

See also