Thoraciliacus rostriceps is an extinct species of frog from the Cretaceous period and the only species of the genus Thoraciliacus, which is classified in the unranked clade Pipimorpha.Fossils of T. rostriceps were found in Makhtesh Ramon, Negev Desert, Israel and it is believed they lived during the Barremian. Other fossils have been found near Marydale, South Africa in an Upper Cretaceous lake.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are over 7,000 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide.
Pipimorpha is an unranked biological classification containing extinct Pipids who are more closely related to living Pipidae species than to living Rhinophrynus species.
T. rostriceps was a small frog, 32 millimetres (1.3 in) in length, with a large head. It had short hind limbs but its hands and feet were relatively large. Like its close relative Nevobatrachus gracilis , T. rostriceps was highly aquatic evidenced by its flat skull, short axial column and long metapodials.
Nevobatrachus gracilis is the only species in the extinct genus Nevobatrachus, a genus of prehistoric frogs. The original generic name of this frog was Cordicephalus Nevo (1968); however, this generic name turned out to be preoccupied by a cestode genus Cordicephalus Wardle, McLeod & Stewart (1947), which remains nomenclaturally available in spite of being considered a junior synonym of the diphyllobothriid genus Pyramicocephalus. Mahony (2019) coined a replacement name Nevobatrachus. Fossils of N. gracilis were found in a lacustrine deposit in Makhtesh Ramon called "Amphibian Hill" and it is believed they lived during the Lower Cretaceous.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human, these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton.
The Lissamphibia are a group of tetrapods that includes all modern amphibians. Lissamphibians consist of three living groups: the Salientia, the Caudata, and the Gymnophiona. A fourth group, the Allocaudata, was moderately successful, spanning 160 million years from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Pliocene, but became extinct 2.5 million years ago.
Labyrinthodontia is an extinct amphibian subclass, which constituted some of the dominant animals of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. The group evolved from lobe-finned fishes in the Devonian and is ancestral to all extant landliving vertebrates. As such it constitutes an evolutionary grade rather than a natural group (clade). The name describes the pattern of infolding of the dentin and enamel of the teeth, which are often the only part of the creatures that fossilize. They are also distinguished by a heavily armoured skull roof, and complex vertebrae, the structure of which were used in older classifications of the group.
Palaeobatrachus was a genus of primitive frogs from Europe that existed from the Oligocene to the middle Pleistocene period (621-568ka). Although not closely related, it would have superficially resembled the present day African clawed toad Xenopus.
Hymenochirus curtipes, also known as western dwarf clawed frog, is a species of frog in the family Pipidae. It is found in western Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjacent Republic of the Congo. It is likely to occur in the southernmost Central African Republic.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2000.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1985.
Apodops is an extinct genus of early caecilians from the Early Eocene Itaboraí Formation of Brazil. The type species of the amphibian genus is A. pricei.
The Kirkwood Formation is a geological formation found in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces in South Africa. It is one of the four formations found within the Uitenhage Group of the Algoa Basin - its type locality - and in the neighbouring Gamtoos Basin. Outcrops of the Kirkwood are also found along the Worcester-Pletmos, Herbertsdale-Riversdale, Heidelberg-Mossel Bay, and Oudtshoorn-Gamtoos basin lines. At these basins the Kirkwood Formation underlies the Buffelskloof Formation and not the Sundays River Formation.
Jeholotriton is a genus of primitive salamander from the Daohugou Beds near Daohugou village of Inner Mongolia, China.
Saltenia is an extinct genus of frogs. It was assigned to the family Pipidae by R. L. Carroll in 1988 and again in 2005 by A. M. Báez and T. Harrison. The single described species, Saltenia ibanezi, is thought to have lived in South America in the Late Cretaceous. Its closest living relative are the frogs in the genus Silurana. Fossils of Saltenia have been found in the Campanian Las Curtiembres Formation of Argentina.
Avitabatrachus uliana is the single species in the extinct genus Avitabatrachus, a genus of prehistoric frogs that lived in the Middle Cretaceous. Fossils of A. uliana were found in the Candeleros Formation of north-west Patagonia in Argentina. It was properly described in 2000 and was then concluded to be most closely related to Pipidae frogs and hence was included in Pipimorpha.
Galverpeton is an extinct genus of prehistoric salamander. It lived during the Barremian-Aptian stages in the Early Cretaceous, in what is now Western Europe. The type species, Galverpeton ibericum, was described by Estes and Sanchíz in 1982. It was found in the Castellar Formation, part of the Galve fossil assemblage. The fossil is in the Institut Paleontologic Miquel Crusafont, Sabadell.
Callobatrachus is an extinct genus of discoglossoid anuran amphibian from the Early Cretaceous-age Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China. It was described in 1999 by K. Gao of the American Museum of Natural History and Y. Wang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Discovered in the Sihetun locality of the western part of Liaoning province, in the lower part of the Yixian Formation, the fossil dates to approximately 124.6 Ma. Callobatrachus is considered to be the most basal member of Discoglossidae based on phylogenetic analysis.
Vulcanobatrachus is an extinct genus of fossil frog. The new genus which contains the single species Vulcanobatrachus mandelai found at Marydale, South Africa was recently described. The genus owes its name to the fact that fossils were recovered from an extinct volcanic crater lake of Late Cretaceous origin. The fossil frogs are assumed to have died following a limnic eruption (a degassing event possibly of CO2) by the volcano.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2010.
Cratia is an extinct frog which existed in Brazil during the Early Cretaceous (Aptian). Fossils were discovered in and named after the Crato Formation. It was named by Ana M. Báez, Geraldo J.B. Moura and Raúl O. Gómez in 2009, and the type species is Cratia gracilis.
Eurycephalella is an extinct genus of frogs which existed in what is now Brazil during the Early Cretaceous (Aptian). It was named by Ana M. Báez, Geraldo J.B. Moura and Raúl O. Gómez in 2009, and the type species is Eurycephalella alcinae.
The Cañadón Asfalto Basin is an irregularly shaped sedimentary basin located in north-central Patagonia, Argentina. The basin stretches from and partly covers the North Patagonian Massif in the north, a high forming the boundary of the basin with the Neuquén Basin in the northwest, to the Cotricó High in the south, separating the basin from the Golfo San Jorge Basin. It is located in the southern part of Río Negro Province and northern part of Chubut Province. The eastern boundary of the basin is the North Patagonian Massif separating it from the offshore Valdés Basin and it is bound in the west by the Patagonian Andes, separating it from the small Ñirihuau Basin.