|Genus:|| Thrandina |
Thrandina is a genus of jumping spiders, with three species found in Ecuador.It is unique among New World salticids in having strikingly large posterior median eyes.
Thrandina and its sister genus Galianora share the ancestral salticid traits of a tarsal claw on the female palpus and a median apophysis on the male palp. This is rare among neotropical salticids. Both genera are informally grouped as "lapsiines", together with Lapsias . However, the shared basal characteristics with Lapsias could be symplesiomorphic.
Males of Thrandina parocula are about 4 millimetres (0.16 in) long. Their carapace is dark brown to black, except for a central pale longitudinal stripe on the thorax. The legs are pale to medium brown, with a darker femur I. The abdomen is medium brown with lighter chevrons above, and pale below with dark speckles. The female is slightly smaller with a bodylength of 3.6 millimetres (0.14 in). It looks like the male, but with more annulate legs.
Thrandina parocula was collected from moss-covered branches and tree-trunks in the understory of moist forests at elevations of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and higher, up to 2,270 metres (7,450 ft). Males walk fluid but hesitantly, frequently pausing and then raising and lowering.their first two pairs of legs in synchrony. A similar gait is observed in Spartaeinae.
The genus is a contraction of Thranduil, the king of Mirkwood elves in J.R.R. Tolkien's mythology, which, as Thrandina, inhabit shady forests, and andina, referring to the Andean habitat.
The species name refers to the relatively equal sizes of the lateral and posterior eyes.
Jumping spiders or the Salticidae are a family of spiders. As of 2019, it contained over 600 described genera and over 6000 described species, making it the largest family of spiders at 13% of all species. Jumping spiders have some of the best vision among arthropods and use it in courtship, hunting, and navigation. Although they normally move unobtrusively and fairly slowly, most species are capable of very agile jumps, notably when hunting, but sometimes in response to sudden threats or crossing long gaps. Both their book lungs and tracheal system are well-developed, and they use both systems. Jumping spiders are generally recognized by their eye pattern. All jumping spiders have four pairs of eyes, with the anterior median pair being particularly large.
Eupoa is a genus of spiders in the family Salticidae. Originally known only from one species from Vietnam, several other species have been described since 1997, all from China.
Lapsias is a spider genus of the jumping spider family, Salticidae.
The Spartaeinae are a subfamily of the spider family Salticidae. The subfamily was established by Fred R. Wanless in 1984 to include the groups Boetheae, Cocaleae, Lineae, Codeteae and Cyrbeae, which in turn were defined by Eugène Simon.
Saitis barbipes is a common jumping spider found in the Mediterranean region.
Salticinae is a subfamily of jumping spiders. It includes over 90% of the known species of jumping spiders. The subfamily is divided into two unranked clades: Amycoida and Salticoida.
Galianora is a genus of Ecuadorian jumping spiders that was first described by Wayne Paul Maddison in 2006. As of June 2019 it contains only two species, found only in Ecuador: G. bryicola and G. sacha.
Galianora sacha is a species of jumping spider from Ecuador.
Galianora bryicola is a species of jumping spider from Ecuador.
Lyssomaninae is a subfamily of jumping spiders. It includes four genera, three from the New World.
Soesiladeepakius is a spider genus of the jumping spider family, Salticidae.
Zygoballus sexpunctatus is a species of jumping spider which occurs in the southeastern United States where it can be found in a variety of grassy habitats. Adult spiders measure between 3 and 4.5 mm in length. The cephalothorax and abdomen are bronze to black in color, with reddish brown or yellowish legs. The male has distinctive enlarged chelicerae and front femora. Like many jumping spiders, Z. sexpunctatus males exhibit ritualized courtship and agonistic behavior.
Carrhotus xanthogramma is a species of 'jumping spiders' belonging to the family Salticidae.
Portia fimbriata, sometimes called the fringed jumping spider, is a jumping spider found in Australia and Southeast Asia. Adult females have bodies 6.8 to 10.5 millimetres long, while those of adult males are 5.2 to 6.5 millimetres long. Both sexes have a generally dark brown carapace, reddish brown chelicerae ("fangs"), a brown underside, dark brown palps with white hairs, and dark brown abdomens with white spots on the upper side. Both sexes have fine, faint markings and soft fringes of hair, and the legs are spindly and fringed. However, specimens from New Guinea and Indonesia have orange-brown carapaces and yellowish abdomens. In all species of the genus Portia, the abdomen distends when the spider is well fed or producing eggs.
Portia schultzi is a jumping spider which ranges from South Africa in the south to Kenya in the north, and also is found in West Africa and Madagascar. In this species, which is slightly smaller than some other species of the genus Portia, the bodies of females are 5 to 7 mm long, while those of males are 4 to 6 mm long. The carapaces of both sexes are orange-brown with dark brown mottling, and covered with dark brown and whitish hairs lying over the surface. Males have white tufts on their thoraces and a broad white band above the bases of the legs, and these features are less conspicuous in females. Both sexes have tufts of orange to dark orange above the eyes, which are fringed with pale orange hairs. Males' abdomens are yellow-orange to orange-brown with blackish mottling, and on the upper sides are black and light orange hairs, and nine white tufts. Those of females are pale yellow and have black markings with scattered white and orange-brown hairs on the upper side. P. schultzi has relatively longer legs than other Portia, and a "lolloping" gait.
Portia africana is a jumping spider found in Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Gabon, Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Zaire and Zambia. Its conspicuous main eyes provide vision more acute than a cat's during the day and 10 times more acute than a dragonfly's, and this is essential in P. africana′s navigation, hunting and mating.
Lapsias lorax is a species of lapsiine jumping spider from Ecuador.
Lyssomanes viridis, commonly known as the magnolia green jumper, is a species of jumping spider of the genus Lyssomanes, for which it is the type species. The species is native to the United States, being found in much of the Southeastern United States and Texas. It has also been reported from parts of Mexico, with sightings as far south as Guatemala and as far north as Delaware.
Asemoneinae is a subfamily of jumping spiders. It was created in 2015 by Wayne Maddison. Most species are found in Africa or Asia. The subfamily initially had five genera, but Hindumanes was later transferred to the subfamily Lyssomaninae.
Hisponinae is a subfamily of jumping spiders. The subfamily has six known extant genera and three extinct genera.
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