Three-banded plover

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Three-banded plover
Three-banded plover (Charadrius tricollaris).jpg
Chobe National Park, Botswana
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Charadriidae
Genus: Charadrius
Species:
C. tricollaris
Binomial name
Charadrius tricollaris
Vieillot, 1818

The three-banded plover, or three-banded sandplover (Charadrius tricollaris), is a small wader. This plover is resident and generally sedentary in much of East Africa, southern Africa and Madagascar. It occurs mainly on inland rivers, pools, lakes and pans, frequening their exposed shores. This species is often seen as single individuals, but it will form small flocks. It hunts by sight for insects, worms and other invertebrates. Three-banded plovers have a sharp whistled weeet-weet call. Its larger and darker-plumaged sister species, Forbes's plover, replaces it in West Africa and in the moist tropics. The two species have largely allopatric breeding ranges. Both species present a distinctively elongated profile, due to their proportionally long tail and wings.

Contents

Description

Three-banded Plover-4098 - Flickr - Ragnhild & Neil Crawford, crop.jpg
In flight, showing the white front and white side of the tail and rump. The long wings feature a thin white bar above, and a dark smudge over the primary coverts below.
Three-banded Plover (Charadrius tricollaris) female on nest (11927139456).jpg
Female incubating
Eggs of Three-banded Plover (Charadrius tricollaris) right in the middle of the S59 Road (11926451373).jpg
Nest with two eggs

The adult three-banded plover is 18 cm in length. It has long wings and a very long tail, and therefore looks different from most other small plovers in flight, the exception being the closely related Forbes's plover.

The adult three-banded plover has medium brown upperparts, and the underparts are white except for the two black breast bands, separated by a white band, which give this species its common and scientific names. The head is strikingly patterned, with a black crown, white supercilia extending from the white forehead to meet on the back of the neck, and a grey face becoming brown on the neck. The orbital ring is orange-red, and the base of the otherwise black bill is rosy red in colour.

The Madagascan subspecies C. t. bifrontatus has a grey band between the bill and the white forehead, and the sides of the head are grey. A genetic study reported genetic differentiation between Madagascar and the mainland population. [2] The sexes are similar with respect to plumage and size. Juveniles of the nominate and Madagascan subspecies also resemble the adults, although the forehead is brownish for a short time, and the wing coverts show buff fringes. [3] This species is distinguished from the larger and darker Forbes's plover in that the latter has a brown forehead and lacks a white wingbar.

Breeding

Its nest is a bare scrape on shingle. Egg laying occurs from March to June in the tropics, [3] but mainly (over 70%) from July to October (i.e. late winter to early spring) in southern Africa. [4] [5]

Related Research Articles

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Kittlitzs plover Species of bird

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Collared plover Species of bird

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Grey-headed lapwing Species of bird

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Black-winged lapwing Species of bird

The black-winged lapwing or greater black-winged lapwing is an east African species that is found from the Ethiopian highlands in the north to central Kenya, and again at middle to coastal elevations in eastern South Africa. It is a habitat specialist of short grass in well-watered temperate grasslands. They may move about locally to find ideal situations, often at night. In their tightly grouped flying flocks they resemble plovers.

Blacksmith lapwing Species of bird

The blacksmith lapwing or blacksmith plover is a lapwing species that occurs commonly from Kenya through central Tanzania to southern and southwestern Africa. The vernacular name derives from the repeated metallic 'tink, tink, tink' alarm call, which suggests a blacksmith's hammer striking an anvil.

White-fronted plover Species of shorebird of the family Charadriidae from Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar

The white-fronted plover or white-fronted sandplover is a small shorebird of the family Charadriidae that inhabits sandy beaches, dunes, mudflats and the shores of rivers and lakes in sub-saharan Africa and Madagascar. It nests in small shallow scrapes in the ground and lays clutches of one to three eggs. The species is monogamous and long-lived, with a life expectancy of approximately 11 years. The vast majority of pairs that mate together stay together during the following years of breeding and retain the same territory. The white-fronted plover has a similar appearance to the Kentish plover, with a white fore crown and dark bands connecting the eyes to the bill.

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Forbess plover Species of bird

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African snipe Species of bird

The African snipe also known as the Ethiopian snipe, is a small stocky wader. It breeds in eastern and southern Africa in wet mountain moorland and swamps at altitudes of 1,700–4,000 m (5,600–13,100 ft). When not breeding it disperses widely, including into coastal lowlands.

River lapwing Species of bird

The river lapwing is a lapwing species which breeds from the Indian Subcontinent eastwards to Southeast Asia. It range includes much of northern and northeastern India, and extends through Southeast Asia to Vietnam. It appears to be entirely sedentary. Formerly also called spur-winged lapwing, this name is better reserved for one of the "spur-winged plovers" of old, Vanellus spinosus of Africa, whose scientific name it literally translates. The masked lapwing of Australasia was at one time also called "spur-winged plover", completing the name confusion - particularly as none of these is a plover in the strict sense.

Wattled starling Species of bird

The wattled starling is a nomadic resident bird in eastern and southern Africa. It is a species of grassland, open woodland, and cultivation.

Madagascar plover Species of bird

The Madagascar plover, also known as the black-banded plover, is a small monogamous shorebird in the family Charadriidae, native to western Madagascar. It inhabits shores of lagoons, coastal grasslands, and breeds in salt marshes. These plovers mainly nest in open grassland and dry mudflats surrounding alkaline lakes. The species is classified as vulnerable by the IUCN because of its low breeding success, slow reproductive rate, and weak adaptation to increasing habitat loss, leading to declining population numbers.

References

  1. BirdLife International (2016). "Charadrius tricollaris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T22727471A94950399. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22727471A94950399.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. Remedios, Natalie Dos; Küpper, Clemens; Székely, Tamás; Zefania, Sama; Burns, Fiona; Bolton, Mark; Lee, Patricia L. M. (2020). "Genetic structure among Charadrius plovers on the African mainland and islands of Madagascar and St Helena". Ibis. 162 (1): 104–118. doi: 10.1111/ibi.12694 . ISSN   1474-919X.
  3. 1 2 Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1986). Shorebirds – An identification guide: 96 Three-banded plover Charadrius tricollaris. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 116-117, 290-291. ISBN   0-395-37903-2.
  4. Tarboton, Warwick (2001). A Guide to the Nests and Eggs of Southern African Birds. Cape Town: Struik. p. 141. ISBN   1-86872-616-9.
  5. Tarboton, W. R.; Kemp, M. I.; Kemp, A. C. (1987). Birds of the Transvaal. Pretoria: Transvaal Museum. p. 90. ISBN   0-620-10006-0.