Three Leagues

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Free State of the Three Leagues

Freistaat der Drei Bünde(de)
Stato libero delle Tre Leghe(it)
Stadi liber da las Trais Lias(rm)
15th century–1799
Flag of Canton of Graubunden.svg
Flag
Tre leghe grigioni.PNG
The foundation of the Three Leagues:
   Grey League, as at 1424
   Moesa, joined the Grey League in 1496
Status Associate of the Old Swiss Confederacy
Capital Chur
GovernmentRepublic
Historical era Renaissance, Baroque
  League of God's House founded
January 29, 1367
  Grey League founded
1395
  Grey League government
March 16, 1424
June 8, 1436
  Schamserfehde  [ de ]
1450
 Closer ties and de facto independence from the Holy Roman Empire
late 15th century
 Bundesbrief constitution
September 23, 1524
1798
 Annexed to the Helvetic Republic
April 21, 1799
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Wappen Gotteshausbund.svg League of God's House
Wappen Zehngerichtebund1.svg League of the Ten Jurisdictions
Wappen Grauer Bund1.svg Grey League
Canton of Raetia Republiquehelv.svg
Cisalpine Republic Flag of the Repubblica Cisalpina.svg

The Three Leagues, sometimes referred to as Raetia, [1] was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions and the Grey League, leading eventually to the formation of the Swiss canton of Graubünden (Grisons).

Contents

The territory corresponds to the core territory of Raetia Curiensis (ruled by the bishops of Chur), the early medieval remnant of the Roman province of Raetia prima.

League of God's House

Coat of arms of the League of God's House Wappen Gotteshausbund.svg
Coat of arms of the League of God's House

On January 29, 1367, the League of God's House (German : Gotteshausbund, Italian : Lega Caddea, Romansh : Loudspeaker.svg Lia da la Chadé  ), was founded to resist the rising power of the Bishopric of Chur and the House of Habsburg. Bishop Peter Gelyto reacted by transferring the bishopric to the Habsburgs in exchange for a pension from the ducal house.

The instrument of union was signed by envoys of the cathedral chapter, the episcopal Ministerialis, the city of Chur and the districts of Domleschg, Schams, Oberhalbstein, Oberengadin, Unterengadin and Bergell. Other districts joined the league subsequently, including the Poschiavo in 1408 and the Vier Dörfer in 1450.

For some time, Unterengadin, Münstertal and the upper Vinschgau were disputed between the Bishopric of Chur and the County of Tyrol. While the first two could shake off the rule of the Habsburgs as count of Tyrol, in 1618, Untercalven was separated from the League as the last part of the Vinschgau.

With its capital in Chur, the League was composed of the following districts:

Grey League

Coat of arms of the Grey League (form 1) Wappen Grauer Bund1.svg
Coat of arms of the Grey League (form 1)
Coat of arms of the Grey League (form 2) Wappen Grauer Bund2.svg
Coat of arms of the Grey League (form 2)

The Grey League (Romansh : Loudspeaker.svg Lia Grischa  ) was founded in 1395 in the Upper Rhine valley, as a reaction to various feuds between the Barony of Belmont, the Lordship of Sax, the Barony of Rhäzüns, the Barony of Vaz, County of Werdenberg, Disentis Abbey and the Bishopric of Chur. The capital of the League was Ilanz. The name Grey League is derived from the homespun grey clothes worn by the people; the name of this league later gave its name to the canton of Graubünden.

In Trun, on March 16, 1424, a governing federation was established, comprising:

Even before 1440, the lordships of Löwenberg, Thusis, Tschappina and Heinzenberg joined the League, despite the count of Werdenberg-Sargans having forbidden them from doing so. In 1441 Cazis Abbey joined; in 1480, the neighborhoods of Mesocco and Soazza in Misox and, in 1496, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio assisted with the union of the remainder of the county of Misox, with the districts of Misox and Calanca.

The Grey League was administered in eight districts:

League of the Ten Jurisdictions

Coat of arms of the League of the Ten Jurisdictions (form 1) Wappen Zehngerichtebund1.svg
Coat of arms of the League of the Ten Jurisdictions (form 1)
Coat of arms of the League of the Ten Jurisdictions (form 2) Wappen Zehngerichtebund2.svg
Coat of arms of the League of the Ten Jurisdictions (form 2)

A third league was established on June 8, 1436 by the people of ten bailiwicks in the former county of Toggenburg, as the dynasty of Toggenburg had become extinct. The league was called League of the Ten Jurisdictions (German : Zehngerichtebund; Romansh : Loudspeaker.svg Ligia da las diesch dretgiras  ), with its capital in Davos, and was composed of:

The alliance was mainly designed to resist Habsburg expansion into the region and was administered in seven districts:

Union of the leagues

Graubunden in 1367, showing the pre-existing lordships in the region Herrschaften Graubuenden.png
Graubünden in 1367, showing the pre-existing lordships in the region
The formation of the Three Leagues up to 1512 Trois ligues.png
The formation of the Three Leagues up to 1512

The three separate Leagues initially worked together informally, such as in 1450, in the Schamserfehde , a conflict with the house of Werdenberg-Sargans, during which the League of the Ten Jurisdictions allied with the League of God's House. Joint meetings of the three Leagues are evidenced from 1461; closer links date to 1471, when the two leagues allied with the Grey League, but there is no documentary proof of this date. In 1497 and 1498 the Leagues [2] allied with the Old Swiss Confederacy after the Habsburgs acquired the possessions of the extinct Toggenburg dynasty in 1496, [3] siding with the Confederacy in the Swabian War three years later. The Habsburgs were defeated at Calven Gorge and Dornach, helping the Swiss Confederacy and the allied Leagues to be recognised.

After 1499, the Free State de facto separated from the Holy Roman Empire and developed, during the 16th century into a political entity that was unique in early modern Europe. In the early 17th century, it was the only territory in Europe where all decisions were made by communalism, with the Leagues founded, governed and defended by cooperative decisions.

The Musso war of 1520 drove the Three Leagues closer to the Swiss Confederacy.

With the Bundesbrief of 23 September 1524 was created a constitution that endured until the Napoleonic dissolution of the Free State. The supreme power in the Free State was a Bundestag, composed of 63 deputies with responsible to constituencies; this Bundestag alternated between Ilanz, Chur and Davos. By today's standards, the Three Leagues would be considered a federation of three states, rather than a single, unified state; the union had few competencies and virtually all affairs of the Free State were settled by referendum.

The Ilanz Articles of 1524 and 1526 reduced the power of the Bishop of Chur and strengthened the alliance between the Three Leagues. The first articles, adopted 4 April 1524, required priests to live in the communities they served, to earnestly care for the spiritual needs of their congregation and to live a righteous life. The communities had the right to approve their priests and restricted the bishop from judging secular matters. The second articles were adopted on 25 June 1526. They completely removed the bishop's secular power. The parishes could now chose their own priests and appointments to bishop required approval of the entire Bundestag. Additionally church leaders could no longer appoint secular officers, the monasteries were placed under government oversight and various tithes were abolished or reduced. The articles remained the law of League until the 1798 French invasion. [4] With the articles, the secular League authorities became the highest power in the region.

With the invasion of Switzerland by the French Revolutionary Armies, the Three Leagues were absorbed into the Helvetic Republic, as the canton of Raetia. With the Napoleonic Act of Mediation, the Leagues were incorporated into a restored Swiss Confederacy — as the canton of Graubünden — in 1803; the current constitution of the canton dates from 1892.

The districts of Chiavenna, Valtellina and Bormio, previously dependencies of the Leagues, were never a part of the canton of Raetia, however, having permanently been detached from the Leagues after Revolutionary France fomented revolt there, leading them to be annexed to the Cisalpine Republic on October 10, 1797. The districts subsequently joined the Austrian client kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia after the Congress of Vienna and eventually become the Italian province of Sondrio. The town of Campione was similarly detached from the Landvogtei of Lugano at the same time, leading to its current position as an Italian enclave within Ticino.

Related Research Articles

Grisons Largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland

The Grisons, Graubünden or Grigioni, more formally the canton of the Grisons or the canton of Graubünden, is one of the twenty-six cantons of Switzerland. It has eleven regions, and its capital is Chur. The German name of the canton, Graubünden, translates as the "Grey Leagues", referring to the canton's origin in three local alliances, the Three Leagues. The other native names also refer to the Grey League. The Alpine ibex is the canton's heraldic symbol.

Rhaetian Railway Swiss transport company

The Rhaetian Railway, abbreviated RhB, is a Swiss transport company that owns the largest network of all private railway operators in Switzerland. The RhB operates all the railway lines of the Swiss canton of Grisons, except for the line from Sargans to the cantonal capital, Chur, which are operated by Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS), as well as the line from Disentis/Mustér to the Oberalp Pass and further on to Andermatt, Uri, which is operated by Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn (MGB). Inaugurated in 1888 and expanded from 1896 onwards in various sections, the RhB network is located almost entirely within Grisons, with one station across the Italian border at Tirano.

League of Gods House

The League of God's House was formed in what is now Switzerland on January 29, 1367 to resist the rising power of the Bishopric of Chur and the House of Habsburg. The League allied with the Grey League and the League of the Ten Jurisdictions in 1471 to form the Three Leagues. The League of God's House, together with the two other Leagues, was allied with the Old Swiss Confederacy throughout the 15th and 16th centuries. After the Napoleonic wars the League of God's House became a part of the Swiss canton of Graubünden.

Municipalities of the canton of Graubünden

There are 105 municipalities in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.

Eastern Alps Eastern part of the Alps mountain range

Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine valley up to the Splügen Pass at the Alpine divide and down the Liro River to Lake Como in the south. The peaks and mountain passes are lower than the Western Alps, while the range itself is broader and less arched.

League of the Ten Jurisdictions

The League of the Ten Jurisdictions was the last of the Three Leagues founded during the Middle Ages in what is now Canton Graubünden of Switzerland. The League was created in the County of Toggenburg after the counts of Toggenburg died out. The League initially existed to resist the power of the House of Habsburg, and quickly allied with the Grey League and the League of God's House. In 1524 the three leagues joined together to become the Free State of the Three Leagues, which existed until the Napoleonic dissolution of the Free State.

Grey League

The Grey League, sometimes called Oberbund, formed in 1395 in the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein valleys, Raetia. The name Grey League is derived from the homespun grey clothes worn by the people. The league became part of the canton of Graubünden. The Grey League allied itself to the two other powers of Raetia in 1471, forming the Three Leagues. It was also an associate and ally of the Swiss Confederation and played a role in the buildup to the Thirty Years' War.

Romansh people Ethnic group

The Romansh people are a Romance ethnic group, the speakers of the Romansh language, native to the Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden).

Landquart railway station

Landquart railway station is a major railway station in the municipality of Landquart, in the Swiss canton of Grisons. It is an intermediate stop on the Swiss Federal Railways Chur–Rorschach line and the junction of the Landquart–Davos Platz and Landquart–Thusis lines of the Rhaetian Railway. It is served by long-distance, local, and regional trains.

Viamala gorge and pathway in Switzerland

Viamala or Via Mala is a narrow gorge along the river Hinterrhein between Zillis-Reischen and Thusis in the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland, as well as the ancient and notorious pathway which traverses the gorge. Historically the Viamala was the most serious obstacle on the approach to the Splügen and San Bernardino mountain passes.

Rheinwald

The Rheinwald is a valley in the Canton of Grisons in Switzerland, the first section of the Hinterrhein valley. The river Hinterrhein flows through three valleys in the Grisons, the Rheinwald, the Schams and the Domleschg.

Schams

The Schams is a section of the Hinterrhein valley in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.

Rietberg Castle

Rietberg Castle is a castle in the municipality of Pratval of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. It was the site of the murder of Pompeius Planta in 1621 by Jörg Jenatsch during the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants known as the Bündner Wirren.

Sogn Parcazi Castle and Church

Sogn Parcazi Castle and Church is a ruined castle and fortified church in the municipality of Trin of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance.

Belmont Castle, Graubünden

Belmont Castle is a ruined castle near Flims, Graubünden, Switzerland. It was the home of the Barons of Belmont.

House of Sax

The noble family von Sax were a medieval noble family in eastern Switzerland. They owned estates and castles on both sides of the Alps in the modern cantons of St. Gallen, Graubünden and Ticino. The origin of the family is unknown, but they probably stem from Churrätien nobility and were related to the da Torre family. The family divided into two main lines; the Grafen (counts) von Sax-Misox and the Freiherren (barons) von Hohensax.

Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. It was created on 1 January 2017 as part of a reorganization of the canton.

Heinzenberg Castle

Heinzenberg Castle German: Burg Heinzenberg is a ruined castle in the municipality of Cazis in the Viamala Region of the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.

Rhäzüns Castle

Rhäzüns Castle is a castle near Rhäzüns, Graubünden, Switzerland.

Castelberg Castle

Castelberg Castle is a ruined castle in the municipality of Ilanz/Glion of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.

References

  1. Wilson, Peter (2010). Europe's Tragedy: A New History of the Thirty Years War. Penguin Books. pp. 159–61, 383–4.
  2. Eidgenossenschaft - Konsolidierung und Erweiterung (1353-1515) in German , French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland .
  3. Graubünden, section 3.1.4 - Landesherrschaft und Widerstand im Norden in German , French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland .
  4. Ilanz Articles in German , French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland .