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|Purpose||method for blood coagulation monitoring and anticoagulant control|
Thrombodynamics test is a method for blood coagulation monitoring and anticoagulant control. This test is based on imitation of coagulation processes occurring in vivo, is sensitive both to pro- and anticoagulant changes in the hemostatic balance. Highly sensitive to thrombosis.
The method was developed in the Physical Biochemistry Laboratory under the direction of Prof. Fazly Ataullakhanov.
Thrombodynamics designed to investigate the in vitro spatial-temporal dynamics of blood coagulation initiated by localized coagulation activator under conditions similar to the conditions of the blood clotting in vivo. Thrombodynamics takes into account the spatial heterogeneity trombodinamiki processes in blood coagulation. The test is performed without mixing in a thin layer of plasma.
The measurement cuvette with the blood plasma sample is placed inside the water thermostat. Clotting starts when activator with immobilized TF is immersed into the cuvette. The clot then propagates from the activating surface into the bulk of plasma. Image of growing clot is registered via the CCD camera using a time-lapse microscopy mode in scattered light and then parameters of coagulation are calculated on the computer. Thrombodynamics analyser T-2 device also supports measurement of spatial dynamics of thrombin propagation during the process of clot growth via usage of the fluorogenic substrate for thrombin. Blood plasma sample is periodically irradiated with the excitation light and the emission of the fluorophore is registered by CCD camera.
Mathematical methods are used to restore spatio-temporal distribution of the thrombin from the fluorophore signal. This experimental model worked well in research and has demonstrated good sensitivity to various disorders of the coagulation system.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to prevent bleeding, but can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through healthy blood vessels.
Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets, as well as deposition and maturation of fibrin.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels. Symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain, problems speaking, or problems moving parts of the body. As clotting factors and platelets are used up, bleeding may occur. This may include blood in the urine, blood in the stool, or bleeding into the skin. Complications may include organ failure.
Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic. This process has two types: primary fibrinolysis and secondary fibrinolysis. The primary type is a normal body process, whereas secondary fibrinolysis is the breakdown of clots due to a medicine, a medical disorder, or some other cause.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system. Antithrombin is a glycoprotein produced by the liver and consists of 432 amino acids. It contains three disulfide bonds and a total of four possible glycosylation sites. α-Antithrombin is the dominant form of antithrombin found in blood plasma and has an oligosaccharide occupying each of its four glycosylation sites. A single glycosylation site remains consistently un-occupied in the minor form of antithrombin, β-antithrombin. Its activity is increased manyfold by the anticoagulant drug heparin, which enhances the binding of antithrombin to factor IIa (Thrombin) and factor Xa.
Draculin is a glycoprotein found in the saliva of vampire bats. It is composed of 411 amino acids, weighing about 88.5kDa. It functions as an anticoagulant, inhibiting coagulation factors IX (IXa) and X (Xa), thus keeping the blood of the bitten victim from clotting while the bat is drinking.
Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is a zymogen found from the blood of humans and some other animals. It is activated by thrombin to factor XIIIa. XIIIa is an enzyme of the blood coagulation system that crosslinks fibrin. Deficiency of XIII worsens clot stability and increases bleeding tendency.
Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver. In the circulation, Protein S exists in two forms: a free form and a complex form bound to complement protein C4b-binding protein (C4BP). In humans, protein S is encoded by the PROS1 gene.
Factor V is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor. In contrast to most other coagulation factors, it is not enzymatically active but functions as a cofactor. Deficiency leads to predisposition for hemorrhage, while some mutations predispose for thrombosis.
Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT) is a laboratory test often used for detection of lupus anticoagulant (LA).
The prothrombinase complex consists of the serine protease, Factor Xa, and the protein cofactor, Factor Va. The complex assembles on negatively charged phospholipid membranes in the presence of calcium ions. The prothrombinase complex catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin (Factor II), an inactive zymogen, to thrombin (Factor IIa), an active serine protease. The activation of thrombin is a critical reaction in the coagulation cascade, which functions to regulate hemostasis in the body. To produce thrombin, the prothrombinase complex cleaves two peptide bonds in prothrombin, one after Arg271 and the other after Arg320. Although it has been shown that Factor Xa can activate prothrombin when unassociated with the prothrombinase complex, the rate of thrombin formation is severely decreased under such circumstances. The prothrombinase complex can catalyze the activation of prothrombin at a rate 3 x 105-fold faster than can Factor Xa alone. Thus, the prothrombinase complex is required for the efficient production of activated thrombin and also for adequate hemostasis.
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor is a single-chain polypeptide which can reversibly inhibit Factor Xa (Xa). While Xa is inhibited, the Xa-TFPI complex can subsequently also inhibit the FVIIa-tissue factor complex. TFPI contributes significantly to the inhibition of Xa in vivo, despite being present at concentrations of only 2.5 nM.
Heparin cofactor II (HCII), a protein encoded by the SERPIND1 gene, is a coagulation factor that inhibits IIa, and is a cofactor for heparin and dermatan sulfate.
Purpura fulminans is an acute, often fatal, thrombotic disorder which manifests as blood spots, bruising and discolouration of the skin resulting from coagulation in small blood vessels within the skin and rapidly leads to skin necrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Ecarin clotting time (ECT) is a laboratory test used to monitor anticoagulation during treatment with hirudin, an anticoagulant medication which was originally isolated from leech saliva. Ecarin, the primary reagent in this assay, is derived from the venom of the saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus.
Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR-4), also known as coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2RL3 gene.
Carboxypeptidase B2 (CPB2), also known as carboxypeptidase U (CPU), plasma carboxypeptidase B (pCPB) or thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the gene CPB2.
Thromboelastometry (TEM), previously named rotational thromboelastography (ROTEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), is an established viscoelastic method for hemostasis testing in whole blood. It is a modification of traditional thromboelastography (TEG). TEM investigates the interaction of coagulation factors, their inhibitors, anticoagulant drugs, blood cells, specifically platelets, during clotting and subsequent fibrinolysis. The rheological conditions mimic the sluggish flow of blood in veins.
Blood clotting tests are the tests used for diagnostics of the hemostasis system. Coagulometer is the medical laboratory analyzer used for testing of the hemostasis system. Modern coagulometers realize different methods of activation and observation of development of blood clots in blood or in blood plasma.
Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a rare but potentially life-threatening bleeding disorder characterized by autoantibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII. These autoantibodies constitute the most common spontaneous inhibitor to any coagulation factor and may induce spontaneous bleeding in patients with no previous history of a bleeding disorder..