The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation. It can be used between two characters with spacing as punctuation, non-spacing as a diacritic, or (underneath) as a proofreading mark. It can be above or below, and reversed. Its forms are called tie, double breve, enotikon or papyrological hyphen, ligature tie, and undertie.
In the ALA-LC romanization for Russian, a tie symbol is placed over some combinations of roman letters that are represented by a single letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, e.g., T͡S for Ц and i͡a for я. This is not uniformly applied, however: some letters corresponding to common digraphs in English, such as sh for ш and kh for х do not employ the tie. In practice, the tie ligature is often omitted.
The enotikon (ἑνωτικόν, henōtikón, lit. "uniter", from ἑνωτικός "a serving to unite or unify"), papyrological hyphen, or Greek hyphen was a low tie mark found in late Classical and Byzantine papyri. In an era when Greek texts were typically written scripta continua , the enotikon served to show that a series of letters should be read as a single word rather than misunderstood as two separate words. (Its companion mark was the hypodiastole, which showed that a series of letters should be understood as two separate words. ) Although modern Greek now uses the Latin hyphen, the Hellenic Organization for Standardization included mention of the enotikon in its romanization standard and Unicode is able to reproduce the symbol with its characters U+203F ‿UNDERTIE and U+035C ͜ COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW.
The enotikon was also used in Greek musical notation, as a slur under two notes. When a syllable was sung with three notes, this slur was used in combination with a double point and a diseme overline.
In musical score engraving, the undertie symbol is called an "elision slur" or "lyric slur",and is used to indicate synalepha: the elision of two or more spoken syllables into a single note; this is in contrast to the more common melisma, the extension of a single spoken syllable over multiple sung notes. Although rare in English texts, synalepha is often encountered in musical lyrics written in the Romance languages.
In use, the undertie is placed between the words of the lyric that are to be sung as one note to prevent the space between them being interpreted as a syllable break. For example, in the printed lyric "the‿im - mor - tal air", the undertie between "the" and "im-" instructs the singer to elide these two syllables into one, thus reducing five spoken syllables into four sung notes.
The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two type of ties: the ligature tie (IPA #433), above or below two symbols and the undertie (IPA #509) between two symbols.
The ligature tie, also called double inverted breve, is used to represent double articulation (e.g. [k͡p]), affricates (e.g. [t͡ʃ]) or prenasalized consonant (e.g. [m͡b]) in the IPA. It is mostly found above but can also be found below when more suitable (e.g. [k͜p]).
On computers, it is encoded with characters U+0361 ͡COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE and, as an alternative when raisers might be interfering with the bow, U+035C ͜COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW.
The undertie is used to represent linking (absence of a break) in the International Phonetic Alphabet. For example, it is used to indicate liaison (e.g. /vuz‿ave/) but can also be used for other types of sandhi.
On computers, the character used is U+203F‿UNDERTIE. This is a spacing character, not to be confused with the alternative (below-letter) form of the ligature tie (a͜b U+035C͜COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW), which is a combining character.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet uses several forms of the tie or double breve:
The double breve is used in the phonetic notation of the American Heritage Dictionary in combination with a double o, o͝o, to represent the near-close near-back rounded vowel (ʊ in IPA).
The triple breve below is used in the phonetic writing Rheinische Dokumenta for three-letter combinations.
In the field of computing, the Unicode character U+2040⁀CHARACTER TIE is used to represent concatenation of sequences in Z notation. For example, "s⁀t" represents the concatenation sequence of sequences called s and t, while the notation "⁀/q" is the distributed concatenation of the sequence of sequences called q.
In proofreading, the undertie was used to indicate that word in a manuscript had been divided incorrectly by a space. (See Hyphen#Origin and history). The indicator used in modern practice is convention is U+2050⁐CLOSE UP.
|name||character||HTML code||Unicode||Unicode name||sample|
|double breve||͝||͝||U+035D||combining double breve||o͝o|
|ligature tie||͡||͡||U+0361||combining double inverted breve||/k͡p/|
|ligature tie below, |
|͜||͜||U+035C||combining double breve below||/k͜p/|
|inverted undertie||⁔||⁔||U+2054||inverted undertie||o⁔o|
The diacritic signs triple inverted breve, triple breve, and double inverted breve have not yet been encoded for computers.
Unicode has characters similar to the tie:
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of speech sounds in written form. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech–language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators, and translators.
N, or n, is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is en, plural ens.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. There are several Coptic alphabets, as the Coptic writing system may vary greatly among the various dialects and subdialects of the Coptic language.
An interpunct ⟨·⟩, also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.. It appears in a variety of uses in some modern languages and is present in Unicode as U+00B7·MIDDLE DOT.
A caron, háček or haček also known as a hachek, wedge, check, kvačica, strešica, mäkčeň, varnelė, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, flying bird, inverted chevron, is a diacritic (◌̌) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined to form a single glyph. Examples are the characters æ and œ used in English and French, in which the letters 'a' and 'e' are joined for the first ligature and the letters 'o' and 'e' are joined for the second ligature. For stylistic and legibility reasons, 'f' and 'i' are often merged to create 'ﬁ' ; the same is true of 's' and 't' to create 'ﬆ'. The common ampersand (&) developed from a ligature in which the handwritten Latin letters 'E' and 't' were combined.
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters. It may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in various contexts.
The Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai words in the Latin alphabet. It was published by the Royal Institute of Thailand.
Ou is a ligature of the Greek letters ο and υ which was frequently used in Byzantine manuscripts. This ligature is still seen today on icon artwork in Greek Orthodox churches, and sometimes in graffiti or other forms of informal or decorative writing.
Unicode has subscripted and superscripted versions of a number of characters including a full set of Arabic numerals. These characters allow any polynomial, chemical and certain other equations to be represented in plain text without using any form of markup like HTML or TeX.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages. It was first published in 1901 by Eemil Nestor Setälä, a Finnish linguist.
Latin alpha or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).
The diaeresis and the umlaut are two different diacritical marks that look alike. They both consist of two dotsplaced over a letter, usually a vowel; when that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï. In computer systems, both forms have the same code point. Their appearance in print or on screen may vary between typefaces but rarely within the same typeface.
L, or l, is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is el, plural els.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) requires specific names for the symbols and diacritics used in the alphabet.
Unicode supports several phonetic scripts and notations through the existing writing systems and the addition of extra blocks with phonetic characters. These phonetic extras are derived from an existing script, usually Latin, Greek or Cyrillic. Apart from International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), extensions to the IPA and obsolete and nonstandard IPA symbols, these blocks also contain characters from the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet and the Americanist Phonetic Alphabet.
The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian and sometimes Slovene languages. It is also used in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), which has a sharp tip, while the inverted breve is rounded:.
IPA Braille is the modern standard Braille encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as recognized by the International Council on English Braille.
The Phonetic Symbol Guide is a book by Geoffrey Pullum and William Ladusaw that explains the histories and uses of symbols used in various phonetic transcription conventions. It was published in 1986, with a second edition in 1996, by the University of Chicago Press. Symbols include letters and diacritics of the International Phonetic Alphabet and Americanist phonetic notation, though not of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. The Guide was consulted by the International Phonetic Association when they established names and numerical codes for the International Phonetic Alphabet and was the basis for the characters of the TIPA set of phonetic fonts.