This is a timeline of Argentine history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Argentina and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Argentina. See also the list of presidents of Argentina.
|Irrigation permitted development of sedentary agriculture of staple crops in western and northwestern Andean region
|Several corn-based civilizations developed in the western and northwestern Andean region (Ansilta, Condorhuasi, Cienaga, Aguada, Santa Maria, Huarpes, Diaguitas, Sanavirones, among others)
|Development of metallurgical technologies, permitting elaborate bronzeworks
|Emergence of fortified urban settlements
|The Inca Empire, under the rule of emperor Pachacutec, launched an offensive and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu
|Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís first European explorer to visit Río de la Plata, on territory which is now Argentina; Díaz de Solís killed and supposedly cannibalised by native Charrúa, Querandí or Guaraní
|Sebastian Cabot sailed up Paraná River and built short-lived fort near modern Rosario
|Santa María del Buen Ayre founded by Pedro de Mendoza on site of modern Buenos Aires
|Santa María del Buen Ayre settlement abandoned after indigenous attacks
|Santiago del Estero founded by Francisco de Aguirre (some claim 1550)
|San Juan founded
|Córdoba and Santa Fe founded
|Permanent colony re-established by Spain on the site of Buenos Aires as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru; initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru
|La Rioja founded
|San Salvador de Jujuy founded
|First Jesuit missions to the Guaraní founded in the Upper Paraná area. San Ignacio in Misiones
|University of Córdoba founded by Jesuits
|Diaguita rebellion led by Spanish rebel, Pedro Bohórquez
|San Ignacio school in Córdoba founded by Jesuits
|The Portuguese established a trading post across the Rio de la Plata from Buenos Aires
|City of Tucumán moved to present location
|Jesuits expelled from Spanish territories
|Establishment of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Spanish : Virreinato del Río de la Plata) comprising today's Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia, declared with Buenos Aires as its capital
|Establishment of the Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires
|British invasions of the Río de la Plata unsuccessfully attempt to establish control over Spain's southern colonies as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Spanish troops offer no defence but British repelled by local civilians and militias (to 1807)
|Secret meetings in May 1810 organised a petition for an open meeting – Cabildo Abierto
|The petition was refused by viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros but popular protest forced his hand on 22 May.
|The Cabildo opened its session on 22 May with 251 of the city's most prominent citizens, and discussed the future government of the provinces
|On 23 May the assembly voted for the removal of the viceroy and the creation of the Primera Junta of locals to govern Buenos Aires, proclaiming loyalty to Ferdinand VII. This was properly agreed and the Junta sworn in on 25 May
|Unsuccessful military campaigns in Paraguay and Alto Perú failed to gather support for joint action by the entire viceroyalty against Spanish forces (to 1811)
|News of Napoleon's invasion of Spain caused a power vacuum in Buenos Aires leading to a series of events known as the May Revolution:
|Junta Grande, with delegates from other provinces of the United Provinces of the River Plate, replaced Primera Junta
|First Triumvirate of Feliciano Chiclana, Juan José Paso and Manuel de Sarratea replaced Junta Grande in September 1811
|The Jujuy Exodus of August 1812 was led by Manuel Belgrano, with several thousand soldiers and civilians retreating from Jujuy and Salta, to avoid military defeat and defections
|Second Triumvirate of Nicolás Rodriguez Peña, Antonio Álvarez Jonte and Juan José Paso replaced First Triumvirate
|The Battle of San Lorenzo in February, first battle of José de San Martín in the Argentine War of Independence
|The Asamblea del año XIII called in February to plan further military campaigns and organise defence of Buenos Aires
|Action of 14 May 1814 saw United Provinces' fleet defeat Spanish navy securing coast
|Second Triumvirate replaced by position of Supreme Director, first occupied by Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
|Defeats in battles in late 1815 led to final loss of modern Bolivia
|In March an assembly of provincial delegates met as the Congress of Tucumán to discuss future military and political developments
|On 9 July 1816, the Congress declared the independence of Argentina
|The Battle of Cepeda took place between Unitarians who supported a strong centralised state, and Federals, largely provincial caudillo warlords who wanted decentralised authority. The Federals won and the February 1820 Treaty of Pilar declared Argentina as a federal country, although Unitarian ideals continued
|The United Kingdom recognises Argentine independence.
|Deputies from the eastern bank of the Río de la Plata declare independence from Brazil, leading to the Cisplatine War. The 1827 Battle of Ituzaingó saw tactical success for Argentina. The war ended in 1828 with a treaty giving independence to Uruguay
|Luis Vernet establishes settlement on the Falkland Islands
|Juan Manuel de Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires Province
|Yaghan aboriginal Jemmy Button (Orundellico) taken from Tierra del Fuego to England by Robert FitzRoy on HMS Beagle
|Pacto Federal signed between provinces to protect federal nature of country
|The Voyage of the Beagle with Charles Darwin and Robert FitzRoy visited the Río de la Plata, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (to 1834)
|Argentine Governor of the Falkland Islands Luis Vernet is expelled by USS Lexington following his seizure of United States interests. New governor murdered in 1832 mutiny
|Juan Manuel de Rosas begins the First Conquest of the Desert
|British forces re-occupy the Falkland Islands
|Rosas made Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation
|Rosas overthrown by Justo José de Urquiza following Battle of Caseros
|Constitution of Argentina agreed by assembly in Santa Fe, creating modern system of government
|Urquiza became first President of Argentina in modern sense but opposed by Buenos Aires, still opposed to federal project
|Defeat of Unitarian forces led by Bartolomé Mitre by Urquiza and federals at Battle of Cepeda; Buenos Aires re-enters confederation
|Mendoza earthquake kills 8,000 to 10,000 citizens of Mendoza
|Start of War of the Triple Alliance between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, leading to utter defeat of Paraguay by 1870
|Commencement of the Conquest of the Desert against indigenous inhabitants of the south led by Julio Argentino Roca; final surrender by 1884
|Roca became president, finally defeated federals and moved capital to Buenos Aires from Rosario
|Gold is discovered near Cape Virgenes sparking the Tierra del Fuego gold rush
|Founding of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) or Radical Party
|The Panic of 1890 brought the Baring Brothers bank in London close to collapse after disastrous investments in Argentina
|Mandatory military service (Conscription) established
|The Drago Doctrine is announced by the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs Luis María Drago.
|Sáenz Peña Law introduces universal, secret and compulsory male suffrage, end of the Generation of '80
|Start of presidency of Hipólito Yrigoyen, UCR democratic reformist
|Students strikes and demonstrations enforce the university reform of shared powers between teachers, graduates and students
|Fabrica Militar de Aviones aircraft factory founded in Cordoba
|Military coup deposed Yrigoyen, starting the 'Infamous Decade'
|General Agustín Justo declared winner of Presidency following 'patriotic fraud' in election
|'National Revolution' led by nationalist military officers including Colonel Juan Perón; ensured continued non-intervention in World War II
|San Juan earthquake destroys provincial capital, kills 10,000
|Argentina enters World War II on the side of the Allies and admitted as founding member of United Nations
|Perón arrested then freed after major popular protest by those known as the Descamisados
|Perón elected president; re-elected to presidency in 1951
|Indigenous people march in Malón de la Paz to Buenos Aires to demand land rights
|Women's suffrage is approved
|First flight of the FMA IAe 33 Pulqui II, the first jet fighter to be entirely developed and built in Latin America.
|The National Atomic Energy Commission (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA) is founded
|Death of Eva Perón
|Perón ousted in 'Liberating Revolution' military coup
|INTA, the National Agricultural Technology Institute, is created
|INTI, the National Industrial Technology Institute, is created
|ARA Independencia, the first aircraft carrier of the Argentine Navy, enters service
|Military coup ended presidency of civilian Arturo Frondizi
|General Juan Carlos Onganía assumed power and represses political parties
|Death of Ernesto 'Che' Guevara
|In the Cordobazo popular protests of May 1969, thousands of citizens routed the army and police and took control of Córdoba for two days
|A counterinsurgency aircraft, the FMA IA 58 Pucará, flies for the first time
|Aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo replaces ARA Independencia
|General Alejandro Lanusse emerged as president after Onganía toppled
|Civil conflict and terrorist attacks, principally by left-wing Montoneros and Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo opposed by paramilitary Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (to 1976)
|The Ezeiza massacre takes place upon Perón's return from exile, when members of the Triple A open fire on the crowd awaiting him.
|Democratic elections brought Peronist Héctor Cámpora to power; Perón elected president in fresh elections later that year
|Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Latin America, began operation
|Death of Juan Perón, leaving widow Isabel Perón as president
|Military coup in March deposed Isabel Perón
|The high-technology company INVAP is created
|The Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military government led by Jorge Videla repressed political and armed opposition through use of torture, forced disappearance and extrajudicial killing up of to 30,000 people (to 1983)
|Argentina hosted and won the 1978 Football World Cup
|Argentina refused the binding Beagle Channel Arbitration and started the Operation Soberania in order to invade Chile
|Leader General Leopoldo Galtieri sent troops to the Falkland Islands triggering Falklands War; British task force retook islands by mid-June
|Military government collapsed; election of Radical Raúl Alfonsín as president
|The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina ends border dispute over Picton, Nueva and Lennox islands
|Embalse nuclear power plant began operations
|The trainer aircraft FMA IA 63 Pampa flight for the first time.
|La Historia Oficial film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
|Argentina wins 1986 Football World Cup, captained by Diego Maradona
|First uprising by Carapintadas , commanded by Colonel Aldo Rico, two arrested. Alfonsín declares La casa está en orden (The house is in order)
|Second Carapintada revolt, again under Rico's command in January, 300 arrested
|Third and last Carapintada uprising, led by Mohamed Alí Seineldín, two arrested
|Dissident military group attacks La Tablada regiment, but are finally seized
|Hyper-inflation and political turmoil brings Peronist Carlos Menem to power in election
|Neo-liberal economic policies and privatisations brought general strikes, hunger strikes and political party realignments
|Peso pegged to US Dollar
|Argentina is the only Latin American country to participate in the first Gulf War under mandate of the United Nations
|Mercosur customs union founded by the Treaty of Asunción
|Argentina, Brazil and Chile signed the Mendoza Declaration prohibiting Chemical Weapons
|Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires killed 29 in terrorist attack
|Argentina joins UNFICYP mission at Cyprus. As of 2006, ground troops and helicopters are serving there and since 1999 have other Latin American countries troops embedded.
|Following the Pacto de Olivos, the constitution reform is agreed, allowing Presidents to serve second consecutive term
|Bombing of AMIA Jewish Community Centre in Buenos Aires, killing 85
|The murder of Conscript Omar Carrasco led to the abolition of Conscription
|Menem won second term
|Argentina acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
|FMA privatized into Lockheed Martin Aircraft Argentina
|Radical Fernando de la Rúa elected first Mayor of Buenos Aires
|Radicals, left-wing FrePaSo and others joined forces as Alianza electoral alliance to oppose Menem and Peronists
|The A-4AR Fightinghawk enter service in the Argentine Air Force
|U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally
|De la Rúa won Presidency as head of the Alianza, but was confronted by growing economic crisis
|In one of the worst accidents in the history of Argentinian aviation, LAPA flight 3142 crash at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport resulted in 65 fatalities.
|Hitech company INVAP is chosen by Australia to design and construct the OPAL nuclear reactor
|Vice-President Carlos Álvarez resigned in protest political bribes scandal, precipitating crisis in ruling alliance
he remaining FrePaSo ministers resigned from government in protest at economic and labour reforms |- | || In November, the government responded to a run on banks by limiting access to bank deposits in the corralito |- | || In December, events that have become known as the Argentinazo took place:
|- | 2002 || || Duhalde imposes further financial measures, including converting dollar accounts to pesos, scrapping 1:1 parity with the dollar, and social measures to bring economy under control |- | 2003 || || Former President Carlos Menem wins first round of presidential election but pulls out facing certain defeat, handing victory to fellow Peronist Néstor Kirchner |- | rowspan="5" valign="top" | 2004 || || In April more than 100,000 people demonstrated in Buenos Aires in support of Juan Carlos Blumberg, father of murdered student Axel Blumberg, demanding harsher criminal laws |- | || Kirchner pursued Argentine debt restructuring |- | || Natural gas supply shortage produced tension with Chile |- | || Antarctic Treaty Secretariat established in Buenos Aires |- | || A fire in the República Cromagnon nightclub in Buenos Aires kills 194 people and injures 714 |- | rowspan="6" valign="top" | 2005 || || Relations between Catholic Church and government broke down in February row between military chaplain and minister over abortion |- | || Supreme Court overruled 'Laws of Pardon' that were used to pardon military figures of the Dirty War |- | || First disputes of the Cellulose plant conflict between Argentina and Uruguay |- | || Mid-term elections in October saw a massive split in the Justicialist Party between Kirchner's centre-left Front for Victory faction and the rump of his former patron Duhalde and other provincial leaders; Front for Victory wins by large margin |- | || Massive demonstrations against U.S. President George W. Bush at the Fourth Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata |- | || In December, Kirchner announced cancellation of IMF debt with single, final payment |- | 2006 || || Buenos Aires mayor Aníbal Ibarra removed from office following accusations of negligence regarding the República Cromagnon nightclub fire of 2004 |- | rowspan="2" valign="top" | 2007 || || Catholic priest Christian Von Wernich is found guilty of involvement in seven murders and 42 cases of kidnapping and torture related to the state-sponsored Dirty War. Von Wernich is sentenced to life imprisonment. |- | || Cristina Kirchner assumes as new president of Argentina. |}
The politics of Argentina take place in the framework of what the Constitution defines as a federal presidential representative democratic republic, where the President of Argentina is both Head of State and Head of Government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Argentine National Congress. The Judiciary is independent, as well as the Executive and the Legislature. Elections take place regularly on a multi-party system.
Eduardo Alberto Duhalde is an Argentine Peronist politician who served as the interim President of Argentina from January 2002 to May 2003. He also served as Vice President and Governor of Buenos Aires in the 1990s.
Néstor Carlos Kirchner was an Argentine lawyer and politician who served as the President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007, Governor of Santa Cruz Province from 1991 to 2003, Secretary General of UNASUR and the first ever First Gentleman of Argentina during the first tenure of his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. He was President of the Justicialist Party from 2008 to 2010. Ideologically, he identified himself as a Peronist and a progressive, with his political approach called Kirchnerism.
Eduardo Oscar Camaño is an Argentine Justicialist Party politician. He was in charge of the executive branch in a caretaker capacity, effectively acting as president, for two days between 31 December 2001, and 1 January 2002.
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá is an Argentine Peronist politician. Born in a family that was highly influential in the history of the San Luis Province, he became the province's governor in 1983, after the end of the National Reorganization Process military dictatorship. He remained governor up to 2001, being re-elected in successive elections.
Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín was an Argentine lawyer and statesman who served as President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 8 July 1989. He was the first democratically elected president after more than seven years of military dictatorship, and is considered the "father of modern democracy in Argentina". Ideologically, he identified as a Radical and a social democrat, serving as the leader of the Radical Civic Union from 1983 to 1991, 1993 to 1995, 1999 to 2001, with his political approach being known as "Alfonsinism".
The Justicialist Party is a major political party in Argentina, and the largest branch within Peronism.
The Front for a Country in Solidarity was a center-left political coalition in Argentina. It was formed in 1994 out of the Broad Front, which had been founded mainly by progressive members of the Peronist Justicialist Party who denounced the policies and the alleged corruption of the Carlos Menem administration; the Frente joined with other dissenting Peronists, the Unidad Socialista and several other leftist parties and individuals. Its leading figures were José Octavio Bordón, Carlos "Chacho" Álvarez and Graciela Fernández Meijide.
The December 2001 crisis, sometimes known as the Argentinazo, was a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on 19 and 20 December in the capital, Buenos Aires, Rosario and other large cities around the country. It was preceded by a popular revolt against the Argentine government, rallying behind the motto "All of them must go!", which caused the resignation of then-president Fernando de la Rúa, giving way to a period of political instability during which five government officials performed the duties of the Argentinian presidency. This period of instability occurred during the larger period of crisis known as the Argentine great depression, an economic, political, and social crisis that lasted from 1998 until 2002.
Roberto Lavagna is an Argentine economist and politician who was Minister of Economy and Production from April 27, 2002 until November 28, 2005.
Sergio Edgardo Acevedo is an Argentine Justicialist Party politician, formerly a provincial governor and secretary in the national government.
Aníbal Ibarra is an Argentine lawyer and politician who served as mayor of Buenos Aires.
Events during the year 2005 in Argentina.
Events in the year 2004 in Argentina.
Alberto José Rodriguez Saá is an Argentine lawyer and politician. He is the Governor of San Luis Province. He was presidential candidate for the center-right peronism, Federal Peronism, in 2007 and 2011.
Mario das Neves was an Argentine politician who was twice governor of Chubut Province, from 2003 to 2011 and again from 2015 until his death in 2017.
Argentina held national presidential and legislative elections on Sunday, 28 October 2007, and elections for provincial governors took place on staggered dates throughout the year. For the national elections, each of the 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires are considered electoral districts. Voter turnout was 76.2%. Buenos Aires Province Senator and First Lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the Front for Victory won the election by 45.28% of votes against Elisa Carrió of Civic Coalition ARI, making her the second female president of Argentina and the first female president to be directly elected. She broke the 40 percent barrier and won in the first round. Elisa Carrió won in the city of Buenos Aires and came second with more than 20 percent of the votes. Third was Roberto Lavagna, who won in Córdoba.
Argentina held national presidential and legislative elections on Sunday, 23 October 2011. Incumbent president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the Front for Victory won via landslide, with 54.11% of votes against Hermes Binner of Broad Progressive Front, she also secured a second term in office after the Front for Victory won just over half of the seats in the National Congress.
Federal Peronism, also known as Dissident Peronism and Menemism, are the informal names given to a conservative political alliance between Justicialist Party figures, currently identified mostly by its opposition to ruling Kirchnerism, the left-wing faction.
The Presidency of Néstor Kirchner began on 25 May 2003, when Néstor Kirchner became President of Argentina. He was the Governor of Santa Cruz during the 2003 general election, he was elected second to Carlos Menem but became president when Menem refused to go for a required runoff election. In elections of October 2007, he declined for a second term and was later succeeded by his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as President.
[[Category:Argentina history-related lists