The marsh crane fly (Tipula oleracea) is a species of cranefly found throughout the Palaearctic and parts of the Nearctic.
Its specific name oleracea means "related to vegetables/herbs" in Latin and is a form of holeraceus (oleraceus).
A usually greyish species, but abdomen occasionally ferruginous and often with a blackish median and/or lateral longitudinal stripe. The wing length is 18–28 mm. The minimum space between eyes below is at most subequal to the maximum width of antenna! scape ; the antennae are 13-segmented. The male tergite 9 has a short median projection (its breadth at base exceeding its length), and roundly bifurcated at apex, the bifurcations blackish ; sternite 8 simple, 9 almost fused with tergite 9 (as in T. paludosa and T. czizeki). female wings as long as abdomen; sternal valves usually extending to about two-thirds length of cerci, cerci only slightly clubbed at tips.
T. oleracea is prevalent mainly in Europe. Their habitat ranges in the South to North Africa, but has a limit in Algeria to the East. In Europe the South-eastern boundary is in Greece. It occurs on some Greek islands such as Crete as a subspecies and is also on Malta. It is found in Northern Europe with the exception of Finland and Latvia. In North and South America, it was probably introduced as an invasive species located in the West of the North American continent from British Columbia to California, in the East between Michigan and New York. It was introduced in Ecuador in South America.
T. oleracea flies in early summer from April to June, (peak May–June) and there is a second generation in the late summer from August to October. Small swarms, which probably serve as pairing formations are formed in the evening hours when they fly close to the ground over meadows and fields. Eggs are laid individually into loose, moist soil. Wet meadows offer this possibility, but also gardens and cultural areas are ideal for egg-laying. As a female can lay eggs up to 1200 and often up to 400 larvae may live in a square metre, mass attacks can damage crops. The eggs are oval and slightly less than one millimeter in size. They have a dark colour. The larvae hatch after about 15 days. The larvae are brownish and the first instar is three to four millimeters long. The larvae feed on decaying vegetable matter, but also on delicate roots and can cause damage in crops like cabbage. At night, they can affect the above ground parts of the plants and eat the leaves. The larval development takes around four months and includes four moults. The larva is several centimeters long and pupates in the soil. The second generation spends the winter in the ground until late spring or early summer. The adult animals can take only liquid food like nectar due to its soft mouthparts. The entire life cycle of T. oleracea is up to eight months.
Crane fly is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea. Cylindrotominae, Limoniinae, and Pediciinae have been ranked as subfamilies of Tipulidae by most authors, though occasionally elevated to family rank. In the most recent classifications, only Pediciidae is now ranked as a separate family, due to considerations of paraphyly. In colloquial speech, crane flies are sometimes known as mosquito hawks or daddy longlegs, a term also used to describe opiliones or the family Pholcidae, both of which are arachnids. The larvae of crane flies are known commonly as leatherjackets.
Allium oleraceum, the field garlic, is a Eurasian species of wild onion. It is a bulbous perennial that grows wild in dry places, reaching 30 centimetres (12 in) in height. It reproduces by seed, bulbs and by the production of small bulblets in the flower head. Unlike A. vineale, it is very rare with A. oleraceum to find flower-heads containing bulbils only. In addition, the spathe in A. oleraceum is in two parts.
Cirsium oleraceum, the cabbage thistle or Siberian thistle, is a species of thistle in the genus Cirsium within the sunflower family, native to central and eastern Europe and Asia, where it grows in wet lowland soils.
Portulaca oleracea is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach 40 cm (16 in) in height.
Pieris oleracea, or more commonly known as the mustard white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae native to a large part of Canada and the northeastern United States. The nearly all-white butterfly is often found in wooded areas or open plains. There are two seasonal forms, which make it distinct from other similar species. Because of climate change, populations are moving further north.
Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan.
The açaí palm, Euterpe oleracea, is a species of palm tree (Arecaceae) cultivated for its fruit, hearts of palm, leaves, and trunk wood. Global demand for the fruit expanded rapidly in the 21st century and so the tree is cultivated for that purpose primarily.
The cabbage moth is primarily known as a pest that is responsible for severe crop damage of a wide variety of plant species. The common name, cabbage moth, is a misnomer as the species feeds on many fruits, vegetables, and crops in the genus Brassica. Other notable host plants include tobacco, sunflower, and tomato, making this pest species particularly economically damaging.
Sonchus oleraceus, with many common names including common sowthistle, sow thistle, smooth sow thistle, annual sow thistle, hare's colwort, hare's thistle, milky tassel, milk thistle, soft thistle, or swinies, is a plant in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family. It is native to Europe and western Asia.
Lepidium oleraceum is a herb in the family Brassicaceae, endemic to New Zealand. Its English common name is Cook's scurvy grass; Māori names include nau, ngau, naunau and heketara.
Neptunia oleracea, commonly known in English as water mimosa or sensitive neptunia, is pantropical nitrogen-fixing perennial legume. Genus and common name come from Neptune, god of the sea, in reference to the aquatic habit of some species in the genus.
Peridroma saucia, the pearly underwing or variegated cutworm, is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae. The species was first described by Jacob Hübner in 1808. It is found in North and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. The variegated cutworm feeds on many plants, especially common fruits and vegetables. The moth undergoes two to four generations per year. The development of the moth slows in colder temperatures, indicative of its migratory nature. All stages of the life cycle have a developmental threshold for temperature. The moth is known to migrate to the northern regions during warmer months, returning to the southern regions when the climate becomes colder.
Eurydema oleracea is a species of shield bug in the family Pentatomidae and is commonly known as the rape bug, the crucifer shield bug, the cabbage bug or the brassica bug.
Roystonea oleracea, sometimes known as the Caribbean royal palm, palmiste, imperial palm or cabbage palm, is a species of palm which is native to the Lesser Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago. It is also reportedly naturalized in Guyana and on the islands of Mauritius and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.
Euleia heraclei, known as the celery fly or the hogweed picture-wing fly is a species of tephritid or fruit flies in the genus Euleia of the family Tephritidae.
Trichopoda pennipes, common name feather-legged fly, is a fly in the family Tachinidae.
Altica oleracea is a species of leaf beetles belonging to the family Chrysomelidae, subfamily Galerucinae.
Acmella oleracea is a species of flowering herb in the family Asteraceae. Common names include toothache plant, paracress, Sichuan buttons, buzz buttons, tingflowers and electric daisy. Its native distribution is unclear, but it is likely derived from a Brazilian Acmella species. It is grown as an ornamental and attracts fireflies when in bloom. It is used as a medicinal remedy in various parts of the world. A small, erect plant, it grows quickly and bears gold and red inflorescences. It is frost-sensitive but perennial in warmer climates.
Cylindromyia bicolor is a European species of fly in the family Tachinidae.
The Chloropidae are a family of flies commonly known as frit flies or grass flies. About 2000 described species are in over 160 genera distributed worldwide. These are usually very small flies, yellow or black and appearing shiny due to the virtual absence of any hairs. The majority of the larvae are phytophagous, mainly on grasses, and can be major pests of cereals. However, parasitic and predatory species are known. A few species are kleptoparasites. Some species in the genera Hippelates and Siphunculina are called eye gnats or eye flies for their habit of being attracted to eyes. They feed on lachrymal secretions and other body fluids of various animals, including humans and are of medical significance.
oleraceus, holeraceus = relating to vegetables or kitchen garden
L.holeraceus, prop.oleraceus, herb-like, holus, prop.olus (oler-), herbs, vegetables
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