Tlalnepantla, Morelos

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City and Municipality
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Tlalnepantla (Mexico)
Coordinates: 19°01′N99°00′W / 19.01°N 99°W / 19.01; -99 Coordinates: 19°01′N99°00′W / 19.01°N 99°W / 19.01; -99
Country Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Morelos
Municipal seatOctober 11, 1848 [1]
  Municipal PresidentRigoberto Espindola Gonzalez (Panal) [2]
  Municipality124.092 km2 (47.912 sq mi)
(of seat)
2,060 m (6,760 ft)
 (2015) Municipality
  Density57.74/km2 (149.5/sq mi)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code (of seat)
62530 – 62536 [3]
Area code 735
Website (in Spanish)]

Tlalnepantla is the name of a city and a municipality in the Mexican state of Morelos.


The city reported a population of 3,872 inhabitants, while its municipality reported 7,166 inhabitants in the 2015 census. [4] It is the least populous of the 17 municipalities that border Mexico City, bordering the capital city's southeastern Milpa Alta borough. Tlalnepantla is located 57 kilometers (35 miles) northeast of Cuernavaca. [5]


The name Tlalnepantla means "In the middle of the lands" in Nahuatl, [6] which may be interpreted as "In the middle of the mountains". According to Reyes and Robelo this town was originally called Tlalnepantla Kuauhtenko; this second place name means "On the shore of the eagles"; its etymology from Kuauh-tli, "eagle"; ten-tli, "shore or lip", and ko, adverb of "place"; however, in the hieroglyph the sign of the tree is clearly seen between two parts of the earth. It is supposed to be related to the terrestrial meridian, nearly the same as the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral. [1]

The municipality

Towns and villages

The largest localities (cities, towns, and villages) are: [7]

Name2010 Census PopulationAltitude
Tlalnepantla3,8722050 meters [8]
Felipe Neri (Cuatepec)1,3382540 meters [9]
El Vigía (San Nicolás del Monte)8322,140 meters [10]
El Pedregal5071,965 meters [11]
Total Municipality6,6362,060

Other communities include Fraccionamiento Calmil, Campo Aguacomulco, Bosques de Morelos, Campo Jazmín, and Fraccionamiento los Robles. [8]


Ruins of settlements of Nahuas and Nahuatl-speaking Tlahuicas have been found since before the founding of Tlalnepantla. [6]

By the 1590s a town called Teocaltitla was established northwest about seven kilometers from the present municipal seat. Ruins of its church, including plaster, can still be seen. The ruins of the town of San Bartolomé ("Cohamilpa") are located about four kilometers west of Tlalnepantla. Ruins of the San Nicolás Tolentino neighborhood ("Teopancasholtitla"), founded in 1600, are located six kilometers from Tlalnepantla. San Felipe, also founded in the 1600s, is located five kilometers away. [6]

Tlalnepantla-Cuahutenco was formed by Fray Toribio and Fray Juan de Zumárraga between 1680 and 1690 by grouping the people into five "barrios"—San Pedro, San Felipe, San Nicolás, San Bartolo, Santiagoof—with about 800 people each. [6] It took the simpler name Tlalnepantla in 1869. [6]

Construction of the convent and the parish of the Purification was begun by the Augustinians in the 16th century and completed in 1791. [6] The former monastery of the Precious Blood of Christ also dates from the same time. The church was burned during the Mexican War of Independence and was renovated in 1933. [1]

Tlalnepantla became a municipal seat in the State of Mexico on October 11, 1848. [1] It became part of Morelos on April 17, 1869. [12]

A telephone line was established between 1880 and 1910 near Tenecuilco where President Porfirio Díaz had a hunting lodge. On one occasion, the president got lost, only to be saved by a local resident named Bonifacio Rodríguez. In gratitude for saving his life, the president gave Rodríguez his telephone number, which was quite useful later when Rodríguez was arrested in a drunken brawl. Ciriaco Espíndola, also from Tenecuilco, became Díaz's secretary from 1880-1900 and his brother Dolores Espíndola worked as administrator of the Mexican Railway.

The ex-hacienda of Cuatepec or Coatepec was built during colonial times. [1] During the Mexican Revolution the hacienda was looted and burned, then abandoned by its owner. The peasants divided the land and the community adopted the name of General Felipe Neri, a Zapatista who was killed by rival general Antonio Barona Rojas. The town's foundation is celebrated on February 8. [6]

The first carnaval in Tlalnepantla was organized by Pablo Lima in 1905; carnaval was suspended during the Revolution and started again in 1929. [6]

El Vigía, also called San Nicolás del Monte, was formed by uniting the barrios of San Miguel, San Francisco, San Pedro, and San Lucas. [6] San Nicolás del Monte was isolated until Mexican Federal Highway 113 was built in 1973. The town changed its name to El Vigía in 1973 because during the Revolution it was used to warn people when enemy armies were approaching. [6] El Pedregal was founded by Teofilo Pacheco in 1975. [6]

At least 340 homes were damaged during the 2017 Puebla earthquake, but no deaths or injuries were reported in the municipality. [13]

Rigoberto Espindola Gonzalez of the Panal was elected Presidente Municipal on July 1, 2018. [2]

The state of Morelos reported 209 cases and 28 deaths due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico as of April 27, 2020; one case was reported in Tlatnapantla. Schools and many businesses were closed from mid March until June 1. [14] On July 2, Tlalnepantla reported 33 infections and four deaths from the virus; the reopening of the state was pushed back until at least June 13. [15] Tlalnepantla reported 19 cases, 18 recuperations, and two deaths from the virus as of August 31. [16] Twenty/one cases were reported on December 27, 2020. [17]

Notable people

Municipal presidents (1958–present)

NameTerm of Office Party
Adelaido Pérez López1958-1961
Brigido Elizalde Espinoza1961-1964
Eufemio Hernández Gómez1964-1967
Adolfo Rubio Huerta1967-1970
Romualdo Pérez López1970-1973
Guillermo Osorio Torres1973-1976
Sergio Mercado Marín1976-1979
Arnulfo Medina Estrada1979-1982
Benito Juárez Ávila1982-1985
Celestino González Flores1985-1988
Victorino Cervantes Reyes1988-1991
Meliton Lagos González1991-1994 PRI
Elías Osorio Torres1994-1997PRI
Gumaro Osorio Ramos1997-2000PRI
Donato González Flores2000-2003PRI
Jose Luis Gonzalez Barrera2003-2006PRI
Rolando Alvarado Colin2006-2009 PAN
Lauro Barba Elizalde2009-2012PAN
Fausto Rubio Pillado2013-2015 PRD-PT-MC
Germán Barrera Pérez2016-2018 PT
Rigoberto Espindola Gonzalez2019–presentPRI-Panal-PVEM [2]



Tlalnepantla is located in northern Morelos state, with Milpa Alta, Mexico City and Juchitepec, State of Mexico to the north; Tepoztlán to the west, Tlayacapan to the east, and Totolapan to the east. It is located at 18°57'N and 98°14'W of Greenwich. With an average altitude of 2,060 meters above sea level, it is the third highest municipality in the state, exceeded only by Huitzilac (2,500 m) and Tetela del Volcán (2,200 m). [6]

Distance (by highway)


110 square kilometres (42 sq mi), which is 2.2% of the total territory of Morelos. [6]


Most of the municipality is in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The highest peaks are:

  • Cerro de Otlayuca – 3,440 metres (11,290 ft) [18]
  • Volcán Ololica – 3,280 metres (10,760 ft) [18]
  • Cerro Tecaño – 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) [6]
  • Cerro de los Pilares – 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) [6]
  • Cerro Ometuzco – 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) [6]

Approximately 16% of the total surface is rugged, 78% is semi-flat, and 0.5% is flat (mostly in the north, west, and southeast). [6]

Water resources

There are no rivers or streams in Tlalnepantla. Rainwater is caught in the canyons and gullies of Cuatizec, Tlatenchi, Teshohuaca, and Tepeclapa. There is an average of 2,341 cubic millimetres (0.1429 in3) of annual precipitation. [6]


The climate in the municipality is temperate sub-humid, with an average annual temperature of 17 °C (63 °F) and an average annual rainfall of 2,341 mm (92.2 in). Tlalnepantla is one of the municipalities with the highest annual precipitation. [6]

At a height of 2,560 metres (8,400 ft), San Felipe Neri merits special attention. The climate is temperate sub-humid, with rainfall in summer, average annual temperature between 5 and 12 °C (41 and 54 °F), with a cool and long summer. [19]


Flora consists mainly of Temperate coniferous forest: pine, oak, fir, ash, elm, tejocote (a fruit tree), and ocotillo (a shrub). There is a wide variety of medicinal plants such as squaw mint (for stomach pain), lemon balm (taken as tea), tochete (mint), tabaquillo, [20] mullein (used to heal wounds), and Valerian (herb) (for rheumatism). [6]


Fauna includes white-tailed deer, skunk, Mexican volcano mouse, mountain lions, quail, coyote, wolf, wildcat, cacomistle (raccoon), opossum, ocelot, ferret, rabbit, iguana, snakes, scorpion, chameleon, roadrunner, and woodpecker. Hunting is prohibited in the forest. [6]

Natural resources

Agricultural land and forests are the most important natural resources. [6]


Most soils consist of humus and clay. [6] Of the 12,409 hectares (30,660 acres), 4,753 hectares (11,740 acres) (38%) are used for farming. Forest consists of 7,583 hectares (18,740 acres) or 61% of the land, while the rest is used for buildings. [6]


The main economic activity of this is agriculture, of which 89% is the cultivation of prickly pears or nopales. Both the fruit and the leaves are sold in Mexico City, Monterrey, Tijuana, and even the United States. Corn and tomatoes, which were once staple crops, now take second place to this cactus. [21] Fruit trees were introduced by Spanish missionaries, and some fruit, particularly avocados, peaches, and pears are still gown today. [6] Livestock are also raised. [19]

There is controlled logging of the forests and a significant amount of wood is exploited. There are some fields for growing Christmas trees.


Historical monuments


Music and dance


There are four brass bands that regularly play at fairs in Tlalnepantla. Tropical music, cumbias, and Norteño music are also popular. [6]


Chinelos began in Tlayacapan but are now popular at carnivals and fairs throughout the region. The Chinelos costume consists of four main items: a long flowing robe made of velvet which usually has a rectangular shape tunic, a mask, a large plumed hat, and gloves. The masks are made of mesh and feature an upturned beard and European features.


Nopales were introduced to Tlalnepantla about forty years ago, and today they can form the basis of many local dishes: sandwiches of nopal, nopales with cecina, tamales of nopal, and eggs with nopales, to name a few. [22] Mole Verde, mole with chicken or pumpkin seed, and cecina with cheese are also traditional foods. [6]

See also

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  7. 2010 census tables: INEGI Archived 2013-05-02 at the Wayback Machine
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  11. El Pedregal retrieved May 10, 2020
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  22. Jiménez Pons, Patricia (2010). Viaje a través del sabor del Morelos Mágico[Journey through the flavors of Magical Morelos] (in Spanish). Cuernavaca: Instituto de Cultura de Morelos. p. 23. ISBN   978-607-7773-42-9.