Universal Immunisation Programme

Last updated

Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) is a vaccination programme launched by the Government of India in 1985. [1] It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areas under National Rural Health Mission since 2005. The programme now consists of vaccination for 12 diseases- tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, hepatitis B, diarrhoea, Japanese encephalitis, rubella, pneumonia (haemophilus influenzae type B) and Pneumococcal diseases (pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis). Hepatitis B and Pneumococcal diseases [2] was added to the UIP in 2007 and 2017 respectively. [3] [4] The cost of all the vaccines are borne by the state and the government spent 3,587 crore (US$500 million) in 2017 to purchase the vaccines to provide them for free. [5]

The other additions in UIP through the way are inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), rotavirus vaccine (RVV), Measles-Rubella vaccine (MR). Four new vaccines have been introduced into the country’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP), including injectable polio vaccine, an adult vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

Vaccines against rotavirus, rubella and polio (injectable) will help the country meet its Millennium Development Goals 4 targets that include reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015, besides meeting meet global polio eradication targets. An adult vaccine against Japanese encephalitis will also be introduced in districts with high levels of the disease. The recommendations to introduce these new vaccines have been made after numerous scientific studies and comprehensive deliberations by the National Technical Advisory Group of India (NTAGI), the country’s apex scientific advisory body on immunisation.

Vaccine benefits are debated with some urging caution in the choice of vaccines introduced while expanding the immunisation programme, despite overwhelming and widespread documented scientific evidence on the efficacy of vaccines. [6]

With these new vaccines, India’s UIP will now provide free vaccines against 13[ citation needed ] life threatening diseases, to 27 million children annually. Calling it one of the most significant health policies in the last 30 years, the note pointed out that the latest decision along with the recently introduced pentavalent vaccine, will help prevent death in about one lakh infants and adults in the working age group, besides putting a stop to about 10 lakh hospitalizations each year.

“The introduction of four new lifesaving vaccines, will play a key role in reducing the childhood and infant mortality and morbidity in the country. Many of these vaccines are already available through private practitioners to those who can afford them. The government will now ensure that the benefits of vaccination reach all sections of the society, regardless of social and economic status,” the PM said. [7]

From February 2017, Union ministry of health and family welfare has rolled out Measles-Rubella vaccine from UIP. [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

MMR vaccine Any of several combined vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella

The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella. The first dose is generally given to children around 9 months to 15 months of age, with a second dose at 15 months to 6 years of age, with at least 4 weeks between the doses. After two doses, 97% of people are protected against measles, 88% against mumps, and at least 97% against rubella. The vaccine is also recommended in those who do not have evidence of immunity, those with well-controlled HIV/AIDS, and within 72 hours of exposure to measles among those who are incompletely immunized. It is given by injection.

Rubella Human viral disease

Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles. Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. A fever, sore throat, and fatigue may also occur. Joint pain is common in adults. Complications may include bleeding problems, testicular swelling, encephalitis, and inflammation of nerves. Infection during early pregnancy may result in a miscarriage or a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Symptoms of CRS manifest as problems with the eyes such as cataracts, deafness, as well as affecting the heart and brain. Problems are rare after the 20th week of pregnancy.

This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic human vaccines. Early vaccines may be listed by the first year of development or testing, but later entries usually show the year the vaccine finished trials and became available on the market. Although vaccines exist for the diseases listed below, only smallpox has been eliminated worldwide. The other vaccine-preventable illnesses continue to cause millions of deaths each year. Currently, polio and measles are the targets of active worldwide eradication campaigns.

Pulse Polio

Pulse Polio is an immunisation campaign established by the government of India to eliminate poliomyelitis (polio) in India by vaccinating all children under the age of five years against the polio virus. The project fights polio through a large-scale, pulse vaccination programme and monitoring for poliomyelitis cases. Vellore, was the first Indian state to become 100% polio-free through the pulse strategy, and rest of India adopted the strategy in 1995.

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)—known as Pneumovax 23 (PPV-23)—is the first pneumococcal vaccine derived from a capsular polysaccharide, and an important landmark in medical history. The polysaccharide antigens were used to induce type-specific antibodies that enhanced opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) bacteria by phagocytic immune cells. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is widely used in high-risk adults. As a result, there have been important reductions in the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease.

Vaccination schedule

A vaccination schedule is a series of vaccinations, including the timing of all doses, which may be either recommended or compulsory, depending on the country of residence. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen.

Childhood immunizations in the United States

The schedule for childhood immunizations in the United States is published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The vaccination schedule is broken down by age: birth to six years of age, seven to eighteen, and adults nineteen and older. Childhood immunizations are key in preventing diseases with epidemic potential.

The MMRV vaccine combines the attenuated virus MMR vaccine with the addition of the chickenpox vaccine or varicella vaccine. The MMRV vaccine is typically given to children between one and two years of age.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). It contains purified capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotypes conjugated to a carrier protein to improve antibody response compared to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of the conjugate vaccine in routine immunizations given to children. There are three types of PCV available, with the brand names Prevnar 13, Synflorix, and Pneumosil, which was prequalified by the WHO in 2020.

Pneumococcal vaccine

Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. They are given by injection either into a muscle or just under the skin.

Ciro de Quadros

Ciro Carlos Araujo de Quadros was a Brazilian leader in the field of Public Health, in particular, the area of vaccines and preventable diseases. He was born in Rio Pardo, Brazil.

Vaccination policy is the health policy a government adopts in relation to vaccination. Vaccination policies have been developed over the approximately two centuries since the invention of vaccination with the purpose of eradicating disease from, or creating a herd immunity for, the population the government aims to protect. Vaccination advisory committees within each country are usually responsible for providing information to governments that is used to make evidence-based decisions regarding vaccine and immunization policy.

The Expanded Program on Immunization is a World Health Organization program with the goal to make vaccines available to all children.

A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists. If a person acquires a vaccine-preventable disease and dies from it, the death is considered a vaccine-preventable death.

A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) is a document designed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide information to a patient receiving a vaccine in the United States. The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act requires that medical professionals provide a VIS to patients before receiving certain vaccinations. The VIS includes information about the vaccine's benefits and risks, a description of the vaccine, indications and contraindications, instructions for patients experiencing an adverse reaction, and additional resources.

Mission Indradhanush

Mission Indradhanush is a health mission of the Government of India. It was launched by Union Health Minister J. P. Nadda on 25 December 2014. The scheme this seeks to drive towards 90% full immunisation coverage of India and sustain the same by year 2020. Vaccination is being provided against eight vaccine-preventable diseases nationally, i.e. Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis and Hepatitis B and meningitis & pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenza type B; and against Rotavirus Diarrhea and Japanese Encephalitis in selected states and districts respectively.

National Immunisation Program Schedule

The Australian National Immunisation Program Schedule sets out the immunisations Australians are given at different stages in their life. The program aims to reduce the number of preventable disease cases in Australia by increasing national immunisation coverage. The program starts for an Australian when they are born. Vaccinations are given at birth, then again when the baby is 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months. The immunisation schedule continues when the child is 4 years old, and then into adolescent years. The program is not compulsory and parents have the choice if they want their child vaccinated.

Vaccination in India includes the use of vaccines in Indian public health and the place of vaccines in Indian society, policy, and research.

The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) is a body that advises the World Health Organization (WHO). It was established by DGWHO Gro Harlem Brundtland in 1999 "to provide guidance on the work of WHO. SAGE is the principal advisory group to WHO for vaccines and immunization. It is charged with advising WHO on overall global policies and strategies, ranging from vaccines and biotechnology, research and development, to delivery of immunization and its linkages with other health interventions. SAGE is concerned not just with childhood vaccines and immunization, but all vaccine-preventable diseases."

Shabir Madhi South African physician and professor

Shabir Ahmed Madhi is a South African physician who is professor of vaccinology and director of the South African Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand, and National Research Foundation/Department of Science and Technology Research Chair in Vaccine Preventable Diseases.

References

  1. "Immunization :: National Health Mission". nhm.gov.in. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  2. "Shri J P Nadda launches Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) under Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  3. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Patra, Nilanjan. "UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME IN INDIA: THE DETERMINANTS OF CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION" (PDF). Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. p. 1. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  5. Chatterjee, Susmita; Pant, Manish; Haldar, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Mahesh Kumar; Laxminarayan, Ramanan (June 2016). "Current costs & projected financial needs of India's Universal Immunization Programme". The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 143 (6): 801–808. doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.192073 . ISSN   0971-5916. PMID   27748306 . Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  6. Andre F; Booy R; Bock H (2008). "Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (2): 140–146. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.040089. PMC   2647387 . PMID   18297169.
  7. "Govt adds 4 vaccines to immunisation programme". Livemint. July 3, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  8. Ghosh, Abantika (January 10, 2017). "Measles-rubella vaccine to roll out in February". The India Express. Retrieved February 18, 2017.