Universal Immunisation Programme

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Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) is a vaccination programme launched by the Government of India in 1985. [1] It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areas under National Rural Health Mission since 2005. The programme now consists of vaccination for 12 diseases- tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, hepatitis B, diarrhoea, Japanese encephalitis, rubella, pneumonia (haemophilus influenzae type B) and Pneumococcal diseases (pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis). Hepatitis B and Pneumococcal diseases [2] was added to the UIP in 2007 and 2017 respectively. [3] [4] The cost of all the vaccines are borne by the state and the government spent 3,587 crore (US$500 million) in 2017 to purchase the vaccines to provide them for free. [5]

The other additions in UIP through the way are inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), rotavirus vaccine (RVV), Measles-Rubella vaccine (MR). Four new vaccines have been introduced into the country’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP), including injectable polio vaccine, an adult vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

Vaccines against rotavirus, rubella and polio (injectable) will help the country meet its Millennium Development Goals 4 targets that include reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015, besides meeting meet global polio eradication targets. An adult vaccine against Japanese encephalitis will also be introduced in districts with high levels of the disease. The recommendations to introduce these new vaccines have been made after numerous scientific studies and comprehensive deliberations by the National Technical Advisory Group of India (NTAGI), the country’s apex scientific advisory body on immunisation.

Vaccine benefits are debated with some urging caution in the choice of vaccines introduced while expanding the immunisation programme, despite overwhelming and widespread documented scientific evidence on the efficacy of vaccines. [6]

With these new vaccines, India’s UIP will now provide free vaccines against 13[ citation needed ] life threatening diseases, to 27 million children annually. Calling it one of the most significant health policies in the last 30 years, the note pointed out that the latest decision along with the recently introduced pentavalent vaccine, will help prevent death in about one lakh infants and adults in the working age group, besides putting a stop to about 10 lakh hospitalizations each year.

“The introduction of four new lifesaving vaccines, will play a key role in reducing the childhood and infant mortality and morbidity in the country. Many of these vaccines are already available through private practitioners to those who can afford them. The government will now ensure that the benefits of vaccination reach all sections of the society, regardless of social and economic status,” the PM said. [7]

From February 2017, Union ministry of health and family welfare has rolled out Measles-Rubella vaccine from UIP. [8]

See also

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MMR vaccine Any of several combined vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella

The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella. The first dose is generally given to children around 9 months to 15 months of age, with a second dose at 15 months to 6 years of age, with at least 4 weeks between the doses. After two doses, 97% of people are protected against measles, 88% against mumps, and at least 97% against rubella. The vaccine is also recommended in those who do not have evidence of immunity, those with well-controlled HIV/AIDS, and within 72 hours of exposure to measles among those who are incompletely immunized. It is given by injection.

Rubella Human viral disease

Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles. Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. A fever, sore throat, and fatigue may also occur. Joint pain is common in adults. Complications may include bleeding problems, testicular swelling, encephalitis, and inflammation of nerves. Infection during early pregnancy may result in a miscarriage or a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Symptoms of CRS manifest as problems with the eyes such as cataracts, deafness, as well as affecting the heart and brain. Problems are rare after the 20th week of pregnancy.

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Pulse Polio

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Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)—known as Pneumovax 23 (PPV-23)—is the first pneumococcal vaccine derived from a capsular polysaccharide, and an important landmark in medical history. The polysaccharide antigens were used to induce type-specific antibodies that enhanced opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) bacteria by phagocytic immune cells. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is widely used in high-risk adults. As a result, there have been important reductions in the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease.

Vaccination schedule

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Childhood immunizations in the United States

The schedule for childhood immunizations in the United States is published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The vaccination schedule is broken down by age: birth to six years of age, seven to eighteen, and adults nineteen and older. Childhood immunizations are key in preventing diseases with epidemic potential.

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Pneumococcal vaccine

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Ciro de Quadros

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Vaccination policy is the health policy a government adopts in relation to vaccination. Vaccination policies have been developed over the approximately two centuries since the invention of vaccination with the purpose of eradicating disease from, or creating a herd immunity for, the population the government aims to protect. Vaccination advisory committees within each country are usually responsible for providing information to governments that is used to make evidence-based decisions regarding vaccine and immunization policy.

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A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) is a document designed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide information to a patient receiving a vaccine in the United States. The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act requires that medical professionals provide a VIS to patients before receiving certain vaccinations. The VIS includes information about the vaccine's benefits and risks, a description of the vaccine, indications and contraindications, instructions for patients experiencing an adverse reaction, and additional resources.

Mission Indradhanush

Mission Indradhanush is a health mission of the Government of India. It was launched by Union Health Minister J. P. Nadda on 25 December 2014. The scheme this seeks to drive towards 90% full immunisation coverage of India and sustain the same by year 2020. Vaccination is being provided against eight vaccine-preventable diseases nationally, i.e. Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis and Hepatitis B and meningitis & pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenza type B; and against Rotavirus Diarrhea and Japanese Encephalitis in selected states and districts respectively.

National Immunisation Program Schedule

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  1. "Immunization :: National Health Mission". nhm.gov.in. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  2. "Shri J P Nadda launches Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) under Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  3. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Patra, Nilanjan. "UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME IN INDIA: THE DETERMINANTS OF CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION" (PDF). Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. p. 1. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  5. Chatterjee, Susmita; Pant, Manish; Haldar, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Mahesh Kumar; Laxminarayan, Ramanan (June 2016). "Current costs & projected financial needs of India's Universal Immunization Programme". The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 143 (6): 801–808. doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.192073 . ISSN   0971-5916. PMID   27748306 . Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  6. Andre F; Booy R; Bock H (2008). "Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (2): 140–146. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.040089. PMC   2647387 . PMID   18297169.
  7. "Govt adds 4 vaccines to immunisation programme". Livemint. July 3, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  8. Ghosh, Abantika (January 10, 2017). "Measles-rubella vaccine to roll out in February". The India Express. Retrieved February 18, 2017.