War of the Pyrenees

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War of the Pyrenees
Part of the War of the First Coalition
Vista Panissars.jpg
The Panissars blockhouse, looking south from the Fort de Bellegarde into Spain. The town of La Junquera is left of center and Montroig (Red Mountain) is in the center distance.
Date7 March 1793 – 22 July 1795
(2 years, 4 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)
Location
Pyrenees
Result French victory,
Peace of Basel
Territorial
changes
Spain cedes the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola to France in exchange for keeping Gipuzkoa.
Belligerents
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  France Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spain
Flag Portugal (1750).svg  Portugal
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg French Émigrés
Commanders and leaders

Flag of France.svg Louis de Flers
Flag of France.svg Eustache d'Aoust
Flag of France.svg Luc Dagobert
Flag of France.svg Louis Marie Turreau
Flag of France.svg J. Dugommier  
Flag of France.svg Dominique Pérignon
Flag of France.svg Barthélemy Schérer
Flag of France.svg Bon-Adrien Moncey
Flag of France.svg Pierre Augereau
Flag of France.svg Pierre Sauret
Flag of France.svg Claude Victor

Contents


Flag of France.svg Henri Delaborde

Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Antonio Ricardos
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Luis de la Union  
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Jerónimo Girón
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg José de Urrutia
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Gregorio Cuesta
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Juan de Courten
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Eugenio Navarro
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Duke of Osuna
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Juan de Lángara
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Federico Gravina
Flag of Portugal (1750).svg João Forbes


Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Duke of Ghent
Units involved
Flag of France.svg Army of the Eastern Pyrenees
Flag of France.svg Army of the Western Pyrenees
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Army of Catalonia
Flag of Portugal (1750).svg Auxiliary Army to the Crown of Spain
Casualties and losses
French:
6,530 killed
5,921 wounded
5,281 captured
Spanish:
20,844 killed
5,046 wounded
5,124 captured

The War of the Pyrenees, also known as War of Roussillon or War of the Convention, was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal from March 1793 to July 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Pyrenees Range of mountains in southwest Europe

The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea.

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

French Revolutionary Wars series of conflicts fought between the French Republic and several European monarchies from 1792 to 1802

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted France against Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula and the Low Countries in Europe to the Louisiana Territory in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.

The war was fought in the eastern Pyrenees, the western Pyrenees, at the French port of Toulon, and at sea. In 1793, a Spanish army invaded Roussillon in the eastern Pyrenees and maintained itself on French soil through April 1794. The French army drove the Spanish back into Catalonia and inflicted a serious defeat on it in November 1794. After February 1795, the war in the eastern Pyrenees became a stalemate. In the western Pyrenees, the French began to win in 1794. By 1795, the French army controlled a portion of northeast Spain.

Toulon Prefecture and commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Toulon is a city in southern France and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department.

Roussillon Historical province in Pyrénées-Orientales, France

Roussillon is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia. It may also refer to Northern Catalonia or French Catalonia, the first used by Catalan-speakers and the second used by French-speakers, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales save Fenouillèdes. A 1998 survey found that 34% of respondents stated they speak Catalan, and a further 21% understand it.

Catalonia Autonomous area of northeastern Spain

Catalonia is an autonomous community on the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia. It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.

The war was brutal in at least two ways. First, the Committee of Public Safety decreed that all French royalist prisoners be executed. Second, French generals who lost battles or otherwise displeased the all-powerful representatives-on-mission were sent to prison or the guillotine with alarming frequency. Army of the Eastern Pyrenees commanders and generals were especially unlucky in this regard.

Committee of Public Safety De facto executive government in France (1793–1794)

The Committee of Public Safety, created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto, interim, and executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a stage of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine and later of twelve members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial and legislative efforts. It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention and of the government ministers appointed by the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, it became more and more powerful.

Guillotine Apparatus designed for carrying out executions by beheading

A guillotine was an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to quickly fall and forcefully decapitate the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket below.

Army of the Eastern Pyrenees

The Army of the Eastern Pyrenees was one of the French Revolutionary armies. It fought against the Kingdom of Spain in Rousillon, the Cerdanya and Catalonia during the War of the Pyrenees. This army and the Army of the Western Pyrenees were formed by splitting the original Army of the Pyrenees at the end of April 1793 soon after the war started. Shortly after the Peace of Basel on 22 July 1795, the fighting ended and the army was dissolved on 12 October that same year. Many of its units and generals were transferred to join the Army of Italy and fought under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796.

War

Outbreak

On 21 January 1793, the National Convention of France executed King Louis XVI of France by guillotine, enraging the other monarchs of Europe. France was already at war with the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. After winning the Battle of Jemappes, the French army occupied the Austrian Netherlands. Emboldened, the government decreed annexation of the territory (modern Belgium), provoking a diplomatic break with Great Britain. On 1 February, France declared war on Britain and the Dutch Republic. On 7 March, France declared war on its former ally, Spain. [1]

National Convention Single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

Louis XVI of France King of France and Navarre

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

Habsburg Monarchy Former monarchy in Europe from 1282 to 1918

Habsburg Monarchy is an umbrella term used by historians for the lands and kingdoms of the House of Habsburg, especially for those of the Austrian branch. Although from 1438 until 1806 the head of the House of Habsburg was also Holy Roman Emperor, the empire itself is not considered a part of the Habsburg Monarchy.

Toulon

Spanish forces took part in the Siege of Toulon, which lasted from 18 September to 18 December 1793. The French were led by Dugommier while the Anglo-Spanish defenders were commanded by Admirals Juan de Lángara, Federico Gravina, Samuel Hood, and General Charles O'Hara. The Allies abandoned the port after a young officer of artillery, Napoleon Bonaparte took the fleet's anchorage under cannon fire. The French navy lost 14 ships of the line burned and 15 more captured. French casualties numbered 2,000 while Allied losses were twice as great. Afterward, the victors massacred up to 2,000 French Royalists taken as prisoners. [2]

Juan de Lángara Admiral of the Spanish Navy

Juan Francisco de Lángara y Huarte was a Spanish naval officer and Minister of Marine.

Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood British Admiral known particularly for his service in the American Revolutionary War and French Revolutionary Wars

Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he saw action during the War of the Austrian Succession. While in temporary command of Antelope, he drove a French ship ashore in Audierne Bay, and captured two privateers in 1757 during the Seven Years' War. He held senior command as Commander-in-Chief, North American Station and then as Commander-in-Chief, Leeward Islands Station, leading the British fleet to victory at Battle of the Mona Passage in April 1782 during the American Revolutionary War. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth, then First Naval Lord and, after briefly returning to the Portsmouth command, became Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Charles OHara British Army general

General Charles O'Hara was a British military officer who served in the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence, and French Revolutionary War, and later served as Governor of Gibraltar. During his career O'Hara personally surrendered to both George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte.

The Action of 14 February 1795 in the Gulf of Roses was a defeat for the French navy.

The Action of 14 February 1795 was a minor naval engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars fought in the Gulf of Roses between a ship of the line of Juan de Lángara’s fleet and a French squadron of a frigate and a corvette. For orders of Lángara, the Spanish Ship of the Line Reina María Luisa of 112 guns, chased the French frigate, named Iphigenie, more than one day, forcing finally her to strike her colors. The corvette, which separated three days before in a storm, was supposed to be lost.

Eastern Pyrenees

At the outbreak of war, King Charles IV of Spain appointed Captain General Antonio Ricardos to command the Army of Catalonia in the eastern Pyrenees. Ricardos invaded the Cerdagne and captured Saint-Laurent-de-Cerdans on 17 April 1793. Three days later, he routed a French force at Céret on the Tech River. In despair, the elderly French commander in charge of Roussillon, Mathieu Henri Marchant de La Houlière committed suicide. On 30 April, the French government split the Army of the Pyrenees into the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees and the Army of the Western Pyrenees .

In the Battle of Mas Deu on 19 May 1793, Ricardos defeated Louis-Charles de Flers. This allowed the Spanish to invest the Fort de Bellegarde on 23 May. The Siege of Bellegarde ended when the French garrison surrendered on 24 June. In the Battle of Perpignan on 17 July, de Flers turned back the Spanish, though French losses were heavier. [3] On 28 August, Luc Siméon Auguste Dagobert defeated a Spanish force under Manuel la Peña at Puigcerdà in the Cerdagne. [4]

War of the Pyrenees, Eastern Theater Eastern Theater Pyrenees War 1793 to 1795.jpg
War of the Pyrenees, Eastern Theater

In September, Ricardos sent two divisions under Jerónimo Girón-Moctezuma, Marquis de las Amarilas and Juan de Courten to cut off the fortress of Perpignan. But Eustache Charles d'Aoust rallied the French to win the Battle of Peyrestortes on 17 September. This represented the farthest Spanish advance in Rousillon. Five days later Ricardos defeated Dagobert at the Battle of Truillas, before falling back to the Tech valley. Ricardos repulsed d'Aoust at Le Boulou on 3 October. [5] The Battle of the Tech (Pla del Rei) on 13–15 October saw the Spanish repel the assaults of Louis Marie Turreau. [6] A 5,000-man Portuguese division led by John Forbes joined Ricardos in time to defeat d'Aoust at the Battle of Villelongue-dels-Monts on 7 December. [7] In the Battle of Collioure, Gregorio García de la Cuesta captured the ports of Collioure and Port-Vendres from the French on 20 December. [2]

Ricardos died on 13 March 1794, and Spanish success died with him. Captain General Alejandro O'Reilly died ten days after the man he was to succeed, and Luis Firmin de Carvajal, Conde de la Union was appointed to command the Army of Catalonia instead. The Army of the Eastern Pyrenees also had a new commander in Jacques François Dugommier. At the Battle of Boulou from 29 April to 1 May, Dugommier drove de la Union's army south of the border forcing the Spanish to abandon all their artillery and trains. Collioure fell to the French in late May and Eugenio Navarro's 7,000-man Spanish garrison became prisoners. The French royalist defenders fled in fishing boats before the surrender to avoid execution. [8] Dugommier imposed a blockade on Bellegarde starting on 5 May. [9] The inconclusive Battle of La Junquera was fought on 7 June. [10] In the Battle of San-Lorenzo de la Muga (Sant Llorenç de la Muga) on 13 August, Pierre Augereau repulsed a Spanish attempt to relieve Bellegarde. The fortress fell on 17 September after the Spanish garrison was starved out. [9] From 17 to 20 November, the climactic Battle of the Black Mountain saw both Dugommier and de la Union killed in action. Dominique-Catherine de Pérignon took command of the French and led them to victory. Figueres and its Sant Ferran Fortress quickly fell to the French with 9,000 prisoners. [11]

Pierre François Sauret successfully concluded the Siege of Roses on 4 February 1795. Pérignon was replaced in army command by Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer. On 14 June 1795, Schérer was defeated near the river Fluvià by José de Urrutia y de las Casas at the Battle of Bascara. [12] After peace was signed, but before word reached the fighting front, Cuesta recaptured Puigcerdà and Bellver from the French on 26 and 27 July. [13]

Western Pyrenees

Bon-Adrien de Moncey Marechal Moncey.jpg
Bon-Adrien de Moncey

A number of minor clashes occurred in 1793, including actions fought by Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey's 5th Light Demi-brigade at Chateau-Pignon on 6 June, Aldudes in June, and Saint-Jean-de-Luz on 23 July. [14]

On 5 February 1794 in the Battle of Sans Culottes Camp, the French successfully defended a fortified hilltop position near Hendaye against 13,000 Spanish infantry and 700 cavalry and artillery led by José Urrutia y de las Casas. Spanish casualties numbered 335 while French losses were 235. [15] On 3 June, a 2,300-man French brigade commanded by Lavictoire stormed the Casa Fuerte position at Izpegi Pass (Col d'Ispeguy) 13.5 airline km west of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. The 1,000 defenders, including a battalion of the Spanish Zamora Infantry Regiment, three companies of the Aldudes Rifles, and the French Émigré Légion Royal battalion, lost 94 killed and wounded, plus 307 captured. The losses of the French brigade, part of Mauco's division, were described as "light". The same day, Jacques Lefranc's 2,000 French Republican troops seized the Izpegi Ridge. [16]

On 3 March 1794, the bordering villages of Sara, Itxassou, Ascain, and another nine Basque villages were declared "ignoble" by the Republican authorities after 74 young residents, instead of watching the border for the French army, fled south to the Spanish Basque region. All the village inhabitants were held accountable for the flight, and draconian measures were imposed on them. All inhabitants of the villages aged 3 to 88 were crammed in carts like criminals, and carried off to the Landes of Gascony; men and women were segregated, and their valuable possessions seized or burnt. The victims of the massive deportation may amount to several thousands and in five months some 1,600 had died, 600 from Sara. [17] In a few years time, many survivors managed to come back home.

On 23 June, Captain General Don Ventura Caro with 8,000 infantry and 500 cavalry and artillery tried unsuccessfully to oust a French force from a fortified position atop Mont Calvaire. The Spanish suffered 500 killed and wounded, plus 34 captured. The French admitted 30 killed and 200 wounded. On 10 July, Antoine Digonet with a brigade of 4,000 troops overwhelmed the Zamora Infantry and the Légion Royal defending Mount Argintzu (Mont Arquinzu). The height is located at 43°3′23″N1°29′40″W / 43.05639°N 1.49444°W / 43.05639; -1.49444 (Monte Argintzu) , 10 km south of Elizondo. Spanish losses numbered 314, including French royalist commander Marquis de Saint-Simon badly wounded. On this occasion, the French Republicans executed 49 French Royalist prisoners. [18]

War of the Pyrenees, Western Theater Western Pyrenees 1793 to 1795.JPG
War of the Pyrenees, Western Theater

On 23 July, the Army of the Western Pyrenees attacked Spanish fortified positions with the divisions of Moncey, Henri François Delaborde, and Jean Henri Guy Nicolas de Frégeville. Though Jacques Léonard Muller commanded the army at the time, Moncey exercised tactical control of operations during the Battle of the Baztan Valley. In the fighting near Elizondo and Doneztebe (Santesteban), Moncey overran the Spanish defenses. The French then followed the Bidasoa River northward in late July to seize the heights of San Marcial and the town of Hondarribia (Fuenterrabia) near the coast. In the latter operation, Moncey captured Don Vicente de los Reyes, 2,000 Spanish soldiers, and 300 cannon on 1 August. Moncey followed this exploit by capturing San Sebastián without resistance on 3 August, with an additional 1,700 Spanish soldiers and 90 cannon falling into French hands. Soon after, the French also captured the town of Tolosa. Moncey was soon promoted to army commander. [19] [20]

On 14 August 1794, the General Assembly of Gipuzkoa reunited in the coastal town of Getaria with the support of the San Sebastián bourgeoisie, followed by tense negotiations with senior officials of the French army. Besides embracing the French revolutionary ideas, the council made a formal petition—detachment from the Kingdom of Spain, respect for the region specific laws, allegiance of Gipuzkoa to France, free Catholic practice, and a set of rules for the management of war related circumstances. [21] However, with negotiations leading to the Peace of Basel being in place, the representatives of the National Convention in the French army Jacques Pinet and Jean-Baptiste Cavaignac refused to accept the demands, and the Gipuzkoan representatives were imprisoned or exiled. Given the circumstances, another assembly was held in Mondragón on 13 September, where the attending regional representatives decided this time to support Ferdinand VII, [22] and mustered an autonomous provincial militia against the French army. However, soon on in an unspecified date, the more diplomatic Moncey restored the governing institutions of Gipuzkoa. The news of the declaration issued in Getaria by the Gipuzkoan representatives spread like fire to Madrid and sparked outrage in Spanish ruling circles and press, who lashed out at the Basque province and its inhabitants. [23] Not only that, after the imprisonment in Bayonne, the Gipuzkoan representatives were persecuted by Spanish authorities and tried on high treason charges and "unpatriotic behaviour".

From 15 to 17 October, Moncey, launched a broad front offensive from the Baztan valley and the Roncevaux Pass to the south in the direction of Pamplona. The Battle of Orbaitzeta saw clashes at Mezkiritz (Mezquiriz), Orbaitzeta, Lekunberri, and Villanueva (Hiriberri). The 46,000-man French army drove back 13,000 Spanish troops under the command of Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna with 4,000 casualties and the loss of 50 cannon. French losses are unknown. The arms foundries at Orbaitzeta and Eugi, as well as the Spanish navy's mast store at Irati, fell to the French. However, the onset of winter weather and the outbreak of disease caused operations to be suspended for the year. [20] [24] A final clash occurred at Bergara on 7 November when the French inflicted losses of 150 killed, plus 200 men and one cannon captured on a 4,000-man division led by Cayetano Pignatelli, 3rd Marquis of Rubí. [25] The town was sacked, but a detachment of the territorial militia led by Gabriel Mendizabal, who was to be promoted to general during the Peninsular War, managed to recapture it. [23]

During the winter Moncey reorganized his army, which had lost 3,000 men to disease. He finally secured a siege train and, in June 1795 12,000 reinforcements arrived from the Army of the West . Moncey's offensive began on 28 June and it soon drove back Crespo's Spanish forces. Vitoria fell to the French on 17 July and Bilbao two days later. When news of the Peace of Basel arrived in early August, Moncey had crossed the Ebro and was preparing to invest Pamplona. [26]

Conclusion

The Peace of Basel ended the War of the Pyrenees on 22 July 1795 with Moncey close on the gates of Pamplona, with the Basques fearing an abolition of the self-government, and the Spanish Prime Minister Manuel Godoy panicking at the prospect of the still autonomous Basque region switching allegiances to France and detaching from Spain. Ultimately Spain gave up on the eastern two-thirds of the Hispaniola in exchange for keeping Gipuzkoa. [23] Additionally, at the behest of Moncey and the Committee of Public Safety (Jean-Lambert Tallien), an annex was added to the treaty by which the Spanish Basques and specifically the Gipuzkoans who had shown sympathies for the French were given guarantees of receiving no reprisals from Spanish authorities—prime minister Manuel Godoy—and so was agreed. Notwithstanding this provision, at least the city council of San Sebastián was arrested and put to a court-martial trial in Pamplona held as of February 1796. [27]

An alliance convention between France and Spain was signed at the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso on 19 August 1796. All in all, it was a victory for the French Republic. Portugal remained in combat, however, as peace was not concluded with the Portuguese.

Footnotes

  1. Durant, p 53
  2. 1 2 Smith, p 64
  3. Smith, p 49
  4. Smith, p 53
  5. Smith, p 57
  6. Prats, Turreau
  7. Smith, p 63
  8. Smith, pp 81–82
  9. 1 2 Smith, p 91
  10. Ostermann-Chandler, p 407
  11. Smith, p 96
  12. Smith, p 103
  13. Smith, p 104
  14. Beckett-Chandler, p 299
  15. Smith, p 72. Smith located the camp "between Hendaye and Ainhoa", but this is unhelpful since the towns are 23 km apart. Beckett cites a battle at Hendaye on 5 February, so it is probable that the action was fought near that town.
  16. Smith, p 83
  17. Etxegoien (Xamar), Juan Carlos (2009). The Country of Basque (2nd ed.). Pamplona-Iruñea, Spain: Pamiela. p. 23. ISBN   978-84-7681-478-9.
  18. Smith, p 87. Smith calls the battle "Mount Arquinzu".
  19. Smith, p 88
  20. 1 2 Beckett-Chandler, p 300
  21. Etxeberria, Aitziber. "1813: Crisis, Pobreza y Guerra". Donostiako Udala – Ayuntamiento de San Sebastián. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  22. Iñigo Bolinaga (19 August 2013). "Garat propuso a Napoleón un País Vasco unificado y separado de España: una alternativa al nacionalismo". Noticias de Gipuzkoa. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  23. 1 2 3 Kepa Oliden (19 April 2009). "Mondragón y la Gipuzkoa española". El Diario Vasco. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  24. Smith, p 93
  25. Smith, p 95
  26. Beckett-Chandler, pp 300–301
  27. "Paz de Basilea". Eusko Media Fundazioa. Retrieved 4 September 2013.

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The Siege of Bellegarde commenced on 23 May 1793 and ended on 24 June 1793 when Colonel Boisbrulé's French garrison surrendered the Fort de Bellegarde to a Spanish army under the command of Antonio Ricardos. The capture of the fort gave Spain control of an important road through the Pyrenees. The siege took place during the War of the Pyrenees, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. Fort de Bellegarde is on a height overlooking the border town of Le Perthus, which lies on the modern A9 autoroute and Autovía A-7.

Antonio Ricardos Spanish general

Antonio Ricardos Carrillo de Albornoz was a Spanish general. He joined the army of the Kingdom of Spain and fought against Habsburg Austria, the Portugal, and the First French Republic during a long military career. By embracing the Spanish Enlightenment, he earned the displeasure of conservative elements of society. He played an active role in reforming the Spanish military. Upon the outbreak of the War of the Pyrenees in 1793, the king sent him to command in Catalonia. He invaded Rousillon where he won several victories over the French. After his death in early 1794, the war went badly for Spain.

Battle of Peyrestortes

The Battle of Peyrestortes saw soldiers of the First French Republic fighting troops of the Kingdom of Spain during the War of the Pyrenees. Forces from the French Army of the Eastern Pyrenees, temporarily commanded by Eustache Charles d'Aoust and Jacques Gilles Henri Goguet, defeated two divisions of the Army of Catalonia led by Juan de Courten and Jerónimo Girón-Moctezuma, Marquis de las Amarillas. This Spanish setback in an attempt to capture Perpignan marked the high point of their invasion of Roussillon.

Louis-Charles de La Motte-Ango, vicomte de Flers joined the French Royal army and rose in rank to become a general officer in the French Revolutionary Wars. After serving in the Austrian Netherlands, he was appointed to command the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees. His army suffered several defeats in May and June 1793, but he rallied his troops to win a defensive victory at the Battle of Perpignan in July. The all-powerful Representatives-on-mission arrested him in August 1793 for a minor setback and sent him to Paris under arrest. The Committee of Public Safety executed him by guillotine on trumped up charges in the last days of the Reign of Terror. De Flers is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.

Jerónimo Morejón Girón-Moctezuma, 3rd Marquis de las Amarillas, born 7 June 1741 at Málaga and died 17 October 1819 at Seville, became a general officer in the army of the Kingdom of Spain and commanded division-sized combat units during the War of the Pyrenees in 1793 and 1794. Though he attained high rank, he displayed limited military talent. Shortly after succeeding to the top command of the Army of Catalonia, he was dismissed for blunders made on the battlefield.

Battle of the Baztan Valley 1794 battle during the French Revolutionary Wa

The Battle of the Baztan Valley was fought between 23 July and 1 August 1794 during the French Revolutionary War, between a French force from the Army of the Western Pyrenees commanded by Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey and the Spanish forces led by Don Ventura Caro. The French army drove the Spanish from their defenses, then followed the valley northward to the Atlantic coast. The Spanish forces holding the coastal defenses were compelled to surrender or flee.

Battle of Orbaizeta

The Battle of Orbaizeta was fought from 15 to 17 October 1794 during the War of the Pyrenees, between the French Army of the western Pyrenees led by Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey and Spanish forces under the command of Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna. Part of the wider French Revolutionary Wars, this engagement was fought over a wide area to the northwest and northeast of Pamplona in Navarre and ended in a French victory. The Spanish defenders gave up territory to the north of Pamplona, including a number of strategic locations.

Battle of Perpignan

The Battle of Perpignan or Battle of Niel on 17 July 1793 saw the French Army of the Eastern Pyrenees led by Louis-Charles de Flers defending against an offensive by the Spanish Army of Catalonia commanded by Antonio Ricardos. The French turned back the Spanish attacks and forced their opponents to pull back. Perpignan is now the capital of Pyrénées Orientales department, but in 1793 was the chief city of Rousillon province. The action was fought during the War of the Pyrenees, part of the War of the First Coalition.

Battle of Collioure

The Battle of Collioure saw troops from the Kingdom of Spain attack a Republican French division during the War of the Pyrenees. The Spanish troops led by Gregorio García de la Cuesta were completely successful in ousting the French under Louis Pierre François Delattre from Collioure, Fort Saint-Elme and Port-Vendres. The contending sides were the Spanish Army of Catalonia commanded by Antonio Ricardos and the French Army of the Eastern Pyrenees led by François Amédée Doppet and Eustache Charles d'Aoust. In September 1793, the French successfully defended Perpignan from Spanish attack but December saw a series of French defeats. One of the French representatives on mission, Claude Dominique Côme Fabre was killed during the fighting at Collioure. Aoust and Delattre were arrested, condemned and executed by guillotine for the disaster.

Siege of Collioure (1794)

The Siege of Collioure saw a Republican French army led by Jacques François Dugommier invest a French port held by a Spanish garrison commanded by Eugenio Navarro. The actual siege work was carried out by Pierre François Sauret's reinforced division. After the three-and-a-half-week War of the Pyrenees siege the Spanish fleet sent to evacuate the garrison was blown off station by a storm. Navarro surrendered the town on the promise to exchange the paroled garrison with an equal number of French prisoners. After the defenders were released, the Spanish army commander Luis Firmín de Carvajal, Conde de la Unión refused to authorize the agreement or return any French captives. The infuriated French government afterward passed a decree ordering death to all Spanish prisoners and some units carried out the brutal order.

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