Chief Executive Officer
Chief Operations Officer
Chief Financial Officer
|Government of Botswana|
|Affiliations||Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources|
The Water Utilities Corporation (WUC) is a government-owned corporation that provides water and waste water management services in Botswana. The Board is appointed by the Minister of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources.The water supply is critically important in the arid or semi-arid environment of Botswana.
Botswana's water policy is based on the 1991 Botswana National Water Master Plan (NWMP), with recommendations for reform made in a 2006 review. The NWMP covers water resource monitoring and management, and water project feasibility studies and implementation. A Water Sector Reforms Project is being undertaken in 2008-2013. Within the terms of this project, the Water Resources Council advises the Minister of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources, monitors and allocates water resources between users, and develops policy for managing water resources. The Department of Water Affairs ensures that sufficient water is available from sustainable sources to meet the needs of the economy. The WUC is responsible for delivery of water and wastewater services country-wide. Local kgotla community meetings resolve water-related disputes.
The WUC was established in 1970 to manage a water supply and distribution project in the Shashe Development Area.Today the WUC provides water to the cities of Gaborone and Francistown and the towns of Lobatse, Jwaneng, Selebi-Phikwe and Sowa. The WUC is economically self-sufficient, raising enough revenue from billing and subsidies to cover operational costs, investments and debt servicing. When compared to other utilities in sub-Saharan Africa, the WUC is extremely efficient in revenue management.
The WUC is administratively divided into the South region based in Gaborone with Management Centers servicing Gaborone, Mochudi, Lobatse, Molepolole, Kanye, Gantsi and Tshabong; and the North region based in Francistown with Management Centers servicing Francistown, Mahalapye, Palapye, Serowe, Selebi Phikwe, Masunga, Maun and Kasane.In June 2007, the WUC opened a contact center with a toll-free number to handle customer inquiries.
The WUC's assets include the Gaborone, Nnywane, Bokaa, Shashe and Letsibogo dams, the 360 kilometres (220 mi) long North South Carrier Scheme pipeline, water treatment plants, pump stations and other equipment. Taken together, the dams have storage capacity of 346,900,000 cubic metres (1.225×1010 cu ft). The WUC also imports some water from the Molatedi Dam in South Africa. The reservoirs contain 90% of total capacity in Botswana. More water is lost from the reservoirs through evaporation than through consumption, and this is expected to increase due to global climate change.
The WUC supplies bulk treated water to the Department of Water Affairs.The Department of Water Affairs arranges distribution of this water and water from its own sources such as well fields to seventeen major villages. About half of the water delivered to the major villages comes from the WUC. District Councils supply water to more than 200 smaller villages. Some water users arrange their own supplies of water. As of 2012, there were plans to transfer responsibility for water supply from the Department of Water Affairs to WUC, and to transfer waste water management from the District Councils to the WUC.
The NWMP is over twenty years old, and needs review. Transboundary water management is not covered by a formal policy framework in Botswana, although Botswana has ratified international agreements on management of transboundary rivers. Given the importance of transboundary river basins in the country, improvements to international coordination are urgently needed.Rainfall is unreliable in Botswana, and dry spells may last for several years. At the same time, growing prosperity is increasing demand for water to fill swimming pools, wash cars and water gardens. In 2004, there was a drought. Water in the Gaborone Dam fell to 27% of capacity, and the government was forced to impose and enforce extremely harsh restrictions on use of water.
The WUC charges are based on monthly usage and aim to recover production and transport costs. They are reduced by subsidies that favor rural users and low-volume users.There are perverse incentives in the WUC's economic model. The WUC earns money from selling water, so does not have an incentive to conserve the resource. Prices and subsidies are automatically set to cover costs, removing the incentive to contain cost and minimize leaks. Many of the WUC's main customers are government-funded, and can pass on their water costs to the taxpayer. Subsidies are expected to remain over 30% of cost until 2019. Coupled with use of inefficient private subcontractors for maintenance who get pay for work done rather than for results, the result is a highly uneconomic water supply.
Due to the scarcity of water, costs are rising while the government plans to reduce subsidies. Prices will therefore rise, which should help reduce demand. Subsidies will have to be adjusted to assist the most needy.Standpipes are the main source of water in low-income areas, and water from the standpipes is either free or covered by a flat monthly service rate, so there is no incentive to these users to curb their use of water. Other flaws in the rate structure also discourage the most efficient use of the scarce water resource. Starting in 1992, the WUC has been piping water to every city plot in Gaborone, taking responsibility for installation and for billing and collection charges. The Gaborone City Council (GCC) was providing free water via standpipes in Self Help Housing Areas, while paying the WUC for the water. In the late 2000s the GCC began removing the standpipes so as to reduce costs, causing serious problems to the many people who could not afford to pay the WUC for on-plot connections.
Transportation in Botswana is provided by internal and extensive network of railways, highways, ferry services and air routes that criss-cross the country.
Gaborone is the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 based on the 2011 census, about 10% of the total population of Botswana. Its agglomeration is home to 421,907 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
Palapye is a growing town in Botswana, situated about halfway between Francistown and Gaborone. Over the years its position has made it a convenient stopover on one of Southern Africa's principal north–south rail and road routes.
Air Botswana Corporation is Botswana's state-owned national flag carrier, with its headquarters located in Gaborone. It operates scheduled domestic and regional flights from its main base at Sir Seretse Khama International Airport. Air Botswana has been loss-making for several years, and there have been various attempts to privatise the company, and frequent changes to the corporation's management and board, so far without reducing the losses.
Botswana Railways (BR) is the national railway of Botswana.
Ramokgwebana is a village in the North-East District of Botswana, close to the eastern border, which is defined by the Ramokgwebana River. Plumtree, Zimbabwe is on the other side of the border crossing.
Rail services in Botswana are provided by Botswana Railways in Botswana. Most routes in the country radiate from Gaborone. The railway network consists of 888 km, its gauge is 1,067 mm cape gauge.
The Shashe River is a major left-bank tributary of the Limpopo River in Zimbabwe. It rises northwest of Francistown, Botswana and flows into the Limpopo River where Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa meet. The confluence is at the site of the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area.
Botswana–Namibia relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Botswana and Namibia. As of 2009, relations were considered friendly, with the two neighboring countries cooperating on economic development. Botswana gained independence from Britain in September 1966. Namibia gained independence from South Africa in 1990 following the Namibian War of Independence, and the two countries soon after established formal diplomatic relations. Botswana has a high commission in Windhoek. Namibia has a high commission in Gaborone.
Urban water supply in Guinea was privatized from 1989 until 2003 during the Presidency of Lansana Conte. His government initiated water privatization for two reasons: First, the World Bank had made private sector participation in urban water supply a condition for a new credit, after the public water utility had been unable to improve service quality under a previous World Bank credit. Second, the government wanted to reduce the budgetary burden from the national public water utility, which was overstaffed and had been unable to collect bills.
Mandunyane is named after Kgosi Harry Mandunyane I, who ruled since 1973 when the village was established. The village is located in the Central District of Botswana in Tonota subdistrict. It is approximately 8 km north west of Tonota and roughly 30 km south west of Francistown.
Prostitution in Botswana is not illegal, but laws such as public disorder, vagrancy, loitering and state recognised religious provisions are used to prosecute prostitutes. Related activities such as soliciting and brothel keeping are illegal. Botswana has made proposals to make prostitution legal to prevent the spread of AIDS. However, there has been mass opposition to it by the Catholic Church. Prostitution is widespread and takes place on the street, bars, hotels, brothels and the cabs of long-distance trucks.
The Letsibogo Dam is a dam on the Motloutse River in Botswana, built to initially provide water to the industrial town of Selebi-Phikwe and surrounding local areas, with potential for use in irrigation. The dam now supplies Gaborone, the capital of the country, via a 400 kilometres (250 mi) pipeline, as well as major villages along the pipeline route.
The Bokaa Dam is a dam on the Metsimotlhabe River, a tributary of the Ngotwane River, in Botswana. It provides water to the capital city of Gaborone. It is operated by the Water Utilities Corporation.
The Gaborone Dam is a dam on the Notwane River in Botswana with a capacity of 141,100,000 cubic metres (4.98×109 cu ft). The dam is operated by the Water Utilities Corporation, and supplies water to the capital city of Gaborone.
The Nnywane Dam is a dam on the Nnywane River in Botswana. The reservoir provides a water supply to Lobatse, a town 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of Gaborone. Water from the reservoir may also be transferred to Gaborone if needed.
The Shashe Dam is a dam on the Shashe River in Botswana that was built to supply water to the industrial city of Selebi-Phikwe. The large village of Tonota lies just south of the dam.
The Tati River is a river in northeast Botswana, a tributary of the Shashe River, which in turn is a tributary of the Limpopo River. The river flows through Francistown, where it is joined by the Ntshe River from the left.
The North-South Carrier (NSC) is a pipeline in Botswana that carries raw water south for a distance of 360 kilometres (220 mi) to the capital city of Gaborone. Phase 1 was completed in 2000. Phase 2 of the NSC, under construction, will duplicate the pipeline to carry water from the Dikgatlhong Dam, which was completed in 2012. A proposed extension to deliver water from the Zambezi would add another 500 to 520 kilometres to the total pipeline length. The NSC is the largest engineering project ever undertaken in Botswana.
Kgalagadi Breweries (Pty) Limited are brewers based in Gaborone, Botswana. They produce lager beers, traditional beers, bottled water and soft drinks under license. The brewery started out as Prinz Brau, with two brands, Prinz Brau and Prinz Deluxe.