Weinmannia

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Weinmannia
Weinmannia tinctoria flowers.JPG
Weinmannia tinctoria
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Oxalidales
Family: Cunoniaceae
Genus: Weinmannia
L.
Species

See text

Synonyms
  • ArnoldiaBlume
  • LeiospermumD. Don
  • PterophyllaD. Don
Weinmannia blumei Weinmannia blumei.jpg
Weinmannia blumei

Weinmannia is a genus of trees and shrubs in the family Cunoniaceae. It is the largest genus of the family with about 150 species. It is also the most widespread genus, occurring in Central and South America including the Caribbeans, Madagascar and surrounding islands, Malesia and the islands of the South Pacific. It is absent from mainland Africa and Australia, but some fossils have been attributed to Weinmannia in Australia. [1] Leaves are simple or pinnate, with a margin usually toothed, and interpetiolar stipules. Flowers are bisexual, white, arranged in racemes. The fruit is a capsule opening vertically from the top to the base. Seeds hairy without wings.

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Cunoniaceae family of plants

Cunoniaceae is a family of 27 genera and about 300 species of woody plants in the order Oxalidales, mostly found in the tropical and wet temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere. The greatest diversity of genera are in Australia and Tasmania, New Guinea, and New Caledonia. The family is also present in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Malesia, the island of the South Pacific, Madagascar and surrounding islands. the family is absent from mainland Asia except from Peninsular Malaysia, and almost absent from mainland Africa apart from two species from Southern Africa. Several of the genera have remarkable disjunct ranges, found on more than one continent, e.g. Cunonia, EucryphiaWeinmannia sect. Weinmannia.

Madagascar island nation off the coast of Southeast Africa, in the Indian Ocean

Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.

Contents

Taxonomy

The genus has been divided into five sections: [2]

FasciculataBernardi ex Hoogland & H.C.Hopkins

(mostly Malesia, from Sumatra to Fiji) [2] [4] [5] [6]

Weinmannia exigua is a species of plant in the Cunoniaceae family. It is endemic to Fiji. This scarce shrub or small tree occurs in an area with a high risk of fires.

Weinmannia fraxinea is a tree in the Cunoniaceae family. It grows up to 40 metres (130 ft) tall. The bark is grey to dark brown. Inflorescences bear up to three pairs of flowers. The specific epithet fraxinea is from the Latin meaning "ash tree", referring to the leaves' resemblance to those of the genus Fraxinus. In Malaysia's Sarawak state the leaves are used to make a dye. The tree grows in a wide variety of habitats from sea-level to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) altitude. W. fraxinea is found widely in Malesia.

Weinmannia richii is a species of plant in the Cunoniaceae family. It is endemic to Fiji.

Inspersa

(Madagascar) [2]

Weinmannia rutenbergii is a species of plant in the Cunoniaceae family endemic to Madagascar. The species is common and has a widespread distribution. It can be found from sea level to the summits at Marojejy National Park. The species does best in open, disturbed habitat, particularly on roadsides and areas recently burned. The species exhibits high morphological plasticity, ranging from being shrub-like with small leaves at high altitudes to being a large canopy tree with large leaves in lowland areas.

Leiospermum(D. Don) Engl.

(mostly Pacific, from Bismarck archipelago to the Marquesas) [2] [6] [7] [8]

Spicata

(Madagascar and Comores) [2]

Weinmannia

(Central and South America, Mascarenes) [2]

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References

  1. Barnes, R.W., Hill, R.S. & Bradford, J.C. (2001) The history of Cunoniaceae in Australia from macrofossil evidence. Australian Journal of Botany 49: 301‑20.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bradford, J.C. (1998) A cladisitc analysis of species groups in Weinmannia (Cunoniaceae) based on morphology and inflorescence structure. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85 (4): 565‑93.
  3. "Weinmannia". The Plant List . Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  4. Hopkins, H.C.F. & Bradford, J.C. (1998). A revision of Weinmannia (Cunoniaceae) in Malesia and the Pacific. 1. Introduction and an account of the species of Western Malesia, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Moluccas . Adansonia 20 (1) : 5‑41.
  5. Hopkins H.C.F. (1998). A revision of Weinmannia (Cunoniaceae) in Malesia and the Pacific. 2. Sulawesi and the Philippines. Adansonia 20 (1): 43‑66.
  6. 1 2 Hopkins, H.C.F., Hoogland, R.D. & Bradford, J.C. (1998). A revision of Weinmannia (Cunoniaceae) in Malesia and the Pacific. 3. New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji, with notes on the species of Samoa, Rarotonga, New Caledonia and New Zealand. Adansonia 20 (1): 67‑106.
  7. Hopkins, H.C.F. & Florence, J. (1998). A revision of Weinmannia (Cunoniaceae) in Malesia and the Pacific. 4. The Society, Marquesas and Austral Islands. Adansonia 20 (1): 107‑30.
  8. Hopkins, H.C., Pillon, Y., Hoogland, R.D. (2014). Cunoniaceae : Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, volume 26. Publications scientifiques du Muséum, Paris ; IRD, Marseille, 455 p. (collection Faune et Flore tropicales ; 45)