Yeast extract

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Yeast extract is a common ingredient in commercially prepared soups (canned, frozen, or deli). It is a flavor enhancer like monosodium glutamate (MSG). Soup au Pistou.jpg
Yeast extract is a common ingredient in commercially prepared soups (canned, frozen, or deli). It is a flavor enhancer like monosodium glutamate (MSG).

Yeast extracts consist of the cell contents of yeast without the cell walls; [3] they are used as food additives or flavorings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media. They are often used to create savory flavors and umami taste sensations, [4] and can be found in a large variety of packaged food, [5] including frozen meals, crackers, snack foods, gravy, stock and more. They are rich in B vitamins (but not B12), and so are of particular importance to vegans and vegetarians. Yeast extracts and fermented foods contain glutamic acid (free glutamates), an amino acid which adds an umami flavor. Glutamic acid is found in meat, cheese, fungi (mushrooms), and vegetables—such as broccoli, and tomatoes. [6] [7]

Contents

Yeast extracts in liquid form can be dried to a light paste or a dry powder (but this is not the same as nutritional yeast). [8]

The process to make yeast extract was invented in the 19th century by Justus von Liebig. [9] Yeast cells are heated until they rupture, then the cells' own digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds (amino acids and peptides), a process called autolysis. [10] The insoluble cell walls are then separated by centrifuge, filtered, and usually spray-dried. [11]

Use in foods

Marmite yeast extract Marmite.jpg
Marmite yeast extract

Yeast autolysates are used in AussieMite, Mightymite, Vegemite, Marmite, New Zealand Marmite, Promite, Cenovis, Vitam-R, Cenovit and Maggi sauce. [12] [13] [14] Bovril (Ireland and the United Kingdom) switched from beef extract to yeast extract for 2005 and most of 2006, but later switched back. [15]

Yeast extract is produced commercially by heating a suspension of yeast; the enzymes in the yeast cell then degrade the cell wall. The result has more concentrated flavor and a different texture. This is the process used for Vegemite, Marmite, and the like. [8]

Yeast extract is used as a flavoring in foods. It is a common ingredient in American barbecue-flavored potato chips such as Lay's. [16]

Marmite

Marmite
Inventor Justus von Liebig
Inception1902
Current supplier Unilever

Marmite ( /ˈmɑːrmt/ MAR-myte) is a British food spread produced by Unilever. Marmite is made from yeast extract, a by-product of beer brewing. Marmite has been produced since 1902.

Marmite is a sticky, dark brown food paste with a distinctive, powerful flavour, which is extremely salty. This distinctive taste is represented in the marketing slogan: "Love it or hate it." Such is its prominence in British popular culture that the product's name is often used as a metaphor for something that is an acquired taste or tends to polarise opinions. [17] [18]

The image on the front of the jar shows a "marmite" (French:  [maʁmit] ), a French term for a large, covered earthenware or metal cooking pot. Marmite was originally supplied in earthenware pots, but since the 1920s has been sold in glass jars.

Marmite has been manufactured in New Zealand since 1919 under license, but with a different recipe, see "Marmite (New Zealand)". This is the only product sold as Marmite in Australasia and the Pacific, whereas elsewhere in the world the British version predominates.

Vegemite

Vegemite ( /ˈvɛɪmt/ VEJ-i-myte) [19] [20] is a thick, black Australian food spread made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives. It was developed by Cyril Percy Callister in Melbourne, Victoria in 1922. The Vegemite brand was owned by Mondelez International (formerly Kraft Foods Inc.) [21] until January 2017, when it was acquired by the Australian Bega Cheese group in a US$460,000,000(equivalent to about $480,000,000 in 2019) agreement for full Australian ownership after Bega would buy most of Mondelez International's Australia and New Zealand grocery and cheese business. [22]

A spread for sandwiches, toast, crumpets and cracker biscuits as well as a filling for pastries, Vegemite is similar to British Marmite, New Zealand Marmite, Australian Promite, MightyMite, AussieMite, OzEmite, German Vitam-R, and Swiss Cenovis.

Vegemite is salty, slightly bitter, malty, and rich in glutamates – giving it an umami flavour similar to beef bouillon. It is vegan, kosher, and halal. [23]

Vitam-R

Vitam-R
A jar of Vitam-R yeast paste.jpg
TypeYeast spread
Place of origin Germany
Invented1925
Main ingredientsYeast extract
VariationsKräuter (Herbs)
Food energy
(per 100 serving)
223  kcal  (934 kJ)
Nutritional value
(per 100 serving)
Protein 29.8  g
Fat 0.3  g
Carbohydrate 25.1  g
Similar dishes Marmite, Vegemite

Vitam-R is a savory yeast extract spread made in Hameln, Germany, by the company Vitam Hefe-Produkt GmbH. It was first developed by Rückforth AG in Stettin (today's Szczecin, Poland) in 1925 [24] [25] following the discovery by Justus von Liebig that yeast could be concentrated. [26] It is sometimes described as having a smoother flavor than similar products such as Marmite, [27] Vegemite or Cenovis. Unlike those brands, Vitam-R is not an iconic part of its home country's cuisine, but it is also described as having a love-it-or-hate-it flavor. [28] It is both vegan and vegetarian and is sold primarily in Reformhaus health-food stores. [24]

Cenovis

Cenovis
Cenovis.jpg
Cenovis on bread, with jar in the background
TypeSpread
Place of originSwitzerland
Region or stateRheinfelden
Created byAlex Villinger
Invented1931
Main ingredientsYeast extract

Cenovis is a product based on yeast extract that is similar to Marmite and Vegemite, rich in vitamin B1. In the form of a dark brown food paste, it is used to flavour soups, sausages and salads. The most popular way to consume Cenovis, however, is to spread it on a slice of buttered bread, as stated on the product's packaging (or it can be blended into the butter and spread on bread or as a filling in croissants and buns).

Cenovis is popular in Switzerland (particularly Romandie). It was developed in Rheinfelden in 1931, on the initiative of a master brewer called Alex Villinger, [29] and was subsequently produced by the company Cenovis SA.


See also

Related Research Articles

Bovril Meat extract (food)

Bovril is the trademarked name of a thick and salty meat extract paste similar to a yeast extract, developed in the 1870s by John Lawson Johnston. It is sold in a distinctive, bulbous jar, and also as cubes and granules. Bovril is owned and distributed by Unilever UK. It is similar in appearance to Marmite and Vegemite.

Flavor, flavour, or taste is the perceptual impression of food or other substances, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of the gustatory and olfactory system. The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and throat, as well as temperature and texture, are also important to the overall gestalt of flavor perception. The flavor of the food, as such, can be altered with natural or artificial flavorants which affect these senses.

Marmite Brand of condiment made from yeast extract

Marmite ( MAR-myte) is a food spread made from yeast extract invented by German scientist Justus von Liebig and originally made in the United Kingdom. It is a by-product of beer brewing and is produced by Anglo-Dutch company Unilever. Other similar products include the Australian Vegemite (the name of which is derived from that of Marmite), the Swiss Cenovis, the Brazilian Cenovit and the German Vitam-R. Marmite has been manufactured in New Zealand since 1919 under license, but with a different recipe, see "Marmite (New Zealand)". That product is the only one sold as Marmite in Australasia and the Pacific, whereas elsewhere in the world the European version predominates. The product is notable as a vegan source of B vitamins, including supplemental Vitamin B12. South Africa also produces both a bottled, long-life and a fresh full-cream cheese spread, flavoured with Marmite. ;

Vegemite Savoury spread

Vegemite is a thick, dark brown Australian food spread made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives. It was developed by Cyril Callister in Melbourne, Victoria in 1922. The Vegemite brand was owned by Mondelez International until January 2017, when it was acquired by the Australian Bega Cheese group in a US$460,000,000 agreement for full Australian ownership after Bega would buy most of Mondelez International's Australia and New Zealand grocery and cheese business.

Monosodium glutamate Chemical compound

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also known as sodium glutamate, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. MSG is found naturally in some foods including tomatoes and cheese. MSG is used in cooking as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups.

<i>Umami</i> One of the five basic tastes

Umami or savoriness is one of the five basic tastes. It has been described as savory and is characteristic of broths and cooked meats.

Cenovis trademark

Cenovis is a dark brown food paste consisting of yeast extract, is similar to English Marmite, Brazilian Cenovit, and Australian Vegemite. It is rich in vitamin B1. It is used to flavour soups, sausages and salads. The most popular way to consume Cenovis, however, is to spread it on a slice of buttered bread, as stated on the product's packaging (or it can be blended into the butter and spread on bread or as a filling in croissants and buns).

Disodium inosinate chemical compound

Disodium inosinate (E631) is the disodium salt of inosinic acid with the chemical formula C10H11N4Na2O8P. It is used as a food additive and often found in instant noodles, potato chips, and a variety of other snacks. Although it can be obtained from bacterial fermentation of sugars, it is often commercially prepared from animal products.

Disodium guanylate chemical compound

Disodium guanylate, also known as sodium 5'-guanylate and disodium 5'-guanylate, is a natural sodium salt of the flavor enhancing nucleotide guanosine monophosphate (GMP). Disodium guanylate is a food additive with the E number E627. It is commonly used in conjunction with glutamic acid.

Promite is a dark brown, salty food paste mainly used as a spread on sandwiches and toast similar to Vegemite and Marmite. Promite was invented in the 1950s by Henry Lewis & Company and marketed under the Masterfoods brand. Henry Lewis & Company later became MasterFoods Australia and New Zealand, before being bought out by the privately owned Mars family's group of companies in 1967. As Mars, Incorporated is a privately owned U.S. company, Promite is no longer an Australian-owned food. However, Promite is still manufactured and sold in Australia.

Nutritional yeast type of deactivated yeast

Nutritional yeast is a deactivated yeast, often a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is sold commercially as a food product. It is sold in the form of yellow flakes, granules or powder and can be found in the bulk aisle of most natural food stores. It is popular with vegans and vegetarians and may be used as an ingredient in recipes or as a condiment.

Guanosine monophosphate chemical compound

Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), also known as 5'-guanidylic acid or guanylic acid, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside guanosine. GMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase guanine; hence it is a ribonucleoside monophosphate. Guanosine monophosphate is commercially produced by microbial fermentation. It is known as E number reference E626.

Senomyx screening system

Senomyx is an American biotechnology company working toward developing additives to amplify certain flavors and smells in foods. The company claims to have essentially "reverse engineered" the receptors in humans that react for taste and aroma, and that they are capitalizing on these discoveries to produce chemicals that will make food taste better. On 17 Sept 2018, Firmenich completed the acquisition of Senomyx.

Guinness Yeast Extract

Guinness Yeast Extract, commonly known by its initials GYE, was an Irish savoury spread, made from yeast extract. It was a by-product of the Guinness beer brewing process and produced by Arthur Guinness Son & Co., Dublin. The product was launched in Ireland on 2 November, 1936 and discontinued in 1968.

Glutamate flavoring

Glutamate flavoring is a generic name for the flavor-enhancing compounds based on glutamic acid and its salts (glutamates). These compounds provide an umami (savory) taste to food.

AussieMite

AussieMite is an Australian savoury food spread made from vegetable protein and yeast extract with various vitamins and minerals such as B vitamins and Iron. It was founded by Roger Ramsey in 2001. The taste of the product is slightly salty and is used for toast, sandwiches, crumpets and cracker biscuits, as well as a filling for pastry products.

Marmite (New Zealand)

Marmite is a food spread produced in New Zealand by Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company and distributed in Australia and the Pacific. Marmite is made from yeast extract, a by-product of beer brewing. It is similar to the British Marmite, but the two products are made by different companies.

References

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Further reading