40 Commando

Last updated
40 Commando, Royal Marines
RoyalMarineBadge.svg
Cap Badge of the Royal Marines
Active1942–present
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Branch RoyalMarineBadge.svg Royal Marines
TypeMarine Infantry
RoleCommando
SizeOne battalion
Part of Naval Service
Garrison/HQ Norton Manor Camp, Taunton, Somerset
Motto(s)Per Mare Per Terram (By Sea By Land) (Latin)
MarchQuick: "A Life on the Ocean Wave"
Slow: "Preobrajensky"
Commanders
Current
commander
Lt Col Simon Rogers RM
Captain-General Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (Captain-General, Royal Marines)

40 Commando RM is a battalion-sized formation of the British Royal Marines and subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.

Battalion military unit size

A battalion is a military unit. The use of the term "battalion" varies by nationality and branch of service. Typically a battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies. A battalion is typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. In some countries, the word "battalion" is associated with the infantry.

Royal Marines Marine corps and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom

The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry and also one of the five fighting arms of the Royal Navy. The marines can trace their origins back to the formation of the English Army's "Duke of York and Albany's maritime regiment of Foot" at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company on 28 October 1664.

3 Commando Brigade commando formation of the British Armed Forces and the main manoeuvre formation of the Royal Marines

3 Commando Brigade is a commando formation of the British Armed Forces and the main manoeuvre formation of the Royal Marines. Its personnel are predominantly Royal Marines, supported by units of Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery, and the Fleet Air Arm, together with other Commando Qualified sailors, soldiers and airmen.

Contents

Tasked as a Commando light infantry unit, 40 Commando (pronounced "Forty Commando") is capable of a wide range of operational tasks. Based at Norton Manor Camp, Norton Fitzwarren their barracks is in Taunton, Somerset. Personnel regularly deploy outside the United Kingdom on operations or training. Whilst 3 Commando Brigade RM are the principal cold weather warfare formation, personnel are capable of operating in a variety of theatres including tropical jungle, desert or mountainous terrain. The Commando is a regular participant in the annual Brigade cold weather warfare exercise in Norway. The unit's first "winter" was 1991, until which the unit was nicknamed the "Sunshine Commando".

Light infantry Type of infantry

Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry. Historically, light infantry often fought as scouts, raiders and skirmishers—soldiers who fight in a loose formation ahead of the main army to harass, delay, disrupt supply lines, and generally "soften up" an enemy before the main battle. After World War II, the term "light infantry" evolved, and now generally refers to rapid-deployment units that specifically emphasize speed and mobility over armor and firepower. Some units or battalions that historically held a skirmishing role have kept their designation "light infantry" for the sake of tradition.

Norton Manor Camp Royal Marines military camp located in the civil parish of Norton Fitzwarren, Somerset, England

Norton Manor Camp, also known RM Norton Manor is a Royal Marines base located near Norton Fitzwarren, 2 miles (3.2 km) north west of Taunton, Somerset, in England. It is home to 40 Commando.

Norton Fitzwarren farm village in the United Kingdom

Norton Fitzwarren is a village, electoral ward, and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated 2 miles (3.2 km) north west of Taunton in the Somerset West and Taunton district. The village has a population of 3,046.

All personnel will have completed the Commando course at the Commando Training Centre (CTCRM) at Lympstone in Devon, entitling them to wear the green beret, with attached personnel having completed the All Arms Commando Course.

Commando Training Centre Royal Marines

Commando Training Centre Royal Marines (CTCRM) is the principal military training centre for the Royal Marines. It is situated near the villages of Lympstone and Exton, between the city of Exeter, and the town of Exmouth in Devon. The centre delivers new entry training to recruits.

Lympstone village in United Kingdom

Lympstone is a village and civil parish in East Devon in the English county of Devon. It has a population of 1,754. There is a harbour on the estuary of the River Exe, lying at the outlet of Wotton Brook between cliffs of red breccia. The promontory to the north of the harbour is topped by a flat pasture, Cliff Field, that is managed by the National Trust and used for football matches and other local events.

Devon County of England

Devon, also known as Devonshire, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, and Dorset to the east. The city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge, Torridge, and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million.

History

Formation

Early Commando units were all from the British Army but by February 1942, the Royal Marines were asked to organise Commando units of their own, and 6,000 men volunteered. [1] The first Royal Marines commando unit was formed at Deal in Kent on 14 February 1942 and designated 'The Royal Marine Commando'. Before long it was re-designated RM 'A' Commando. Col J Picton Phillips was the Commanding Officer. [2]

British Army land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces of the United Kingdom

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.

Deal, Kent town in Kent, England

Deal is a town in Kent, England, which lies on the border of the North Sea and the English Channel, eight miles north-east of Dover and eight miles south of Ramsgate. It is a former fishing, mining and garrison town. Close to Deal is Walmer, a possible location for Julius Caesar's first arrival in Britain.

Kent County of England

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

Dieppe Raid

The Commando's baptism of fire was at Dieppe on 19 August 1942. In support of the main Canadian assault force, Nos. 3 and 4 (Army) Commandos were to destroy the enemy coastal batteries covering the main landing beaches, whilst No. 40 had selected tasks in the port area and was to be responsible for reinforcements as required. In the pre-dawn run-in the landing craft of No. 3 were fired upon and scattered with the result that only two small parties managed to land, one was overwhelmed, but the other successfully engaged the Berneval battery for some hours before withdrawing. [3] On the other flank at Varengeville No. 4, under the command of Lord Lovat, carried out what was officially hailed as a 'classic operation of war' and completely destroyed the Hess Battery, successfully withdrawing and re-embarking with prisoners. [4] Unfortunately, No. 40, when committed to their landing, under well-nigh impossible conditions, suffered severe casualties. Of the 370 officers and men, 76 were lost on the beaches. Among those killed was the Commanding officer (CO), while the second-in-command, Robert Houghton was captured. [5]

Dieppe Raid World War II battle on north coast of France

Operation Jubilee, more commonly referred to as the Dieppe Raid, was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France, on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War. The main assault lasted less than six hours until strong German defences and mounting Allied losses forced its commanders to call a retreat.

Landing craft small and medium seagoing vessel used to convey a landing force

Landing craft are small and medium seagoing watercraft, such as boats and barges, used to convey a landing force from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. The term excludes landing ships, which are larger. Production of landing craft peaked during World War II, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States.

Artillery battery artillery unit equivalent to an infantry company

In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc., so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems. The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships.

Italy and the Aegean

On return RM 'A' Commando was again re-designated; this time as 40 (RM) Commando. Further training and replenishment was carried out. Once back to full strength it was sent to Sicily in July 1943 and a little later in September saw action at Pizzio. Later that year the Commando was in action in Termoli in October, and in 1944 was embroiled at Anzio. Later service in Yugoslavia and Albania followed by policing duties on Corfu wound up 40's wartime activities. [6]

Termoli Comune in Molise, Italy

Termoli is a town and comune (municipality) on the south Adriatic coast of Italy, in the province of Campobasso, region of Molise. It has a population of around 32,000, having expanded quickly after World War II, and it is a local resort town known for its beaches and old fortifications. Once it was known only as a fishing port, but in the new millennium it is a favourite resort for Italian families.

Anzio Comune in Lazio, Italy

Anzio is a city and comune on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about 51 kilometres (32 mi) south of Rome.

Yugoslavia 1918–1992 country in Southeastern and Central Europe

Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.

Post-World War II reorganisation

Following the Second World War, 2 Commando (Nos. 2, 9, 40(RM) and 43(RM)) disbanded leaving 3 Commando Brigade (42(RM), 44(RM) and 45(RM)). To recognise 2 Commando Brigade one of the Commandos was renamed, No44(RM) becoming No40(RM). [7]

Post WW2

The Commando was deeply involved in 1947–1948 Civil War in Palestine acting as the rearguard in the Protectorate, leaving in 1948. They subsequently undertook security duties in Cyprus, Hong Kong and Egypt before moving to Singapore in 1961. It was involved in operations during the confrontation with Indonesia (Borneo) throughout the following decade. [8]

Return to UK

In 1971 the Commando left Singapore and re-established itself in Seaton Barracks, Crownhill, Plymouth. Over the next decade the Commando found itself deployed to Northern Ireland four times and also undertook an unexpected two-month tour in Cyprus after the 1974 invasion by the Turkish Army. [8]

Falklands Conflict

In 1982, following the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, the Commando deployed on Operation Corporate. On 21 May the Commando were among the first troops ashore and secured the beachhead at San Carlos. The Unit was subsequently split having two companies attached to the Welsh Guards, preparing to attack Port Stanley, when the Argentine surrender came. [8]

1980s

On their return from the Falklands, the Commando spent the rest of the decade involved in a variety of tasks including two Northern Ireland tours to South Armagh, a six-month Peace-Keeping tour in Cyprus and a six-month operational tour in Belize. During the tour in Cyprus, the Commando was awarded the Wilkinson Sword of Peace for the third time. Also during this period, in 1983, the Commando relocated to Norton Manor Camp near Taunton. [8]

1990s

In 1991 the Unit undertook its first Norway deployment but found itself undergoing a dramatic climatic change when, due to the Gulf War, it deployed to Northern Iraq to ensure the security of Kurdish refugees. Northern Ireland tours, Norway winter deployments and a major Asia-Pacific Exercise kept the Commando busy through the following years. In November 1993 the unit deployed to West Belfast in support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), returning in May 1994. In 1998 a substantial part of the Commando deployed to the Congo to ensure the safe evacuation of UK nationals from Kinshasa City. [8]

Recent history

Royal Marines from 40 Commando cross an irrigation ditch in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. 40 Commando irrigation ditch.jpg
Royal Marines from 40 Commando cross an irrigation ditch in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Royal Marines from the 40th Commando unit load onto a Landing Craft Utility (LCU) following intensive training in the Kuwaiti Desert. US Navy 030226-N-1050K-023 Royal Marines from the 40th Commando unit load onto a Landing Craft Utility (LCU) following intensive training in the Kuwaiti Desert.jpg
Royal Marines from the 40th Commando unit load onto a Landing Craft Utility (LCU) following intensive training in the Kuwaiti Desert.

The new millennium saw the Commando deploy to Northern Ireland and on their return they were the first Commando to reorganise under a new structural concept called Commando 21. [8]

The Unit deployed in its entirety in January 2003, initially part of the Naval Task Group (NTG) 03 in HMS Ocean, HMS Ark Royal and Royal Fleet Auxiliary ships RFA Sir Galahad and RFA Sir Tristram. The group sailed through the Mediterranean Sea, after a brief stop at Cyprus, continuing through the Suez Canal bound for the Persian Gulf. The United Nations were engaged in diplomatic efforts to avoid the need for military intervention in Iraq, as the Unit was busy rehearsing in the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait for possible operations against Iraq. [8]

In March 2003 a coalition force, under the overall command of the United States, entered Iraq. During Operation TELIC 1, the liberation of Iraq, on the night of 20 March 2003, 40 Commando RM, under the command of Lt Col G K Messenger DSO OBE, mounted an amphibious helicopter assault to seize key Iraqi oil infrastructure on the Al-Faw Peninsula. [8] As the first conventional troops on the ground, the strategic significance of the operation was immense and, as the Divisional Main Effort, the assault was supported by a vast array of coalition firepower. The Commando Group's role in the success of the coalition operation in Iraq was pivotal and profound. In a two-week period of intense operations, it secured key oil infrastructure, cleared a large expanse of enemy held terrain, and defeated a major enemy stronghold on the periphery of Basra, killing over 150  Iraqi soldiers and taking 440  prisoners. [8]

In 2004 the Unit returned to Iraq as part of a multi-national division peace-support operation. [8] The commandos returned in April 2008 from a tour in the Helmand Province of Afghanistan as part of Operation Herrick. During the tour L-Cpl Matthew Croucher was awarded the George Cross for his action of jumping on a live grenade during a patrol. [9]

40 Cdo returned to Afghanistan in 2010 for Op Herrick 12. They were the last British troops to leave Sangin, described as the "deadliest place in Afghanistan", after command was handed over to the US Armed Forces. [10]

A Company deployed with the UK Response Force Task Group in April 2011. Additional follow up forces were on board RFA Cardigan Bay. [11] They then completed Exercise Red Alligator in October 2013: this trained their skills for the role of the Lead Commando Group. [12]

In the autumn of 2017 the Unit spearheaded the UK Military's crisis response (Operation RUMAN) in the Caribbean following the catastrophic damage caused to UK Overseas Territories by record-breaking Atlantic Hurricanes. 40 Commando deployed hundreds of troops to the British Virgin Islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands and Anguilla. Their efforts helped to reassure the affected communities, restore security, fix critical infrastructure and distribute humanitarian aid. [13]

40 Commando are CBRN defense experts, expecting to be the lead unit in the event of a CBRN incident. In 2018 they participated in the annual chemical warfare exercise, Exercise TOXIC DAGGER, on Salisbury Plain involving over 300 military personnel, along with the RAF Regiment, the Royal Marines Band Service for casualty treatment and utilising Defence CBRN Centre expertise. [14] [15] [16]

Structure

The structure is as follows:

Unit memorable dates

A Chinook flies in low over the heads of Royal Marines from Alpha Company, 40 Commando Royal Marines during Op DAAS 7B, Nahr-e-Saraj district, Afghanistan. RAF Chinook Flys Low Over Royal Marines from 40 Cdo in Afghanistan MOD 45154735.jpg
A Chinook flies in low over the heads of Royal Marines from Alpha Company, 40 Commando Royal Marines during Op DAAS 7B, Nahr-e-Saraj district, Afghanistan.

Battle honours

The following Battle honours were awarded to the British Commandos during the Second World War. [18]

Commanding officers

Portrait of a Royal Marine of Bravo Company 40 Commando Royal Marines. Royal Marine in Afghanistan MOD 45154661.jpg
Portrait of a Royal Marine of Bravo Company 40 Commando Royal Marines.

Commanders have included:

Related Research Articles

No. 3 Commando

No. 3 Commando was a battalion-sized Commando unit raised by the British Army during the Second World War. Formed in July 1940 from volunteers for special service, it was the first such unit to carry the title of "Commando". Shortly afterwards the unit was involved in a largely unsuccessful raid upon the German-occupied Channel Island of Guernsey.

45 Commando Royal Marines is a battalion sized unit of the British Royal Marines and subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.

This is a list of British ground forces in the Falklands War. For a list of ground forces from Argentina, see Argentine ground forces in the Falklands War

43 Commando Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines unit of the Royal Marines

The 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines, formerly Comacchio Company Royal Marines (1980–1983), Comacchio Group Royal Marines (1983–2001) and Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines (2001–2012), is a 550-man unit of the Royal Marines responsible for guarding the United Kingdom's Naval nuclear weapons and providing Royal Marine Boarding Teams and the very high readiness Fleet Contingent Troop to conduct maritime interdiction operations in support of the Royal Navy. The unit, based at HM Naval Base Clyde, is part of 3 Commando Brigade.

The Royal Marines Band Service is the musical wing of the Royal Navy. It currently consists of five Bands plus a training wing the Royal Marines School of Music at HMS Nelson and its headquarters is at HMS Excellent, Whale Island, Portsmouth. It is currently the only branch of the Royal Marines which is open to women, although women are scheduled to begin Commando training in 2018.

The 16th/5th The Queen's Royal Lancers was a cavalry regiment of the British Army. It was formed by the amalgamation of the 16th The Queen's Lancers and the 5th Royal Irish Lancers in 1922 and, after service in the Second World War and the Gulf War, amalgamated with the 17th/21st Lancers to form the Queen's Royal Lancers in 1993.

42 Commando is a subordinate unit within the Royal Marines 3 Commando Brigade, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Fleet Commander.

847 Naval Air Squadron Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm unit

847 Naval Air Squadron is a squadron of the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. It operates AgustaWestland Wildcat AH.1 helicopters and provides armed reconnaissance and light transport support to 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines. Along with 845 and 846 naval air squadrons, it forms part of the Commando Helicopter Force. The squadron was re-formed from 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron on 1 September 1995.

Operation Infatuate

Operation Infatuate was the code name given to an Anglo-Canadian operation during the Second World War to open the port of Antwerp to shipping and relieve logistical constraints. The operation was part of the wider Battle of the Scheldt and involved two assault landings from the sea by the 4th Special Service Brigade and the 52nd (Lowland) Division. At the same time the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division would force a crossing of the Walcheren causeway.

The history of the Royal Marines began on 28 October 1664 with the formation of the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot soon becoming known as the Admiral's Regiment. During the War of the Spanish Succession the most historic achievement of the Marines was the capture of the mole during the assault on Gibraltar in 1704. On 5 April 1755, His Majesty's Marine Forces, fifty Companies in three Divisions, headquartered at Portsmouth, Chatham and Plymouth, were formed by Order of Council under Admiralty control.

The 2nd Special Service Brigade was formed in late 1943 in the Middle East and saw service in Italy, the Adriatic, the landings at Anzio and took part in operations in Yugoslavia. On December 6, 1944, the Brigade was renamed 2nd Commando Brigade, removing the hated title Special Service and its association with the Schutzstaffel.

41 Commando or No. 41 Commando was a unit of the Royal Marines trained as Commandos during the Second World War. They were part of the all Royal Marine 4th Special Service Brigade that took part in the Normandy landings in June 1944 and later that served in World War II, the Korean War, and in Northern Ireland. They were disbanded in 1981.

No. 11 (Scottish) Commando was a battalion-sized commando unit of the British Army during the Second World War. Formed in Scotland, members of No. 11 (Scottish) Commando adopted the Tam o'shanter as their official headdress.

No. 6 Commando

No. 6 Commando was a battalion-sized British Army commando unit of the Second World War. Although it was raised to conduct small-scale raids and harass garrisons along the coast of German-occupied France, it was mainly employed as a highly trained infantry assault unit.

No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando

No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando was a commando unit of the British Army during the Second World War, recruited largely from non-British personnel from German-occupied Europe. This unit was used to help co-ordinate attacks with other allied forces.

No. 2 Commando was a battalion-sized British Commando unit of the British Army during the Second World War. The first No.2 Commando was formed on 22 June 1940 for a parachuting role at Cambrai Barracks, Perham Down, near Tidworth, Hants. The Unit at the time consisted of four troops - 'A', 'B', 'C' and 'D'. Eventually 11 troops were raised. On 21 November, it was re-designated as the 11th Special Air Service (SAS) Battalion and eventually re-designated 1st Parachute Battalion. After their re-designation as the 11th SAS Battalion, a second No. 2 Commando was formed. This No. 2 Commando was the leading commando unit in the St Nazaire Raid and suffered heavy casualties. Those who made it back from St Nazaire rejoined the few who had not gone on the raid, and the commando was reinforced by the first intake of volunteers from the new Commando Basic Training Centre at Achnacarry. No. 2 Commando then went on to serve in the Mediterranean, Sicily, Yugoslavia, and Albania, before being disbanded in 1946.

No. 44 Commando was a battalion size formation in the British Commandos, formed during the Second World War. The Commando was assigned to the 3rd Special Service Brigade and served in the Burma Campaign.

British Commando operations during the Second World War

The Commandos formed during the Second World War, following an order from the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in June 1940 for a force that could carry out raids against German occupied Europe. Churchill stated in a minute to General Ismay on 6 June 1940: "Enterprises must be prepared, with specially-trained troops of the hunter class, who can develop a reign of terror down these coasts, first of all on the "butcher and bolt" policy..." Commandos were all volunteers for special service and originally came from the British Army but volunteers would eventually come from all branches of the United Kingdom's armed forces and foreign volunteers from countries occupied by the Germans. These volunteers formed over 30 individual units and four assault brigades.

References

Notes

  1. Haskew, pp.48–49
  2. Neillands, p. 238
  3. Neillands, p. 245
  4. Neillands, p. 248
  5. "Major-General 'Titch' Houghton". The Telegraph. London. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  6. "Operation Mercerised". Commando Veterans Archive. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  7. "Royal Marines Commando and Special Boat Service". Commando Veterans Association. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "40 Commando Royal Marines History". 40 Commando Association. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  9. "No. 58774". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 2008. pp. 11163–11164.
  10. "Royal Marines speak of 'horrible' reality of life on patrol in Afghanistan". The Guardian. 17 November 2010.
  11. "RFA Cardigan Bay". Royal Fleet Auxiliary Historical Association. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  12. "Royal Marines deploy on Black Alligator". Royal Navy. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  13. "Operation Ruman". Warefare Today. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  14. "Toxic storm for Royal Marines in major chemical exercise". Royal Navy. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  15. "Exercise Toxic Dagger: training the UK military to mitigate CBRN threats". Army Technology. Verdict Media. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  16. "Exercise TOXIC DAGGER - the sharp end of chemical warfare". Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. gov.uk. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  17. 1 2 3 4 "Royal Marines speak of 'horrible' reality of life on patrol in Afghanistan". The Guardian . Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  18. Moreman, p.94

Bibliography

Coordinates: 51°2.338′N3°9.248′W / 51.038967°N 3.154133°W / 51.038967; -3.154133 (Norton Manor Camp)