|Central bank||Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories|
|This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.|
The AM-lira (Allied-Military Currency) was the currency issued in Italy by Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (AMGOT) after the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943. 100 AM-lire were worth 1 US dollar.
The Am-Allied Military Currency or lira was the currency that AMGOT put in circulation in Italy after the landing in Sicily on the night between 9 and 10 July 1943. The value was 100 "am-lire" for a U.S. dollar. Totally interchangeable with the normal Italian lira for military decision, it contributed to high inflation that hit Italy towards the end of World War II.
The study of paper money specific to Italy began in July 1942. The first issue (Series 1943) was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP, who has also designed the banknotes) and the Forbes Lithograph Corporation (FLC); the value was written only in numeric digits and the Italian language. This was hurried rough. On July 13, 1943, on the banknotes were printed and written Lira or Lira issued in Italy, previously omitted so as not to betray the country to which the notes were intended. With the first series were issued of the denominations of 1 to 1,000 lire. The banknotes for 1, 2, 5 and 10 lire are a square shape, and the 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 lire have a rectangular shape, same general shape as the U.S. dollar. The second issue (Series 1943 A) was printed only by the FLC, and was added to the indication in letters (in Italian and English) of the value. Due to rampant inflation, they did not reissue the banknotes for 1 and 2 lire, which had become useless. For printing, lithography was chosen as the method with "high specific spectral ink" and paper materials like rags. All this should have made it very difficult to counterfeit. In fact, the falsification of Am-lire was a very large phenomenon; some were crude counterfeits, while others were hardly distinguishable even by experts. The reverse of all the banknotes read in English the Four Freedoms enshrined in the Four Freedoms speech: the freedom of speech, the freedom of religion, the freedom from want, and the freedom from fear. After 1946, they ceased to be the sole currency and were used along with normal notes, until June 3, 1950. In total, 917.7 million Am-lire were printed, a weight of 758 tons were shipped to Italy in 23,698 cases. The first shipment, seven tons of paper money, took place July 19, 1943, on two cargo planes, while the last delivery was made April 17, 1945.
In economics, hyperinflation is a very high and typically accelerating inflation. It quickly erodes the real value of the local currency, as the prices of all goods increase. This causes people to minimize their holdings in that currency as they usually switch to more stable foreign currencies. When measured in stable foreign currencies, prices typically remain stable.
The Kwacha is the currency of Zambia. It is subdivided into 100 Ngwee.
Federal Reserve Notes, also United States banknotes, are the currently issued banknotes of the United States dollar. The United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing produces the notes under the authority of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and issues them to the Federal Reserve Banks at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Reserve Banks then circulate the notes to their member banks, at which point they become liabilities of the Reserve Banks and obligations of the United States.
A banknote—also called a bill, paper money, or simply a note—is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed authority, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, which were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks or monetary authorities.
The Iraqi dinar is the currency of Iraq. It is issued by the Central Bank of Iraq and is subdivided into 1,000 fils (فلس), although inflation has rendered the fils obsolete since 1990. On 19 June 2022, the exchange rate between the US Dollar was US$1 = 1462.5 dinars.
The birr is the unit of currency in Ethiopia. It is subdivided into 100 santim.
The Reichsmark was the currency of Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June 1948 in East Germany, where it was replaced by the East German mark. The Reichsmark was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennigs. The Mark is an ancient Germanic weight measure, traditionally a half pound, later used for several coins; whereas Reich, comes from the official name for the German state from 1871 to 1945, Deutsches Reich.
The lira was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002. It was first introduced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1807 at par with the French franc, and was subsequently adopted by the different states that would eventually form the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. It was subdivided into 100 centesimi, which means "hundredths" or "cents". The lira was also the currency of the Albanian Kingdom from 1941-1943.
The lira is the official currency of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. One lira is divided into one hundred kuruş.
The kyat is the currency of Myanmar (Burma). The typical notation for the kyat is "K" (singular) and "Ks." (plural), placed before the numerals followed by "/-"
Counterfeit money is currency produced without the legal sanction of a state or government, usually in a deliberate attempt to imitate that currency and so as to deceive its recipient. Producing or using counterfeit money is a form of fraud or forgery, and is illegal. The business of counterfeiting money is nearly as old as money itself: plated copies have been found of Lydian coins, which are thought to be among the first Western coins. Before the introduction of paper money, the most prevalent method of counterfeiting involved mixing base metals with pure gold or silver. Another form of counterfeiting is the production of documents by legitimate printers in response to fraudulent instructions. During World War II, the Nazis forged British pounds and American dollars. Today some of the finest counterfeit banknotes are called Superdollars because of their high quality and imitation of the real US dollar. There has been significant counterfeiting of Euro banknotes and coins since the launch of the currency in 2002, but considerably less than that of the US dollar.
The lira AOI was a special banknote circulating in Italian East Africa between 1938 and 1941.
The Japanese government-issued dollar was a form of currency issued for use within the Imperial Japan-occupied territories of Singapore, Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Brunei between 1942 and 1945. The currency was also referred to informally as banana money, named as such because of the motifs of banana trees on 10 dollar banknotes. The Japanese dollar was in widespread use within the occupied territories where the previous currency became scarce. The currency were referred to as "dollars" and "cents" like its predecessors, the Straits dollar, Malayan dollar, Sarawak dollar and British North Borneo dollar.
Hungarian pengő paper money was part of the physical form of Hungary's historical currency, the Hungarian pengő. Paper money usually meant banknotes, which were issued by the Hungarian National Bank. Later – during and after World War II – other types of paper money appeared, including emergency money, bonds and savings certificates.
This page is a glossary of notaphily. Notaphily is the study of paper money or banknotes.
Banknotes were issued in 1943 by the British Army for circulation in Tripolitania. The main feature of the notes is depiction of a lion standing on the King's Crown. The notes are inscribed in both Arabic and English.
Japanese invasion money, officially known as Southern Development Bank Notes, was currency issued by the Japanese Military Authority, as a replacement for local currency after the conquest of colonies and other states in World War II. In February 1942 in Japan, laws were passed establishing the Wartime Finance Bank and the Southern Development Bank. Both institutions issued bonds to raise funds. The former loaned money primarily to military industries, but also to a wide range of other ventures, including hydroelectric generators, electric power companies, shipbuilding and petroleum. The latter provided financial services in areas occupied by the Japanese military, and Southern Development Bank notes were in fact used as de facto military scrip. In December 1942, the outstanding balance of Southern Development Bank notes stood at more than 470 million; in March 1945, more than 13 billion.
The 1 yen note (1円券) was a denomination of Japanese yen in seven different series from 1872 to 1946 for use in commerce. These circulated with the 1 yen coin until 1914, and briefly again before the notes were suspended in 1958. Notes from the Japanese government, known as "government notes," were the first to be issued through a company in Germany. Because they were being counterfeited, they were replaced by a new series which included the first portrait on a Japanese banknote. Almost concurrently, the government established a series of national banks modeled after the system in the United States. These national banks were private entities that also released their own notes which were later convertible into gold and silver. All three of these series came to an end due to massive inflation from the Satsuma Rebellion in 1877. National bank notes were re-issued as fiat currency before the national banks themselves were abolished. Both national bank and government one yen notes were gradually redeemed for Bank of Japan note starting in 1885. This redemption process lasted until all three series were abolished in 1899.
Italy has a long history of different coinage types, which spans thousands of years. Italy has been influential at a coinage point of view: the florin, one of the most used coinage types in European history, was struck in Florence in the 13th century. Since Italy has been for centuries divided into many city-states, they all had different coinage systems, but when the country became unified in 1861, the Italian lira came into place, and was used until 2002. Today, Italy uses the euro.
Allied Military Currency ("AMC") was a form of currency issued by the Allied powers during World War II, to be issued to troops entering liberated or newly occupied countries, as a form of currency control.