Attalus III

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Attalus III Philometor Euergetes
Attalid portrait at the Antikensammlung Berlin.jpg
Attalus III (or II), 150/152 BC from Antikensammlung in Berlin.
King of Pergamon
Reign138–133 BC
Predecessor Attalus II
Successor Eumenes III
Bornc. 170 BC
Died133 BC
GreekΆτταλος Γ΄ Φιλομήτωρ Ευεργέτης
House Attalid dynasty
Father Eumenes II
Mother Stratonice of Cappadocia
Religion Greek Polytheism

Attalus III (Greek : Ἄτταλος Γ΄) Philometor Euergetes (c. 170 BC – 133 BC) was the last Attalid king of Pergamon, ruling from 138 BC to 133 BC.

Contents

Biography

Attalus III was the son of king Eumenes II and his queen Stratonice of Pergamon, and was the nephew of Attalus II, whom he succeeded. "Philometor Euergetes" means "Loving-his-Mother, Benefactor" in Greek. He was so-called because of his close relationship with his mother Stratonice.

According to Livy, Attalus III had little interest in ruling Pergamon, devoting his time to studying medicine, botany, gardening, and other pursuits. He had no male children or heirs of his own, and in his will he left the kingdom to the Roman Republic, [1] believing that if he did not then Rome would take the kingdom anyway and this way would avoid bloodshed. [2] Tiberius Gracchus requested that the treasury of Pergamon be opened up to the Roman public, but the Senate refused this.

Not everyone in Pergamon accepted Rome's rule. In 131 BC Aristonicus, who claimed to be Attalus' brother as well as the son of Eumenes II, an earlier king, led a popular uprising with the help of the Roman philosopher, Blossius. He ruled as Eumenes III. The revolt was put down in 129 BC, and Pergamon was divided among Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia.

Notes

  1. Livy: Periochae 58
  2. Asimov, I. and F. White, The March of the Millennia (1991), p. 74

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The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.

Philetaerus King of Pergamon

Philetaerus was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia.

Eumenes I King of Pergamon

Eumenes I was dynast (ruler) of the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor from 263 BC until his death in 241 BC. He was the son of Eumenes, the brother of Philetaerus, the founder of the Attalid dynasty, and Satyra, daughter of Poseidonius. As he had no children, Philetaerus adopted Eumenes to become his heir.

Eumenes II King of Pergamon

Eumenes II surnamed Soter meaning "Savior" was a ruler of Pergamon, and a son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis and a member of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon.

Eumenes III was a pretender to the throne of Pergamon. He led a revolt against the Pergamene regime and found success early on, seizing various cities near the coast of Anatolia, including the island of Samos, and killing the Roman consul Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus. However, the revolt was eventually quelled by the Roman Republic in 129 BCE when it dispatched the experienced Marcus Perperna to the region.

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Attalus II Philadelphus King of Pergamon

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Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia 3rd and 2nd-century BC king of Cappadocia

Ariarathes IV, surnamed Eusebes, "the Pious",, was the king of Cappadocia in 220–163 BC.

Attalus I King of Pergamon

Attalus I, surnamed Soter ruled Pergamon, an Ionian Greek polis, first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the first cousin once removed and the adoptive son of Eumenes I, whom he succeeded, and was the first of the Attalid dynasty to assume the title of king in 238 BC. He was the son of Attalus and his wife Antiochis.

Euergetes, meaning "the Benefactor", was an epithet, an honoring title, given to various benefactors. Euergetism was the practice of high-status and wealthy individuals distributing part of their wealth to the community. For example, Archelaus I of Macedon supplied wood to Athens, taking the titles of proxenos and euergetes in 407/6 BC.

Stratonice was a princess of Cappadocia and through marriage a queen of Pergamon.

Antiochis — was a Hellenistic princess from the dynasty of the Seleucids and in the first half of the second century BC queen of Cappadocia.

References

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Attalus II
King of Pergamon
138–133 BC
Succeeded by
Eumenes III