The Battle of Aughrim (Irish : Cath Eachroma) was the decisive battle of the Williamite War in Ireland. It was fought between the largely Irish Jacobite army loyal to James II and the forces of William III on 12 July 1691 (old style, equivalent to 22 July new style), near the village of Aughrim, County Galway.
Irish is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country. A speaker of the Irish language is known as a Gaeilgeoir.
The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691), was a conflict between Jacobites and Williamites over who would be monarch of the three kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. It is also called the Jacobite War in Ireland or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland.
Jacobitism was the name of the political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the House of Stuart to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The movement was named after Jacobus, the Latin form of James.
The battle was the bloodiest ever fought on Irish soil; over 7,000 people were killed. The Jacobite defeat at Aughrim meant the effective end of James's cause in Ireland, although the city of Limerick held out until the autumn of 1691.
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.
Limerick is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the city. The city lies on the River Shannon, with the historic core of the city located on King's Island, which is bounded by the Shannon and the Abbey River. Limerick is also located at the head of the Shannon Estuary where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 94,192, Limerick is the third most populous urban area in the state, and the fourth most populous city on the island of Ireland.
By 1691, the Jacobites had adopted a defensive position.In the previous year they had retreated into Connacht behind the easily defensible line of the Shannon, with strongholds at Sligo, Athlone and Limerick guarding the routes into the province and the western ports. William besieged Limerick in late August 1690, but his army suffered heavy casualties and losses to disease: he called off the siege and put his army into winter quarters. Internal divisions, exacerbated by the departure of James for France after defeat at the Boyne, were however increasingly undermining the Jacobite command.
Connacht, formerly spelled Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the west of Ireland. Up to the 9th century it consisted of several independent major kingdoms.
The River Shannon is the longest river in Ireland at 360.5 km. It drains the Shannon River Basin which has an area of 16,865 km2 (6,512 sq mi), one fifth of the area of Ireland.
Sligo is a coastal seaport and the county town of County Sligo, Ireland, within the western province of Connacht. With a population of approximately 20,000 in 2016, it is the second largest urban centre in the West of Ireland, with only Galway being larger. The Sligo Borough District constitutes 61% (38,581) of the county's population of 63,000.
The main split was between the "Peace Party", grouped around James's viceroy Tyrconnell and including Lord Riverston, Denis Daly and the Earl of Antrim, which proposed negotiating a settlement with William, and the "War Party", led by Patrick Sarsfield and supported by army officers such as Nicholas Purcell and the English Catholic William Dorrington who believed the war could still be won outright.Encouraged by William's failure to take Limerick and looking to break Tyrconnell's influence, Sarsfield's faction decided to appeal directly to Louis XIV of France requesting that Tyrconnell and army commander Berwick were removed from office and that Louis send military aid.
Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell PC was an Irish royalist and Jacobite soldier. He served as James II's Lord Deputy of Ireland during the Williamite War in Ireland. His administration saw a major purge of Protestant officers from the Irish Army, which had previously largely barred Catholics.
Thomas Nugent was an Irish Roman Catholic barrister who became Lord Chief Justice of Ireland under James II of Great Britain, and held a 1689 title as Baron Nugent of Riverston.
Denis Daly, Irish Judge and Privy Councillor, c.1638-1721.
The "Peace Party" obtained an offer of settlement from the Williamites in December 1690, upon which Sarsfield demanded that Berwick have Riverston, Daly and other "Peace Party" leaders arrested. Berwick complied, although likely with the approval of Tyrconnell, who returned from France to try and preserve his influence by repositioning himself with Sarsfield's faction.
Alarmed by the fracturing of the Irish command, James was persuaded to request further military support directly from Louis XIV.Louis gave little commitment, but sent general the Marquis de St Ruth to replace Berwick as commander of the Irish Army, with secret instructions to assess the situation and help Louis make a decision on whether to send further military aid. St Ruth, accompanied by lieutenant-generals de Tessé and d'Usson, arrived at Limerick on 9 May 1691, bringing sufficient arms, corn and meal to sustain the army until the autumn.
Charles Chalmont, marquis de Saint-Ruth was a French general. Early in his military career, he fought against Protestants in France. Later, he fought in Ireland on the Jacobite side in the Williamite War. While in command of the Jacobite Irish Army, he was killed at the Battle of Aughrim.
Philibert-Emmanuel de Froulay, chevalier de Tessé, was baron d'Ambrières and a French army commander, fighting in the Williamite War in Ireland.
William's forces in Ireland were by this stage led by his subordinate, Dutch officer Godert de Ginkel. Ginkel was aware of the poor military situation facing William in the Netherlands; seeking a quick end to the war and wanting to avoid strengthening the position of the Jacobite "War Party", he had obtained William's permission to offer moderate terms of surrender to the Jacobites.However by late spring 1691 Ginkel began planning to enter the field as quickly as possible, concerned that a French convoy could land further reinforcements at Galway or Limerick. During May, both sides began assembling their forces for a summer campaign, the Jacobites at Limerick and the Williamites at Mullingar.
On 16th June, Ginkel's cavalry reconnoitred from Ballymore towards Athlone. St Ruth had been unsure where Ginkel would attempt to cross the Shannon, but by 19th June he realised Athlone was the target and began concentrating his troops west of the town.Ginkel breached the Jacobite lines of defence and took Athlone on 30th June after a bloody siege; having mishandled the defence, St Ruth was unable to relieve the town and fell back to the west. Athlone was seen as a significant victory for William's forces; it had been believed that St Ruth's army would probably collapse if the Shannon was crossed. The Lords Justice in Dublin issued a proclamation offering generous terms for Jacobites who surrendered, including a free pardon, restoration of forfeited estates, and the offer of similar or higher rank and pay if they wished to join William's army.
Unaware of the location of St Ruth's main army and assuming he was outnumbered, on 10th July Ginkel continued a cautious advance through Ballinasloe down the main Limerick and Galway road.St Ruth's initial plan, endorsed by Tyrconnell, had been to fall back on Limerick and force the Williamites into another year of campaigning, but wishing to redeem his errors at Athlone he appears to have instead decided to force a decisive battle. Ginkel found his way blocked by St Ruth’s army at Aughrim on the early morning of 12th of July 1691.
At this point both armies were about 20,000 strong. The core of the Jacobite army was formed around James's old Royal Irish Army, which had been reorganised by Tyrconnell from 1686 onwards by dismissing the majority of Protestant officers and men.It had been substantially expanded with newly-recruited Irish Catholic regiments, organised in the English military tradition. While it is not now possible to establish with certainty which Jacobite regiments were present at Aughrim, 30 regiments of foot, including the Foot Guards, Talbot's, Nugent's, Fitzgerald's, Boffin's, Cormack O'Neill's, Saxby's and Iveagh's, can be identified as likely to have fought. The army also included a substantial force of around 4,000 cavalry and dragoons.
Ginkel's army was drawn largely from amongst the members of William III’s League of Augsburg; its composition is much better documented than that of the Jacobites. In addition to English regiments, it included a large number of Anglo-Irish Protestants as well as Dutch, Danish and French Huguenot contingents.Different contemporary sources give different dispositions for Ginkel's forces at Aughrim, but most agree that the English and Anglo-Irish horse were on the right wing along with some Huguenot cavalry under Henri de Massue, with the left made up of Danish and French horse. The right centre was made up of English infantry and the left centre of French, Danish and Dutch.
According to witnesses of the battle the Jacobite position at Aughrim extended over two miles and was extremely strong.To protect his largely inexperienced infantry, St Ruth deployed most of it in two divisions under Major-Generals John Hamilton on the right centre, and William Dorrington on the left centre, in a defensive position along the crest of a ridge known as Kilcommadan Hill. The hillside was lined with small enclosures and hedgerows which St Ruth reinforced to assist the defence. The centre was further protected by a large bog, impassable to cavalry, through which the Melehan River flowed. The left flank was also bounded by a "a large Red Bogg, almost a mile over", through which there was only one causeway, overlooked by the deserted village of Aughrim and a ruined castle: St Ruth deployed the bulk of his cavalry here under Parker, Luttrell and Purcell, under the overall command of Dominic Sheldon. On the right flank where the Tristaun stream ran through the "Pass" of Urraghry or Urachree, much the more open and weaker position, St Ruth placed his best infantry and the cavalry regiments of Abercorn, Tyrconnell and Edmund Prendergast, all under his second-in-command, the chevalier de Tessé. According to one participant's account Patrick Sarsfield had quarrelled with St Ruth and was posted with the cavalry reserve to the left rear, under strict instructions not to move without orders.
After heavy mist all morning, Ginkel's forces moved into position by about two o'clock in the afternoon, and both sides cannonaded each other for the next few hours.Ginkel planned to avoid fully joining battle until the next day; he ordered a probing attack on the Jacobites' weaker right flank led by a captain and sixteen Danish troopers, followed by 200 of Cunningham's Eniskillen dragoons. The Jacobite response demonstrated the strength of their defence, but also meant that the attackers were no longer able to break off the engagement as Ginkel had planned. A conference was held at about 4 pm: Ginkel still inclined towards trying to withdraw, but the Williamite infantry general Hugh Mackay argued for an immediate attack. Mackay's advice was to continue the attack at the Pass of Urachree in the hope St Ruth would transfer men from his left wing, weakening it.
Battle was joined in earnest between five and six o'clock. In the centre, the Williamite foot under Mackay attempted a frontal assault on Dorrington's infantry on Kilcommadan Hill. The Williamite troops, mainly English and Scots, had to contend with waist-deep water and a tenacious Irish defence of the reinforced hedgelines. They withdrew with heavy losses: the Jacobites pursued them downhill, capturing colonels Erle and Herbert.
On their left centre, the Williamites advanced across low ground exposed to Jacobite fire and took a great number of casualties. The Williamite assault in this area, led by St John's and Tiffin's regiments and the Huguenot foot, was driven back into the bog by the Irish foot fighting with clubbed (reversed) muskets; many of the attackers were killed or drowned.In the rout, the pursuing Jacobites managed to spike a battery of Williamite guns. The Jacobite regiments of the Guards and Gordon O'Neill were said to have fought particularly strongly. The musketry was so intense that "the ridges seemed to be ablaze" according to Andreas Claudianus, a Norwegian fighting with the Danish infantry.
The Jacobite right and centre holding firm, Ginkel tried to force a way across the causeway on the Jacobite left, where any attack would have to pass along a narrow lane covered by Walter Burke's regiment from their positions in Aughrim castle.Four battalions led by Brigadier Kirke secured positions near the castle, following which Compton's Royal Horse Guards got across the causeway at the third attempt. Dorrington having earlier withdrawn two battalions of infantry from this area to reinforce the Jacobite centre, they were faced only with weak opposition, reaching Aughrim village. While a force of Jacobite cavalry and dragoons under Luttrell had been tasked with covering this flank, their commander had ordered them to fall back, following a route now known locally as "Luttrell's Pass". He was later alleged to have been in the pay of William, though it seems most probable that Luttrell withdrew as he had little or no infantry support. The cavalry regiments of Henri de Massue, Lanier, Langston and Byerley also crossed the causeway, attacking Dorrington's flank.
Most commentators, even those sympathetic to William, judged that the Irish foot had fought exceptionally well, and some accounts including James II's Memoirs claim that St Ruth was "in a transport of joy to see the foot [...] behave themselves so well".Appearing to believe that the battle could be won, he was heard to shout, "they are running, we will chase them back to the gates of Dublin", before riding across the battlefield to direct the defence against the Williamite cavalry on his left wing. However, as he rode over to rally his cavalry, St Ruth paused briefly to direct the fire of a battery, and was decapitated by a cannonball; his death was said to have occurred around sunset, shortly after eight o'clock.
After St Ruth's death the Jacobite left, devoid of a senior commander, collapsed very quickly: the regiment of Horse Guards left the field almost immediately, followed shortly by the cavalry and dragoon regiments of Luttrell, Sheldon and Galmoy.De Tessé attempted to head a cavalry counter-attack but was seriously wounded shortly afterwards. The Jacobite left flank was now exposed: Mackay and Tollemache also attacked again in the centre, pushing the Jacobites towards the hilltop. Burke and his regiment, still holding the castle, were forced to surrender. Most of the infantry remained unaware of St Ruth's death, however, and Hamilton's infantry on the Jacobite right continued to counter-attack, fighting the Huguenot foot to a standstill in an area still known locally as the "Bloody Hollow". At around nine o'clock towards nightfall the Jacobite infantry were finally pushed to the top of Killcommadan hill and broke, fleeing towards a bog in the left rear of their position, while their cavalry retreated towards Loughrea.
Sarsfield and Galmoy briefly tried to organise a rearguard action but as in many battles of the period most of the Jacobite casualties occurred in the pursuit, which was ended only by darkness and the onset of mist and rain.The defeated infantry were cut down in their hundreds by the Williamite cavalry as they tried to get away, many of them having thrown away their weapons in order to run faster.
In addition to the rank and file the Jacobite casualties and prisoners included many of its most experienced infantry officers: the dead included brigadiers Barker, O'Neill and O'Connell, and colonels Moore, Talbot, O'Mahony, Nugent, Felix O'Neil, and Ulick Burke, Lord Galway.Of the two major-generals commanding the Jacobite centre, Hamilton was killed and Dorrington captured. Though the killing of prisoners to prevent rescue was a common practice at the time, both sides afterwards accused each other of atrocities: Jacobite soldiers were said to have "cut to pieces" colonel Herbert after his capture. One contemporary Jacobite source (Leslie) alleged that about 2,000 Jacobites were killed "in cold blood" and that others, including Lord Galway and colonel Charles Moore, were killed after being promised quarter.
An eyewitness with the Williamite army, George Story, wrote that "from the top of the Hill where [the Jacobite] Camp had been," the bodies "looked like a great Flock of Sheep, scattered up and down the Countrey for almost four Miles round."
Estimates of the two armies' losses vary, but they were extremely heavy overall; it is generally agreed that about 5,000–7,000 men were killed at Aughrim. Allowing for poor recording of medieval battles, Aughrim has been described as "quite possibly the bloodiest battle ever fought in the British Isles".At the time, the Williamites claimed to have lost only 600 and to have killed fully 7,000 Jacobites. Some recent studies put the Williamite losses as high as 3,000, but they are more generally given as between 1,000–2,000, with 4,000 Jacobites killed. Another 4,000 Jacobites had either deserted or were taken prisoner: Ginkel recorded 526 prisoners taken of all ranks. While Ginkel had given word to Dorrington that the captives would be treated as prisoners of war, general officers were instead taken to the Tower of London as prisoners of state, while the majority of the rank and file were incarcerated on Lambay Island where many died of disease and starvation.
Aughrim was the decisive battle of the conflict: many of the Jacobite dead were experienced officers, who would be impossible to replace, and the army had lost the better part of its equipment and supplies. The remnants of the Jacobite army retreated to the mountains before regrouping under Sarsfield's command at Limerick, where the defences were still in the process of being repaired. However, many of the Jacobite infantry regiments were seriously depleted: for example on 22 July, Bellew's regiment was listed as having 240 soldiers, and had lost all its senior officers and sergeants; Slane's regiment 140 soldiers, and Louth's just 28, although some stragglers arrived later.The city of Galway surrendered without a fight after the battle, on advantageous terms, while Sarsfield and the Jacobites' main army surrendered shortly afterwards at Limerick after a short siege.
According to O Ciardha, the battle "made a searing impression on the Irish consciousness".It became known in Irish tradition, following a poem by Irish language poet Séamas Dall Mac Cuarta, the "Elegy for Sorley MacDonnell", as "Eachdhroim an áir" - "Aughrim of the slaughter". While Ginkel ordered the burial of his own dead and those Jacobites that lay on the ground where he wanted to pitch his own tents, the remaining Irish were left unburied, their bones remaining scattered on the battlefield for years afterwards. Mac Cuarta wrote of the Irish dead, "It is at Aughrim of the slaughter where they are to be found, their damp bones lying uncoffined". John Dunton in his work Teague Land , an account of his travels in Ireland written seven years after the battle, wrote that: "After the battle the English did not tarry to bury any of the dead but their own, and left those of the enemy exposed to the fowls of the air, for the country was then so uninhabited that there were not hands to inter them. Many dogs resorted to this aceldama where for want of other food they fed on man's flesh, and thereby became so dangerous and fierce that a single person could not pass that way without manifest hazard". He ends the description with the story of a faithful greyhound belonging to a Jacobite killed in the battle who remained by his master's body defending it until shot by a passing soldier in January of the following year.
While Aughrim remained a powerful symbol of disaster for Irish Catholics, it was also the focus of Loyalist (particularly Orange Order) celebrations in Ireland on 12 July up until the early 19th century. Thereafter, it was superseded by the Battle of the Boyne in commemorations on "the Twelfth" due to the switch to the Gregorian calendar (in which 1 July OS became 11 July NS and 12 July OS became 22 July NS). It has also been suggested that the Boyne became emphasised because the Irish troops could be more easily presented as cowardly than at Aughrim, where they were generally agreed to have fought bravely.The Loyalist song The Sash mentions Aughrim.
The battle was the subject of a 1728 tragic drama by Robert Ashton, The Battle of Aughrim or the Fall of Monsieur St Ruth, which after initial neglect became enormously popular from 1770 onwards into the 19th century. Though the play was intended to celebrate the Williamite victory, and casts St Ruth firmly in the role of antagonist, it also presents Sarsfield and his lieutenants sympathetically as epic figures and incorporates a "lament for Catholic patriotism", so that "both Catholics and Protestants were attracted to the play for generations".In 1804 it was noted of Ashton's play that "a more popular Production never appeared in Ireland; it is in the hands of every Peasant who can read English; and [...] is committed to memory and occasionally recited". In 1885, artist John Mulvany completed a painting of the battle; it was exhibited in Dublin in 2010. The Battle of Aughrim was also the subject of a long 1968 poem by Richard Murphy, who noted that he had ancestors fighting on both sides.
The Aughrim battlefield site became the subject of controversy in Ireland over plans to build the new M6 motorway through the former battlefield. Historians, environmentalists and members of the Orange Order objected to the plans; the motorway opened in 2009.
The Battle of Aughrim Interpretative Centre,in Aughrim village was opened in 1991. It is a collaboration between Aughrim Heritage Committee, Ireland West Tourism, and Galway County Council. It houses artefacts found on the battlefield site, as well as three-dimensional displays and a documentary film that explains the course of the battle and its significance in the wider context of the history of Ireland.
The Battle of the Boyne was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James VII and II of Scotland, England and Ireland and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II, had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688. The battle took place across the River Boyne close to the town of Drogheda in the Kingdom of Ireland, modern day Republic of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This turned the tide in James's failed attempt to regain the British crown and ultimately aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland.
The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite War in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange and concluded the Siege of Limerick. The treaty really consisted of two treaties, both of which were signed on 3 October 1691. Reputedly they were signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular block of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses. This stone is now displayed on a pedestal in Limerick, put there to prevent souvenir hunters from taking pieces of it. Because of the treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City.
Godard van Reede, 1st Earl of Athlone, Baron van Reede, Lord of Ginkel, born in the Netherlands as Baron Godard van Reede was a Dutch general in the service of England.
Athlone was besieged twice during the Williamite War in Ireland (1689–91). The town is situated in the centre of Ireland on the River Shannon and commanded the bridge crossing the river into the Jacobite-held province of Connacht. For this reason, it was of key strategic importance.
Claud Hamilton, 4th Earl of Abercorn was a Scottish and Irish peer and Jacobite.
Limerick, a city in western Ireland, was besieged twice in the Williamite War in Ireland, 1689-1691. On the first of these occasions, in August to September 1690, its Jacobite defenders retreated to the city after their defeat at the Battle of the Boyne. The Williamites, under William III, tried to take Limerick by storm, but were driven off and had to retire into their winter quarters.
The Siege of Limerick in western Ireland was a second siege of the town during the Williamite War in Ireland (1689–91). The city, held by Jacobite forces was able to beat off a Williamite assault in 1690. However, after a second siege in August – October 1691, it surrendered on favourable terms.
Nicholas Purcell, 13th Baron of Loughmoe was the son of James Purcell of Loughmoe and the maternal nephew of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde.
The Break of Dromore is a name given to a battle fought during the Williamite War in Ireland on 14 March 1689. The battle was fought between Catholic Jacobite troops of the Royal Irish Army under Richard Hamilton and Protestant Williamites of the Army of the North.
Henry Luttrell was an Irish soldier known for his service in the Jacobite cause. A career soldier, Luttrell served James II in England until his overthrow in 1688. In Ireland he continued to fight for James, reaching the rank of General in the Irish Army.
John Barrett was a colonel and head of the barony of the Cork Barrett family.
Charles O’Kelly (1621–1695) was an Irish soldier and writer.
Lady Honora Burke (1674–1698), styled at different times as Honora Sarsfield, Countess of Lucan and Honora FitzJames, Duchess of Berwick, was an Irish aristocrat of the late seventeenth century.
Ulick Burke, 1st Viscount Galway (1670-1691) was an Irish soldier who died at the Battle of Aughrim while fighting for the Jacobite cause during the Williamite War in Ireland.
William Dorrington was an English army officer of the seventeenth century, known for service in the Jacobite cause of James II. Dorrington rose to the rank of Major General in the Irish Army, fighting in the Williamite War.
Dominic Sheldon, often written as Dominick Sheldon, was an English soldier. A leading Jacobite he served in James II's Irish Army during the Williamite War between 1689 and 1691. He was a noted cavalry commander, present at the Battle of the Boyne and Battle of Aughrim. Later after going into exile, he rose to the rank of Lieutenant General in the French Army. He was also remained a prominent courtier at the Jacobite court in exile at Saint Germain.