Battle of Crysler's Farm

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Battle of Crysler's Farm
Part of the War of 1812
Battle of Crysler's Farm.jpg
Battle of Crysler’s Farm, Artist: Adam Sheriff Scott
Date11 November 1813
Location 44°56′2.4″N75°5′49.2″W / 44.934000°N 75.097000°W / 44.934000; -75.097000
Result Anglo-Canadian victory [1]
Flag of the United Kingdom (WFB 2000).svg  United Kingdom
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg  Upper Canada
Flag of the United States (1795-1818).svg  United States
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the United Kingdom (WFB 2000).svg Joseph Morrison
Flag of the United Kingdom (WFB 2000).svg William Mulcaster
Flag of the United States (1795-1818).svg James Wilkinson
Flag of the United States (1795-1818).svg John Boyd
Flag of the United States (1795-1818).svg Leonard Covington  
900 8,000
Casualties and losses
31 killed
148 wounded
13 missing [2]
102 killed
237 wounded
unknown missing up to 120 captured [3]
Canada relief map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within Canada
Canada Ontario relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Battle of Crysler's Farm (Ontario)

The Battle of Crysler's Farm, also known as the Battle of Crysler's Field, [4] was fought on 11 November 1813, during the War of 1812 (the name Chrysler's Farm is sometimes used for the engagement, but Crysler is the proper spelling). A British and Canadian force won a victory over a US force which greatly outnumbered them. The US defeat prompted them to abandon the St. Lawrence Campaign, their major strategic effort in the autumn of 1813.


Saint Lawrence Campaign

American plan

The battle arose from a United States military campaign which was intended to capture Montreal. The resulting military actions, including the Battle of the Chateauguay, the Battle of Crysler's Farm and a number of skirmishes, are collectively known as the St. Lawrence Campaign. [5] [ citation needed ]

The American plans were devised by the United States Secretary of War, John Armstrong Jr. John Armstrong Jr..jpg
The American plans were devised by the United States Secretary of War, John Armstrong Jr.

The US plan was devised by United States Secretary of War John Armstrong Jr., who originally intended to take the field himself. [6] Because it was difficult to concentrate the necessary force in one place due to the initially scattered disposition of the troops and inadequate lines of communication, it involved two forces which were to combine for the final assault. Major General James Wilkinson's division of 8,000 was to concentrate at Sackett's Harbor on Lake Ontario, and proceed down the Saint Lawrence River in gunboats, batteaux and other small craft. At some point, they would rendezvous with a division of 4,000 under Major General Wade Hampton advancing north from Plattsburgh on Lake Champlain, to make the final attack on Montreal. [7]

Even as preparations proceeded, it was apparent that the plan had several shortcomings. Until the last minute, it was uncertain that Montreal was to be the objective, as Armstrong originally intended to attack Kingston, where the British naval squadron on Lake Ontario was based. However, Commodore Isaac Chauncey, commanding the US Navy squadron on the lake, refused to risk his ships in any attack against Kingston. [7] There was mistrust between the US Army officers concerned; Wilkinson had an unsavoury reputation as a scoundrel, and Hampton originally refused to serve in any capacity in the same army as Wilkinson. [6] The troops lacked training and uniforms, sickness was rife and there were too few experienced officers. Chiefly though, it appeared that neither force could carry sufficient supplies to sustain itself before Montreal, making a siege or any prolonged blockade impossible. [8]

American preliminary moves

Hampton began his part of the campaign on 19 September with an advance down the Richelieu River, which flows north from Lake Champlain. He decided that the defences on this obvious route were too strong and instead shifted westward to Four Corners, on the Chateauguay River near the border with Canada. He was forced to wait there for several weeks as Wilkinson's force was not ready, which cost him some of his initial advantage in numbers as Canadian troops were moved to the Chateauguay, and reduced his supplies. [9]

Armstrong had intended that Wilkinson's force would set out on 15 September. On 2 September, Wilkinson himself had gone to Fort George, which the Americans had captured in May, to arrange the movement of Brigadier General John Parker Boyd's division from Fort George to rendezvous with the troops from Sackett's Harbor. [7] Possibly because he was ill, he delayed around Fort George for nearly a month. He returned to Sackett's Harbor, and Boyd's division began its movement, only in the first week in October. [10]

The poor prospects for success (and possibly his own illness) [6] led Armstrong to abandon his intention of leading the final assault himself. He handed overall command of the expedition to Wilkinson and departed Sackett's Harbor on his way to Washington on 16 October, just before Wilkinson's part of the campaign was at last launched. Armstrong's letter to Hampton, notifying him of the change in command and also throwing much of the burden of supplying the combined force onto him, arrived the evening before Hampton's army fought the Battle of the Chateauguay. Although Hampton nevertheless attacked, as part of his force was already committed to an outflanking move, he immediately sent his resignation, and fell back when his first attack was repulsed. [11]

Wilkinson's moves

Wilkinson's force left Sackett's Harbor in 300 batteaux and other small craft [12] on 17 October, bound at first for Grenadier Island at the head of the St. Lawrence. Mid-October was very late in the year for serious campaigning in the Canadas and the American force was hampered by bad weather, losing several boats and suffering from sickness and exposure. It took several days for the last stragglers to reach Grenadier Island. [13]

Wilkinson's flotilla off the shore of Bald Island. The force set out in 300 batteaux and other small crafts on 17 October. Battle of Chrysler's Farm.jpg
Wilkinson's flotilla off the shore of Bald Island. The force set out in 300 batteaux and other small crafts on 17 October.

On 1 November, the first boats set out from the island, and reached French Creek (near present-day Clayton, New York) on 4 November. Here, the first shots of the campaign were fired. British brigs and gunboats under Commander William Mulcaster had left Kingston to rendezvous with and escort batteaux and canoes carrying supplies up the Saint Lawrence. The aggressive Mulcaster bombarded the American anchorages and encampments during the evening. The next morning, American artillerymen under Lieutenant Colonel Moses Porter drove him away, using hastily heated "hot shot". [13] (The red-hot American cannonballs set fire to the brig Earl of Moira, and the crew intentionally scuttled the brig to extinguish the fire. The brig was later salvaged and returned to service.) [15]

From French Creek, Wilkinson proceeded down the river. On 6 November, while at the settlement of Hoags, he received the news that Hampton had been repulsed at the Chateauguay River on 26 October. He sent fresh instructions to Hampton to march westward from his present position at Four Corners, New York and meet him at Cornwall. [13]

Wilkinson's force successfully bypassed the British post at Prescott late on 7 November. The troops and ammunition were disembarked and marched around Ogdensburg on the south bank of the river, while the lightened boats ran past the British batteries under cover of darkness and poor visibility. Only one boat was lost, with two killed and three wounded. The next day, while the main body re-embarked, an advance guard battalion commanded by colonels Alexander Macomb and Winfield Scott, followed by a battalion of riflemen under Major Benjamin Forsyth were landed on the Canadian side of the river near Point Iroquois to clear the river bank of harassing Dundas County Militia, who were reported to have turned "every narrow stretch of the waterway" from Leeds to Glengarry into "a shooting gallery". Here the small ‘Battle of Iroquois Point’ was fought between 1,200 Americans and 200 men of the Dundas Militia. [16] [17] This delaying skirmish helped the Canadian forces bolster their defences and gave extra time for preparation in Cornwall.

On the following day (9 November), Wilkinson held a council of war. All his senior officers appeared to be determined to proceed with the expedition, regardless of the difficulties and alarming reports of enemy strength. [18] The advance guard was reinforced with the 2nd Brigade (6th, 15th and 22nd U.S. infantry) under Brigadier General Jacob Brown, who took command of the force which numbered 2.500. [19] Brown's force marched eastward along the northern bank of the river, clearing a small British garrison from Fort Matilda, at the river's narrowest point. Before the main body could follow by water, Wilkinson learned that a British force was pursuing him. He landed almost all the other troops as a rearguard, under Brigadier General John Parker Boyd. Late on 10 November, after a day spent marching under intermittent fire from British gunboats and field guns, Wilkinson set up his headquarters in Cook's Tavern, with Boyd's troops bivouacked in the surrounding woods. [20]

British counter-moves

The British dispatched the Corps of Observation, commanded by Lt Col Joseph Wanton Morrison, after the Americans heading down the Saint Lawrence River Joseph Wanton Morrison - britischer General.jpg
The British dispatched the Corps of Observation, commanded by Lt Col Joseph Wanton Morrison, after the Americans heading down the Saint Lawrence River

The British had been aware of the American concentration at Sackett's Harbor, but for a long time they had believed, with good reason, that their own main naval base at Kingston was the intended target of Wilkinson's force. Major General Francis de Rottenburg, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, had massed his available troops there. When Mulcaster returned from French Creek late on 5 November with news that the Americans were heading down the Saint Lawrence, de Rottenburg dispatched a Corps of Observation after them, in accordance with orders previously issued by Governor General Sir George Prevost. [21]

The corps initially numbered 650 men, and was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Wanton Morrison, the commanding officer of the 2nd Battalion, the 89th Regiment. They were embarked in the schooners Beresford and Sir Sydney Smith , accompanied by seven gunboats and several small craft, all commanded by Mulcaster. They departed from Kingston in thick weather late on 7 November [22] and evaded the ships of Commodore Isaac Chauncey, which were blockading the base, among the Thousand Islands at the head of the Saint Lawrence River. On 9 November, they reached Prescott, where the troops disembarked as the schooners could proceed no farther (although Mulcaster continued to accompany them with three gunboats and some batteaux). Morrison was reinforced by a detachment of 240 men from the garrison of Prescott, for a total strength of about 900 men. [21]

Marching rapidly, they caught up with Boyd's rearguard on 10 November. That evening they encamped near Crysler's Farm, two miles upstream from the American positions. The terrain was mainly open fields, which gave full scope to British tactics and musketry, while the muddy ground (planted with fall wheat) and the marshy nature of the woods surrounding the farm would hamper the American manoeuvres. Morrison was keen to accept battle here if offered. [20] [23]


As dawn broke on 11 November, it was cold and raining, though the rain later eased. Firing broke out in two places. On the river, Mulcaster's gunboats began shooting at the American boats clustered around Cook's Point, while a Mohawk fired a shot at an American party scouting near their encampment, who replied with a volley. [23] Half a dozen Canadian Militia dragoons bolted back to the main British force, calling that the Americans were attacking. The British force dropped its half-cooked breakfast and formed up, which caused American sentries to report that the British were attacking, and forced the Americans in turn to form up and stand to arms. [23]

A map displaying the disposition of forces during the battle Battle of Chrysler's Farm II.jpg
A map displaying the disposition of forces during the battle

At about 10:30 a.m., Wilkinson received a message from Jacob Brown, who reported that the previous evening he had defeated 500 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders militia at Hoople's Creek and the way ahead was clear. To proceed, however, the American boats would next have to face the Long Sault rapids and Wilkinson determined to drive Morrison off before attempting them. He himself had been ill for some time, and could not command the attack himself. His second-in-command, Major General Morgan Lewis, was also "indisposed". This left Brigadier General Boyd in command. He had immediately available the 3rd Brigade under Brigadier General Leonard Covington (9th, 16th and 25th U.S. Infantry) and the 4th Brigade under Brigadier General Robert Swartwout (11th, 14th and 21st U.S. Infantry), with two 6-pounder guns. Some distance down-river were part of Boyd's own 1st Brigade under the brigade's second-in-command, Colonel Isaac Coles, (12th and 13th U.S. Infantry), four more 6-pounder guns and a squadron of the 2nd U.S. Dragoons. In all, Boyd commanded perhaps 2,500 men [24] (though some sources put the figure at 4,000). [25]

British dispositions

The British were disposed in echelon, with their right wing thrown forward:


Boyd did not order an assault until the middle of the afternoon. On the American right, the 21st U.S. Infantry under Colonel Eleazer Wheelock Ripley advanced and drove the British skirmish line back through the woods, for almost a mile. Here they paused, and were joined by the 12th and 13th U.S. Infantry from Coles' brigade. [25] (Where Swartwout's other two regiments were at this point is unclear.) Ripley and Coles resumed their advance along the edge of the woods, but were startled to see a line of redcoats (the 2nd/89th, on Morrison's left flank) rise up out of concealment and open fire. The American soldiers dived behind tree stumps and bushes to return fire, and their attack lost all order and momentum. As ammunition ran short, they began to retreat out of line. [29]

Meanwhile, Covington's brigade struggled across the ravine and deployed into line, under musket and shrapnel fire. Legend has it that at this point, Covington mistook the battle-hardened 49th Regiment in their grey greatcoats for Canadian Militia and called out to his men, "Come on, my lads! Let us see how you will deal with these militiamen!" [30] A moment later, he was mortally wounded. His second-in-command took over, only to be killed almost immediately. The brigade quickly lost order and began to retreat. [24]

Boyd could not bring all his six guns into action until his infantry were already falling back. When they did open fire from the road along the river bank, they were quite effective. Morrison's second-in-command, Lieutenant Colonel John Harvey, ordered the 49th to capture them. The 49th made a charge in awkward echelon formation, suffering heavy casualties from the American guns as they struggled across several rail fences. The United States Dragoons (under Wilkinson's adjutant general, Colonel John Walbach) now intervened, charging the exposed right flank of the 49th. [24] The 49th halted their own advance, reformed line from echelon formation and wheeled back their right. Under heavy fire from the 49th, Pearson's detachment and Jackson's two guns, the dragoons renewed their charge twice but eventually fell back, leaving 18 killed and 12 wounded (out of 130). [24] They had bought time for all but one of the American guns to be removed. Barnes's companies of the 2/89th overtook the 49th and captured the one gun which had become bogged down and been abandoned. [31]

It was now about half past four. Almost all of the American army was in full retreat. The 25th U.S. Infantry under Colonel Edmund P. Gaines and the collected boat guards under Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Upham held the ravine for a while, but Pearson threatened to get around their left flank, and they, too, fell back. [31] As it was growing dark and the weather was turning stormy, the British halted their advance. The American army meanwhile retreated in great confusion to their boats and crossed to the south (American) bank of the river, although the British did not stand down from battle stations for some time, wary of the Americans renewing the attack. An American witness stated that 1,000 American stragglers had made their way across the river during the battle itself. [32]


Although the British casualties were reported in Morrison's despatches as 22 killed, 148 wounded and 9 missing, it has been demonstrated that a further nine men were killed and an additional four men were missing, [2] giving a revised total of 31 killed, 148 wounded and 13 missing. The American casualties, from the official return, were 102 killed, and 237 wounded including Brigadier General Covington. [33] No figures were given for men missing or captured but the official return notes that three of the sixteen officers listed as wounded were also captured. [34] The number of American prisoners taken was initially reported as "upwards of 100" by Morrison but he wrote that more were still being brought in. [35] The final tally was 120. [36] Most of these were severely wounded men who had been left on the field but fourteen unwounded enlisted men were captured after trying to hide in a swamp. [37] A Canadian who rode across the battlefield on the morning of 12 November remembered it being "covered with Americans killed and wounded". [38]


Maj Gen James Wilkinson called for a council of war and opted to end the campaign shortly after the battle James Wilkinson.jpg
Maj Gen James Wilkinson called for a council of war and opted to end the campaign shortly after the battle

On 12 November, the sullen American flotilla successfully navigated the Long Sault rapids. That evening, they reached a settlement known as Barnhardt's, 3 miles (4.8 km) above Cornwall, where they rendezvoused with Brown's detachment. There was no sign of Hampton's force, but Colonel Henry Atkinson, one of Hampton's staff officers, brought Hampton's reply to Wilkinson's letter of 6 November. Hampton stated that a shortage of supplies had forced him to retire to Plattsburgh. Wilkinson used this as pretext to call another council of war, which unanimously opted to end the campaign. [39] The defeat of the American forces at the Battle of Crysler's Farm and, on 26 October, at the Battle of the Chateauguay, ended the American threat to Montreal in the late fall of 1813, and with it the risk that Canada would be cut into two parts.[ citation needed ]

The army went into winter quarters at French Mills, 7 miles (11 km) from the Saint Lawrence, but the roads were almost impassable in this season, and Wilkinson was also forced by a lack of supplies and sickness among his army to retreat to Plattsburg. He was later dismissed from command shortly after a failed attack on a British outpost at Lacolle Mills. He subsequently faced a court martial on various charges of negligence and misconduct during the St. Lawrence Campaign, but was exonerated when most of the government's witnesses refused to testify. [5] Lewis was retired, while Boyd was sidelined into rear-area commands. Brown, Macomb, Ripley and Gaines were subsequently promoted. [40]

On the British side, Mulcaster was promoted to post-captain to take command of a frigate but lost a leg in 1814 during the Raid on Fort Oswego, ending his active career. Morrison also was severely wounded later in 1814 at the Battle of Lundy's Lane. Morrison, Harvey and Pearson all eventually became generals, as did Major James B. Dennis, who commanded the militia which fought Brown at Hoople's Creek.

Orders of Battle

British / Canadian order of battle [41] American order of battle [41]

Morrison’s Corps of Observation, Centre Division, British Army in North America (Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Wanton Morrison)

  • Eight Companies, 49th Regiment of Foot [304 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Charles Plenderleath)
  • Five companies, 2nd Battalion, 89th Regiment of Foot [240 officers and men] (Major Miller Clifford)
  • The Advance [184 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Pearson)
    • Grenadier Company, 49th Foot [39 officers and men] (Lieutenant Samuel Holland)
    • Light Company, 49th Foot [39 officers and men]
    • Two companies, Canadian Fencibles [108 officers and men]
  • Captain Barnes’s Command (Captain George West Barnes, 89th Foot)
    • Three companies, 89th Foot [144 officers and men]
  • The Light Troops [192 officers and men] (Major Frederick G. Heriot)
    • Three companies, Canadian Voltigeurs
      • one company (Captain Jacques Adhèmar)
      • one company (Captain William Johnson)
      • one company (Captain Jacques-Clèment Herse)
    • Provincial Light Dragoons [12 officers and men] (Captain Richard D. Fraser)
    • Mohawk Warriors [30] (Lieutenant Charles Anderson)
  • Royal Artillery [est. 63 officers and gunners] (Captain Henry G. Jackson, RA)
    • Three 6 pounder guns
  • Other Units Present
    • 1st Regiment, Dundas Militia [60 officers and men]
    • 1st Regiment of Glengarry Militia
    • 2nd Regiment of Glengarry Militia
    • 1st Regiment of Stormont Militia
    • one rifle company, 1st Regiment of Leeds Militia

General Wilkinson’s Army, US Army (Commanding General: Major General James Wilkinson) (Second in Command: Major General Morgan Lewis)

  • First Brigade [est. 1311 officers and men] (Brigadier General John Parker Boyd)
    • Fifth U.S. Infantry [551 officers and men] (Colonel Daniel Bissell)
    • Twelfth U.S. Infantry [369 officers and men] (Major Robert C. Nicholas)
    • Thirteenth U.S. Infantry [391 officers and men] (Colonel James P. Preston)
  • Second Brigade [est. 1294 officers and men] (Brigadier General Jacob Brown)
    • Fifteenth U.S. Infantry [457 officers and men] (Colonel David Brearley)
    • Twenty-Second U.S. Infantry [469 officers and men] (Colonel Hugh Brady)
    • Sixth U.S. Infantry [368 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel James Miller)
  • Third Brigade [est. 1407 officers and men] (Brigadier General Leonard Covington)
    • Ninth U.S. Infantry [468 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Aspinwall)
    • Sixteenth U.S. Infantry [377 officers and men] (Colonel Cromwell Pearce)
    • Twenty-Fifth U.S. Infantry [562 officers and men] (Colonel Edmund P. Gaines)
  • Fourth Brigade [est. 1348 officers and men] (Brigadier General Robert Swartwout)
    • One Battalion, Eleventh U.S. Infantry [449 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Upham)
    • Fourteenth U.S. Infantry [267 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Dix)
    • Twenty-First U.S. Infantry [632 officers and men] (Colonel Eleazer Wheelock Ripley)
  • Reserve Brigade or Elite [est. 1143 officers and men] (Brigadier General Alexander Macomb)
    • Third Artillery Regiment [est. 350 officers and men] (Colonel Winfield Scott)
    • Twentieth U.S. Infantry [230 officers and men] (Colonel Thomas Mann Randolph)
    • One Battalion, First US Rifle Regiment [263 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Forsyth)
    • Albany Volunteers [300 officers and men]
  • Cavalry [est. 460 officers and men]
    • First Regiment of US Light Dragoons [249 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Nelson Luckett)
    • Second Regiment of US Light Dragoons [211 officers and men] (Major John T. Woodford)
  • Artillery [est. 348 officers and men] (Brigadier General Moses Porter)
    • Regiment of US Light Artillery [264 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Abram Eustis)
    • Second Artillery Regiment [78 officers and men] (Captain Samuel B. Archer)


Brigadier General Boyd’s Command (Commanding General: Brigadier General John Parker Boyd)

  • First Brigade [est. 450 officers and men] (Colonel Isaac Coles)
    • Twelfth U.S. Infantry [225 officers and men] (Major Robert C. Nicholas)
    • Thirteenth U.S. Infantry [225 officers and men] (Colonel James P. Preston)
  • Third Brigade [est. 900 officers and men] (Brigadier General Leonard Covington)
    • Ninth U.S. Infantry [300 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Aspinwall)
    • Sixteenth U.S. Infantry [225 officers and men] (Colonel Cromwell Pearce)
    • Twenty-Fifth U.S. Infantry [375 officers and men] (Colonel Edmund P. Gaines)
  • Fourth Brigade [est. 850 officers and men] (Brigadier General Robert Swartwout)
    • Eleventh U.S. Infantry [300 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Upham)
    • Fourteenth U.S. Infantry [125 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Dix)
    • Twenty-First U.S. Infantry [425 officers and men] (Colonel Eleazer Wheelock Ripley)
  • Boat Guard [600 officers and men] (Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Upham, Twelfth U.S. Infantry)
  • Second In Command: Major Richard Malcom, Thirteenth U.S. Infantry
  • Cavalry
    • Second Regiment of US Light Dragoons [est. 150 officers and men] (Major John T. Woodford)
  • Artillery [est. 100 officers and men] (Lieutenant Henry Knox Craig, Second Artillery)
    • One detachment, Regiment of Light Artillery (Lieutenant Armstrong Irvine)
    • One detachment, Second Artillery Regiment (Lieutenant Henry Knox Craig)
      • Six 6 pounder guns


Engraving found on a monument erected in memory of the battle near Upper Canada Village. Memorial, Battle of Crysler's Farm, engraving.jpg
Engraving found on a monument erected in memory of the battle near Upper Canada Village.

In 1895, the Canadian Department of Militia and Defence erected a monument on the site. The battle site was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1920 and a plaque was placed to mark the site in 1921. [42] The area of Crysler's Farm was permanently submerged in 1958 as a result of the construction of the Moses-Saunders Power Dam for the St. Lawrence Seaway. The monument erected in 1895 commemorating the battle was moved from Crysler's Farm to Crysler’s Farm Battlefield Park in Morrisburg. [42]

Ten active regular battalions of the United States Army (1–2 Inf, 2-2 Inf, 1–4 Inf, 2–4 Inf, 3–4 Inf, 1–5 Inf, 2–5 Inf, 1–6 Inf, 2–6 Inf and 4–6 Inf) perpetuate the lineages of a number of American infantry regiments (the old 9th, 11th, 13th, 14th, 16th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd and 25th infantry regiments) that took part in the battle.[ citation needed ]

The British Army did not award a battle honour for Crysler's Farm, however they did issue a General Service Medal for various War of 1812 battles, one of which was Crysler's Farm, mis-spelled "Christler's" on the clasp. Twelve rank and file survived to claim the medal in 1847 for serving at the battle, although others may not have bothered to do so. [43] The 49th Regiment of Foot is perpetuated in the British Army by the Rifles Regiment, while the 89th is perpetuated by the Royal Irish Regiment (1992).[ citation needed ]

Three regiments of the Canadian Army (the Royal 22e Régiment, the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders and Les Voltigeurs de Québec) do carry the Battle Honour "Crysler's Farm", awarded by the Canadian government in 2012 to Canadian Army regiments that are the successor units of regular and militia units that took part in the battle. The honour commemorates both the significance of the battle for the defence of Canada as well as the sacrifices made by regular and militia units during the engagement. [44]

On the occasion of the bicentennial of the battle (11 November 2013) Prime Minister Stephen Harper visited the Crysler's Farm Battlefield Park on Remembrance Day and laid a wreath at the cenotaph in the presence of contingents from the Royal 22e Régiment, the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders and Les Voltigeurs de Québec as well as representatives from First Nations who fought there. American and British diplomatic representatives also attended the ceremony and laid wreaths. [45] [46]


  1. Feltoe, p.143
  2. 1 2 Graves, pp. 268–269; notes 6 and 7, p. 403
  3. The War of 1812 in the West: From Fort Detroit to New Orleans, by David Kirkpatrick, page 102
  4. Lossing, p. 654
  5. 1 2 Cox, Howard (2023). American Traitor: General James Wilkinson's Betrayal of the Republic and Escape From Justice. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. pp. 277–285. ISBN   9781647123420.
  6. 1 2 3 Elting (1995), p. 137
  7. 1 2 3 Elting (1995), p. 138
  8. Elting, p.152
  9. Elting, p. 145
  10. Elting, p. 139
  11. Elting, p. 146
  12. Ashdown, Dana William. ""Wilkinson's Invasion Flotilla of 1813: A paper examining the American flotilla of Major-General James Wilkinson, and its potential survival in the Salmon River at Fort Covington, New York."" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  13. 1 2 3 Elting, p. 142
  14. 1 2 Lossing, Benson (1868). The Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. Harper & Brothers, Publishers. p. 650.
  15. Malcomson, Robert (1998). Lords of the Lake:The Naval War on Lake Ontario 1812–1814 . Toronto: Robin Brass Studio. ISBN   1-896941-08-7.
  16. Way, in Zaslow, p. 67
  17. Way, Ronald L. "The Day of Crysler's Farm" (PDF). pp. 184–214.
  18. Hitsman, p. 189
  19. Elting, p. 148
  20. 1 2 Way, in Zaslow, p. 69
  21. 1 2 Hitsman, pp. 188–189
  22. Way, in Zaslow, p. 66
  23. 1 2 3 Way, in Zaslow, p.73
  24. 1 2 3 4 Elting, p. 149
  25. 1 2 Way, in Zaslow, p. 74
  26. Hitsman, p.190
  27. Graves, Donald E. (September–October 2011). "Forgotten Hero in a Forgotten War". Humanities. Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
  28. Way, in Zaslow, p. 72
  29. Narrative of Ripley, in Way, in Zaslow, p. 76
  30. Way, in Zaslow, p. 75
  31. 1 2 Hitsman, p.191
  32. Way, in Zaslow, p. 81
  33. Elting, p. 150
  34. Cruikshank, p. 174
  35. Cruikshank, p. 170
  36. Cruikshank, p. 220
  37. Graves, p. 257
  38. Graves, p. 272
  39. Elting, pp. 150–151
  40. Elting, p.177
  41. 1 2 Graves, Donald E. (1999). Field of Glory: The Battle of Crysler’s Farm, 1813. Robin Brass Studio. pp. 355–364. ISBN   1-896941-10-9.
  42. 1 2 "Battle of Crysler's Farm National Historic Site of Canada". Canada's Historic Places. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  43. Way, in Zaslow, p. 82
  44. "Battle Honours and Honourary Distinctions: Crysler's Farm". Government of Canada. 22 July 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-09-28. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  45. Goodman, Le-Anne (11 November 2013). "Remembrance Day 2013: Harper Marks 200th Anniversary Of Key War Of 1812 Battle". Huffington Post Canada. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  46. "Remembrance Day and the Battle of Crysler's Farm". 12 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-11-24. Retrieved 15 March 2021.


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The Battle of York was a War of 1812 battle fought in York, Upper Canada on April 27, 1813. An American force supported by a naval flotilla landed on the lakeshore to the west and advanced against the town, which was defended by an outnumbered force of regulars, militia and Ojibwe natives under the overall command of Major General Roger Hale Sheaffe, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Lundy's Lane</span> War of 1812 battle

The Battle of Lundy's Lane, also known as the Battle of Niagara, was a battle fought on 25 July 1814, during the War of 1812, between an invading American army and a British and Canadian army near present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario. It was one of the bloodiest battles of the war, and one of the deadliest battles fought in Canada, with approximately 1,720 casualties including 258 killed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of the Chateauguay</span> War of 1812 battle

The Battle of the Chateauguay was an engagement of the War of 1812. On 26 October 1813, a combined British and Canadian force consisting of 1,530 regulars, volunteers, militia and Mohawk warriors from Lower Canada, commanded by Charles de Salaberry, repelled an American force of about 2,600 regulars which was attempting to invade Lower Canada and ultimately attack Montreal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Beaver Dams</span> War of 1812 battle

The Battle of Beaver Dams took place on 24 June 1813, during the War of 1812. A column of troops from the United States Army marched from Fort George and attempted to surprise a British outpost at Beaver Dams, billeting themselves overnight in the village of Queenston, Ontario. Laura Secord, a resident of Queenston, had earlier learned of the American plans from several Americans billeted at her house and had struck out on a long and difficult trek to warn the British at Decou's stone house near present-day Brock University. When the Americans resumed their march, they were ambushed by Kahnawake and other native warriors and eventually surrendered to a small British detachment led by Lieutenant James FitzGibbon. About 500 U.S. troops, including their wounded commander, were taken prisoner.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Chippawa</span> War of 1812 battle

The Battle of Chippawa, also known as the Battle of Chippewa, was a victory for the United States Army in the War of 1812, during its invasion on July 5, 1814, of the British Empire's colony of Upper Canada along the Niagara River. This battle and the subsequent Battle of Lundy's Lane demonstrated that trained American troops could hold their own against British regulars. The battlefield is preserved as a National Historic Site of Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siege of Fort Erie</span>

The siege of Fort Erie, also known as the Battle of Erie, from 4 August to 21 September 1814, was one of the last engagements of the War of 1812, between British and American forces. It took place during the Niagara campaign, and the Americans successfully defended Fort Erie against a British army. During the siege, the British suffered high casualties in a failed storming attempt; they also suffered casualties from sickness and exposure in their rough encampments. Unaware that the British were about to abandon the siege, the American garrison launched a sortie to destroy the British siege batteries, during which both sides again suffered high losses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Fort George</span> 1813 battle of the War of 1812

The Battle of Fort George was a battle fought during the War of 1812, in which the Americans defeated a British force and captured Fort George in Upper Canada. The troops of the United States Army and vessels of the United States Navy cooperated in a very successful amphibious assault, although most of the opposing British force escaped encirclement.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siege of Fort Meigs</span> Battle in the War of 1812

The siege of Fort Meigs took place in late April to early May 1813 during the War of 1812 in northwestern Ohio, present-day Perrysburg. A small British Army unit with support from Indians attempted to capture the recently constructed fort to forestall an American offensive against Detroit, and its Fort Detroit in the Great Lakes region which the British from the north in Canada had captured the previous year. An American sortie and relief attempt failed with heavy casualties, but the British failed to capture the fort and were forced to raise the siege.

The Battle of Longwoods took place during the Anglo-American War of 1812. On 4 March 1814, a mounted American raiding party defeated an attempt by British regulars, volunteers from the Canadian militia and Native Americans to intercept them near Wardsville, in present-day Southwest Middlesex, Ontario.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Lacolle Mills (1814)</span> Battle on 30 March 1814 during the War of 1812

The Battle of Lacolle Mills was fought on 30 March 1814 during the War of 1812. The small garrison of a British outpost position, aided by reinforcements, fought off a large American attack.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Capture of Fort Niagara</span>

The Capture of Fort Niagara took place late in 1813, during the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States. The American garrison was taken by surprise, and the fort was captured in a night assault by a select force of British regular infantry.

The 89th Regiment of Foot was a regiment of the British Army, raised on 3 December 1793. Under the Childers Reforms the regiment amalgamated with the 87th Regiment of Foot to form the Princess Victoria's in 1881.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Mackinac Island (1814)</span>

The Battle of Mackinac Island was a British victory in the War of 1812. Before the war, Fort Mackinac had been an important American trading post in the straits between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. It was important for its influence and control over the Native American tribes in the area, which was sometimes referred to in historical documents as "Michilimackinac".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joseph Wanton Morrison</span> British Army general

Joseph Wanton Morrison was a British Army officer best known for commanding the British troops at the Battle of Crysler's Farm during the War of 1812.

The Battle of Malcolm's Mills was the last battle of the War of 1812 fought in the Canadas. A force of American mounted troops overran and scattered a force of Canadian militia. The battle was fought on November 6, 1814, near the village of Oakland in Brant County, Upper Canada, and was part of a series of battles fought by American Brigadier General Duncan McArthur on an extended raid into Upper Canada, known variously as McArthur's Raid or Dudley's Raid. Marching over 200 miles (320 km) into Canada, the Americans returned to Detroit on November 17 after 11 days of raiding the Ontario Peninsula.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas Pearson (British Army officer, born 1782)</span>

Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Pearson KCB KCH was a British Army officer, who took part in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, and in the War of 1812 against the United States of America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Frenchman's Creek</span> Battle of the War of 1812

The Battle of Frenchman's Creek took place during the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States in the early hours of November 28, 1812, in the Crown Colony of Upper Canada, near the Niagara River. The operation was conceived as a raid to prepare the ground for a larger American invasion. The Americans succeeded in crossing the Niagara and landing at both of their points of attack. They achieved one of their two objectives before withdrawing but the invasion was subsequently called off, rendering useless what had been accomplished. The engagement was named, "the Battle of Frenchman's Creek" by the Canadians, after the location of some of the severest fighting. To contemporary Americans, it was known as, "the Affair opposite Black Rock".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles de Salaberry</span> Canadian military officer and statesman

Lieutenant Colonel Charles-Michel d'Irumberry de Salaberry, CB was a Canadian military officer and statesman of the seigneurial class who served in various campaigns for the British Army. He won distinction for repelling the American advance on Montreal during the War of 1812.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dundas County Militia</span> Military unit

The Dundas County Militia was a regiment of the provincial militia of Upper Canada that was raised in Dundas County, Ontario, in the 1780s. The battle honours and legacy of the Dundas Militia are perpetuated by the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders.