Becoming Jane

Last updated

Becoming Jane
Becoming jane ver4.jpg
UK theatrical release poster
Directed by Julian Jarrold
Produced by Graham Broadbent
Robert Bernstein
Douglas Rae
Written by Kevin Hood
Sarah Williams
Starring
Music by Adrian Johnston
Cinematography Eigil Bryld
Edited by Emma E. Hickox
Production
company
Distributed by Buena Vista International (UK) [1]
Release date
  • 9 March 2007 (2007-03-09)
Running time
120 minutes [2]
CountryUnited Kingdom
Ireland
LanguageEnglish
Budget$16.5 million [3]
Box office$39.4 million [3]

Becoming Jane is a 2007 British-Irish biographical romantic drama film directed by Julian Jarrold. It depicts the early life of the British author Jane Austen and her lasting love for Thomas Langlois Lefroy. American actress Anne Hathaway stars as the title character, while her romantic interest is played by Scottish actor James McAvoy. Also appearing in the film are Julie Walters, James Cromwell and Maggie Smith. The film was produced in cooperation with several companies, including Ecosse Films and Blueprint Pictures. It also received funding from the Irish Film Board and the UK Film Council Premiere Fund.

Contents

The film is partly based on the 2003 book Becoming Jane Austen by Jon Hunter Spence, who was also hired as historical consultant. The final screenplay, developed by Sarah Williams and Kevin Hood, pieced together some known facts about Austen into a coherent story, in what co-producer Graham Broadbent called "our own Austenesque landscape." According to Hood, he attempted to weave together "what we know about Austen's world from her books and letters," and believed Austen's personal life was the inspiration for Pride and Prejudice . [4] Jarrold began production of the film in early 2006, opting to shoot primarily in Ireland as he found it had better-preserved locations than Hampshire, England, where Austen was raised.

Released firstly in the United Kingdom on 9 March 2007 and in other countries later in the year, Becoming Jane earned approximately $37 million worldwide. The film received mixed reviews from critics. Hathaway's performance received mixed critical reception, with some reviewers negatively focusing on her nationality and accent. Commentators and scholars have analysed the presence of Austen characters and themes within the film, and also noted the implementation of mass marketing in the film's release.

Plot

Jane Austen is the younger daughter of the Reverend George Austen and his wife, who have yet to find a suitable husband for Jane. She aspires to be a writer, to the dismay of her mother and proud delight of her father.

Thomas Lefroy is a promising lawyer with a bad reputation, which he describes as "typical" for people in the profession. Tom makes a terrible first impression upon meeting Jane, when he nearly falls asleep while she gives a reading of her work for the company. Overhearing his subsequent criticism, Jane cannot stand the arrogant Irishman. Meanwhile, she turns down the affections of other men, including Mr. Wisley, the nephew and heir of the wealthy Lady Gresham. Wisley proposes but Jane ultimately rejects him due to lack of affection. The mischievous Tom encounters Jane again; they argue but increasingly take interest in each other and Tom demonstrates that he takes Jane's literary aspirations seriously. In time they fall in love.

Tom, Jane, her brother Henry and Jane's rich widowed cousin, Eliza, Comtesse de Feullide, conspire to receive an invitation from Tom's uncle and benefactor, the Lord Chief Judge Langlois of London, for the rich "Madame La Comtesse" and her friends. This visit is meant to be a short break in their journey to see Jane's brother, Edward. This would allow Judge Langlois to get to know Jane before and give a blessing for their marriage. Full of hope, Jane cannot sleep during the night at the Judge's place. In a flow of inspiration, she then begins the writing of First Impressions, the manuscript that will become Pride and Prejudice .

However, Judge Langlois receives a letter informing him of the genteel poverty of Jane's family and he refuses to give Tom his blessing, declaring that he would wish Tom to be the whoremonger he had been rather than allow him to live in poverty because of a bad marriage. Tom tells Jane that he cannot marry her and she is crushed, not knowing that Tom has a legitimate reason; his family depends on him financially.

Jane returns home and soon learns that Tom has become engaged to someone else at the arrangement of his family. Cassandra learns that her fiancé, Robert Fowle, has died of Yellow Fever while stationed abroad. Jane accepts the marriage proposal of Mr. Wisley, whom she had earlier declined. Later, Tom realises he cannot live without Jane, and returns, asking Jane to run away with him, for "what value will there be in life, if we are not together?" Jane agrees, and they leave, with only Jane's sister Cassandra knowing they plan to marry in secret.

On the way, Jane stumbles upon a letter from Tom's mother, and realises his situation: he sends money he receives from his uncle back to his parents and siblings, and his family cannot survive without it. She tells Tom that they cannot elope, not with so many people depending upon him. He insists that he and Jane must marry and tells her he will earn money, but Jane tells him that it will not be enough; he will never be able to make enough money to support his dependents with a High Court judge (his uncle) as an enemy and with a penniless wife. Distraught, Tom asks her if she loves him, and she replies, "Yes, but if our love destroys your family, then it will destroy itself, in a long, slow degradation of guilt and regret and blame." As she leaves, Jane catches a last glimpse of Tom through the carriage window as he briefly follows, the horses outpacing him.

Jane returns home and receivers a proposal from John Warren. She declines, realising that it was he who wrote to the Judge and denied her chances of happiness. Lady Gresham informs Jane that Mr. Wisley is withdrawing his proposal, although Mr. Wisley and Jane part as friends.

Twenty years later, Jane, now a successful author and by choice unmarried, sees Tom during a gathering. Henry, now married to Eliza, brings Tom to her. Tom introduces his eldest daughter, who admires Jane's novels. Tom's daughter asks Jane to read aloud, but as Jane rarely does so he remonstrates with his daughter using her name, which is also Jane. Astonished that he named his eldest after her, Jane agrees to read. The last scene shows Tom's daughter sitting by Jane as she reads aloud from Pride and Prejudice, while Tom watches Jane affectionately. As she concludes, their eyes meet, and Tom joins the rest of the company in honouring Jane and her work with applause.

Cast

Production

Conception and adaptation

"It's like dot-to-dot. There are documented facts and we've joined the dots in our own Austenesque landscape."

— Co-producer Graham Broadbent on the film's story [5]

In 2004, screenwriter Sarah Williams approached Douglas Rae and Robert Bernstein of Ecosse Films with the intention of creating a film about the life of Jane Austen, a popular eighteenth century English novelist. [4] [5] Williams had recently read Becoming Jane Austen , a 2003 biography that largely pieced together several known facts, such as Austen's meeting Tom Lefroy on Christmas 1795, into a coherent story about unrequited love. Bernstein agreed to adapt the work, believing that it depicted "a pivotal relationship in Jane Austen's early life that was largely unknown to the public." [4] The book's author, Jon Hunter Spence, was hired as a historical consultant on the film, [6] [7] with the task of "see[ing] that, given that the 'story' is a work of imagination, the factual material was as accurate as possible within the limitations of the story." [4]

After Williams completed several drafts of the screenplay, the company hired Kevin Hood to aid in further script development. Bernstein believed that Hood's past work contained "a romantic sensibility... There is a poetic quality about his writing as well as there being a rigorous emotional truth which I thought was important for Jane." [4] Hood was attracted to the film because he believed "the story is such an important one and very much the inspiration for Pride and Prejudice ." [4] Calling Austen a "genius" and "one of the top two or three prose writers of all time", Hood thought that her relationship with Lefroy "was absolutely essential in shaping her work." [4] Hood acknowledged however that Becoming Jane is "based on the facts as they are known and the majority of characters did exist, as did many of the situations and circumstances in the film. Some have been fictionalised, weaving together what we know about Austen's world from her books and letters, creating a rich Austenite landscape." [4]

Julian Jarrold became attached to direct the film in early 2005. [4] It was his second feature film, after Kinky Boots , which was released later that year. [8] According to Bernstein, he "liked [Jarrold's] style as it was modern and visceral, and I just had a feeling that he was the right choice. This piece needed to be handed with delicacy but also with a certain amount of brio and Julian was able to bring those two things to the production." [4] The director began work on the project in early 2006, rereading the novels Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility , and Persuasion and also reviewing Austen biographies such as Spence's book. Jarrold depended most heavily on the script, calling it "a rich, witty and clever screenplay from someone who obviously knew his subject very well. It is a love story but much more besides. Kevin's screenplay has so many layers and interesting ideas. Apart from the love story I was very attracted by the themes of imagination and experience." [4] The director intended to "bring Austen up to date by roughening her up a bit" and adding "more life and energy and fun," opining that past Austen adaptations had been "a little bit picture-postcard and safe and sweet and nice." [7]

Casting

Anne Hathaway focused on learning an English accent, believing that if she "didn't get that right, the rest of the performance wouldn't matter because people would write me off in the first five minutes." Anne Hathaway at MIFF.jpg
Anne Hathaway focused on learning an English accent, believing that if she "didn't get that right, the rest of the performance wouldn't matter because people would write me off in the first five minutes."

Jarrold sought to make Becoming Jane "look and feel" realistic "so everything is not lit in a very glamorous Hollywood way." [10] According to him, "One of the key ideas in the film was to get away from the old, stuffy costume drama kind of feel of what Jane Austen is and to look at somebody before she becomes a genius, when she is in her early twenties and on the verge of writing her great thing; she had a real exuberance for life, intelligent and independent and a sort of outsider in rural Hampshire, more intelligent than the people around her and kicking against all those pressures." [10] To further set his film apart from other costume dramas, American actress Anne Hathaway was cast as the title character. A fan of Jane Austen since she was fourteen, Hathaway immediately began rereading Austen's books, conducting historical research including perusing the author's letters, and also learned sign language, calligraphy, dance choreography, and playing the piano. She moved to England a month before production began to improve her English accent, and attempted to stay in character throughout filming, the first time she had done so for a movie. [10]

James McAvoy stars as Thomas Langlois Lefroy. James McAvoy Cannes 2014.jpg
James McAvoy stars as Thomas Langlois Lefroy.

There were concerns in some quarters that the American Hathaway was playing a beloved English writer. James McAvoy, who plays Thomas Langlois Lefroy, believed that filming in Ireland made her casting "a bit safer" than if they had shot in England. McAvoy accepted the role because he enjoyed Austen's writings and was eager to work with Jarrold, having collaborated with him previously on the 2002 television production White Teeth . [11] McAvoy first assumed that Becoming Jane would be directly associated with Pride and Prejudice, with his character possessing similarities with Mr. Darcy; the actor soon realised however "that the screenplay was nothing like Pride and Prejudice. The screenwriter probably speculated on some of the inspiration for Pride and Prejudice but it is a completely different story." [4]

Julie Walters had once disliked Austen's writings but changed her mind when she read Pride and Prejudice after receiving her role as Mrs. Austen. [11] Appearing as Mr. Austen was actor James Cromwell, who viewed his character as "a generous gentleman, well educated and supportive of Jane for the most part. He is bedevilled by his financial circumstances but deeply in love with his wife and sympathetic to her concerns about what will happen to the girls if they don't marry." [4] Joe Anderson portrayed Henry Austen, while Lucy Cohu played the widowed Eliza de Feuillide, the Austens' worldly cousin and Henry's romantic interest. Cohu believed that her character "needs security. She is looking to be safe. She finds that security with Henry as she knows the Austen family." [4]

Anna Maxwell Martin appeared as Jane's sister Cassandra. The actress called her character "terribly sensible", noting that she "gets her heart broken. It's very sad. She's the levelling force for Jane Austen, the wild one. She tries to get her back in line, but fails miserably." [12] Becoming Jane also featured Laurence Fox as Mr. Wisley and Dame Maggie Smith as Lady Gresham, whom Jarrold viewed as possessing "similarities to Lady Catherine De Burgh in Pride and Prejudice but in this film you get to see her hidden vulnerabilities – the pain of never having had children and her controlling maternal power over Wisley." [4] Other cast members included Ian Richardson as Judge Langlois, Leo Bill as John Warren, Jessica Ashworth as Lucy Lefroy, Michael James Ford as Mr. Lefroy, Tom Vaughan-Lawlor as Robert Fowle, and Helen McCrory as Mrs. Radcliffe. [13]

Costume design

A costume from the film worn by Anne Hathaway. Becoming Jane costume display.jpg
A costume from the film worn by Anne Hathaway.

Irish costume designer Eimer Ní Mhaoldomhnaigh designed the clothing seen in the film. [14] She attempted to create a different style of costumes than had been seen in recent Austen adaptations, and drew inspiration from the fashions of the 1790s, a time period she considered "fascinating" and a "very transitional era in terms of fashion... it was a real challenge to make it work." [4] Ní Mhaoldhomhnaigh attended the Cannes Film Festival in May 2006 but then had to quickly return to the Becoming Jane set to complete the last two days of filming. [15] She later collaborated with Jarrold in the 2008 drama film Brideshead Revisited . [16]

For research, Ní Mhaoldhomhnaigh visited museums and art galleries, and also read Austen's letters and novels. She was interested in both the effects of continental fashions on English clothing and the differences between social classes. [4] While she recognised that 1795 "marked the beginning" of the empire waistline trend, Ní Mhaoldhomhnaigh also understood this fashion would have barely been introduced to Austen's circle in the country; rather, the film displayed many costume designs from the early 1790s. She explained, "We wanted to show that transition especially for the women. The look in London is very different from the look in the countryside. For the country ball the fashion for the older women is more of the old style but for the younger women we show the introduction of the Empire line." [4]

The costume designer created all of Hathaway's outfits from scratch, and "looked for images of a young Jane Austen." [4] Ní Mhaoldhomhnaigh explained, "I wanted to get her youthfulness and innocence across through her dress. But crucially there was also her strength of character. So we kept away from frills and flounces. I wanted a definite look that was quite strong but also pretty at the same time. Jane was living on a working farm so her dress had to be practical as well. In terms of the costume we were definitely trying to steer away from the chocolate box image that we associate with Jane Austen." [4]

Ní Mhaoldhomhnaigh dressed McAvoy in rich fabrics, such as velvet and beaver fur, to help distinguish him from the other men. She recalled that "he wears very stylish waist coats and cut-away jackets. With Jane around he'd have an extra swagger in front of her. James (McAvoy) was really into it. We'd talk about the colours and fabrics to achieve his distinctive look." [4] Ní Mhaoldhomhnaigh and Maggie Smith agreed that Lady Gresham's dresses would be modelled after 1770s fashion, which was "the sort of dress that the character would have worn when she was much younger and suited her back then. Lady Gresham is very much her own character and is not someone who is dictated to by fashion." [4] Smith's dresses contained stiff fabrics "to emphasise a woman who was very set in her ways". [4]

Filming

Produced independently by Ecosse, [8] Becoming Jane was given a limited budget of €12.7 million (£9 million or $16.5 million). [5] [17] [18] Production designer Eve Stewart researched Regency literature and Austen's life, and along with Jarrold, scouted locations in Dublin and nearby counties for five weeks in January and February 2006. [4] They ultimately opted to shoot in Dublin and the Irish counties of Meath and Wicklow instead of Hampshire, the birthplace of Austen, [8] because it held "a sense of countryside that felt more unchanged," while Hampshire had unfortunately become too "groomed and manicured". [19] Jarrold also found "a great variety of Georgian houses and older houses" in Ireland. [10] His production received funds from the Irish Film Board, [10] the UK Film Council Premiere Fund, [20] [21] 2 Entertain, Scion Films, and Miramax Films. [22] Film critic Andrew Sarris noted that in Ireland "happily, there are still architectural traces of life more than 200 years ago to correspond with the year 1795." [23] However, Ireland did include a few disadvantages: Stewart found that "the rural aspects were the most difficult as the Irish country landscape is nothing like Hampshire. There are no rolling hills so the vegetation and the landscaping was the trickiest thing for me as a production designer." [4]

Henrietta Street in Dublin was used to represent Regency London. HENRIETTA STREET - DUBLIN (402556531).jpg
Henrietta Street in Dublin was used to represent Regency London.

Due to its low budget, [8] Becoming Jane was filmed on a "tight" schedule of eight weeks [17] from March to May 2006. [4] Jarrold observed however that because Ecosse was not a film studio, he had more creative freedom. [8] Bernstein stated of filming, "We recreated a world that Jane Austen lovers can recognise and associate with. But hopefully we can also take them into areas and places like the boxing club, the cricket game and the fair that do not feature in Jane Austen's fiction. They are sort of seedy and dangerous areas that are not normally associated with Austen." [4] Jarrold found filming "very difficult. We had to make it work in the locations that we had as efficiently as possible." [10] Filming outdoors was often so cold that Hathaway turned blue and had difficulty saying her lines; Automated Dialogue Replacement in post-production helped correct this by re-dubbing her lines. [10]

The story's central location was set at Steventon rectory where Austen was raised. [4] While it had been demolished in 1824, [24] Jarrold and his crew "fortunately found a wonderful house that was very like the original... We honed the script as well to make it as practical as possible." [10] Stewart believed that the Austen house expressed their status and wealth, "I think that you will lose the central thrust of the story unless you understand the status of the Austen's and that they are pretty poor. Jane spent all her formative years there and that was the place that influenced her view of the world. You have to believe that the family live in that house because that is a crucial piece of the jigsaw." [4] Scenes at Steventon rectory were filmed in Higginsbrook House, a few miles off Trim in County Meath. [25] Later in fall 2006, it appeared again as the house of the Morlands in Northanger Abbey . [26] [27]

Charleville Castle stood in for the interior scenes of Lady Gresham's estate, [28] while Kilruddery House, an old Elizabethan revival estate, provided the exterior shots of the property. [4] [29] [30] Other filming sites included Cloghlee Bridge in the Dublin Mountains (as Mr. Austen's rectory) and Dublin's Henrietta Street and North Great George's Street as Regency London. A house on Henrietta Street also provided the filming site for Mrs. Radcliffe's residence. Gentleman Jackson's club, where Lefroy boxes, was represented by "the dark and otherworldly" Mother Redcaps tavern, also in Dublin. [4]

Music and soundtrack

Becoming Jane: Original Motion Picture Score
Soundtrack album / Film scoreby
Released31 July 2007
Recorded2007
Genre Film score
Length46:50
Label Sony
Producer Adrian Johnston
Adrian Johnston chronology
Gideon's Daughter
(2006)
Becoming Jane: Original Motion Picture Score
(2007)
Brideshead Revisited
(2008)

The musical score of the film was written by English composer Adrian Johnston. To prepare melodies, he reviewed music books that had belonged to the Austen family. [31] The first track, "First Impressions", has been described as a "depressing" [32] song that "exhibits slow, pure and classical piano work"; [33] one critic quipped that it belonged in "Becoming Sylvia Plath ". Later tracks ranged "in mood from upbeat and playful to somber and teary." [32] In his review of the score, Tim Clark of Soundtrack.net lamented the "absence of a truly memorable theme, despite a wealth of thematic material," and found similarities to Dario Marianelli's composition for the 2005 film Pride & Prejudice . [34]

Patsy Morita, a music critic for Allmusic , wrote that the second half of Johnston's score becomes as "unremarkable" as "so many other dramatic film scores of the early twenty-first century." [31] She continued, "It fulfills its purpose of underscoring the emotion of the story by being moody and slow to change melodically and harmonically, and by using many pregnant pauses and minimalist-leaning repetitive figures." [31] Morita added that "there is nothing in it to draw attention away from the film." [31] The score later received a nomination for Best Original Film Score at the 2008 Ivor Novello Awards. [35] The film soundtrack was released on 31 July 2007. [36] A track listing for the album is as follows: [31]

Henry Purcell's "Hole in the Wall," also known as "St. Martin's Lane," which is featured in the ballroom scene, was first published in 1695 and is highly unlikely to have been common during the Regency, when Jane Austen was a young adult. [37]

No.TitleLength
1."First Impressions"2:27
2."Hampshire"0:40
3."Bond Street Airs"1:48
4."Basingstoke Assembly"2:03
5."A Game of Cricket"2:47
6."Selbourne Wood"2:29
7."Lady Gresham"2:10
8."Advice From a Young Lady"1:06
9."Laverton Fair"0:58
10."To the Ball"3:17
11."Rose Garden"2:31
12."Mrs. Radcliffe"2:24
13."Goodbye Mr. Lefroy"1:48
14."Distant Lives"2:57
15."The Messenger"1:22
16."An Adoring Heart"1:21
17."Runaways"2:01
18."A Letter from Limerick"1:50
19."The Loss of Yours"1:05
20."To Be Apart"2:33
21."Deh vieni, non tardar" (from Le Nozze di Figaro )3:22
22."Twenty Years Later"1:19
23."A Last Reading"2:39

Downloadable editions of the original soundtrack include six bonus tracks of music heard in the film:

Soundtrack bonus tracks
No.TitleLength
1."The Basingstoke Assembly: The Grand Vizier's Flight"2:26
2."Lady Gresham's Ball: Mutual Love"3:35
3."The Basingstoke Assembly: Softly Good Tummas"3:31
4."The Basingstoke Assembly: The Happy Hit"2:37
5."The Basingstoke Assembly: A Trip to Paris"1:32
6."Lady Gresham's Ball: The Hole in the Wall" (from Henry Purcell's Abdelazar )2:12

Themes and analysis

Fictionalisation of plot

Jon Spence, the author of the biography the film was based on, identifies "Tom Lefroy as the love of Austen's life and her relationship with him as the origin of her genius. But he never suggests that there was an aborted elopement (much less subsequent reading sessions with any of Lefroy's children). And he is careful, as the filmmakers are not, to clarify that in speculating about Austen's romantic experience he is reading between the lines of the family records and of the three rather opaque Austen letters that are his principal sources." [38]

An important deviation of the film's plot from history is that there is scant evidence in real life Austen and Lefroy's relationship went beyond acquaintance. Rather, all that is known of them together is that they danced at three Christmas balls before Tom returned to school and that Jane was "too proud" to ask his aunt about him two years later. In the latter years of Tom Lefroy's life, he was questioned about his relationship with Jane Austen by his nephew, and admitted to having loved Jane Austen, but stated that it was a "boyish love". [39] As is written in a letter sent from T.E.P. Lefroy to James Edward Austen Leigh in 1870,

My late venerable uncle ... said in so many words that he was in love with her, although he qualified his confession by saying it was a boyish love. As this occurred in a friendly & private conversation, I feel some doubt whether I ought to make it public. [40]

Lori Smith, author of The Jane Austen Guide to Life, opined that:

No doubt this relationship and her [Jane's] repartee with Tom fueled her writing. Whether it was "her greatest inspiration" as the trailers for Becoming Jane claim, well, that's debatable. But I'm sure it provided as spark. [41]

However, contrary to the film's story line, Jane had attempted her first full-length novel before she met Tom and had already read The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling before meeting him. [42] In a cut scene from the movie, it is clear that she is reading the novel for the second time, but in the theatrical release without that scene, it appears he introduces her to it.

Representation of Austen characters in story

Various commentators have offered opinions concerning the presence in the film of characters and themes from Austen's works, particularly with Pride and Prejudice. Deborah Cartmell contended that Hathaway's Austen is a "replica of Elizabeth Bennet (with a touch of impetuous Lydia thrown in)," [43] and added that the associations between Austen and Elizabeth are "more explicit than in" any other Austen biopic. [44] Tim Robey of The Daily Telegraph declared that the film took "good old P&P's storyline and replace[d] Elizabeth Bennet with Austen herself [and added] a real-life pseudo-Darcy from the skimpiest of biographical evidence." [45] A Companion to Jane Austen observed that the "physicality" of Jane and Lefroy's kiss was similar to the "passionate kiss" between Elizabeth and Darcy in the 1995 serial Pride and Prejudice . [46]

Empire magazine further expressed that

The characters peopling the young Jane’s life are plainly recognisable as the prototypes for her most celebrated characters: Walters’ anxious mother and Cromwell’s strong, fair-minded Mr. Austen are clear relatives of Pride & Prejudice's Mr. and Mrs. Bennet; Smith’s aloof, disdainful dowager exemplifies the snobbery and social climbing that provide context for Austen’s romances; McAvoy’s cocksure, worldly Lefroy is the epitome of the outwardly arrogant, inwardly sensitive hero of whom Mr. Darcy is the paradigm, while Jane herself shares the wit and passion of Austen’s most beloved heroine, Lizzie Bennet.

Anna Smith, Empire magazine [47]

Place in mass marketing

The implementation of mass marketing in the film's production and release has attracted notice from film and literary scholars. Dianne F. Sadoff writes that Becoming Jane "confirms the two-decades-long megaplexing of Jane Austen." [48] According to Andrew Higson, the film was another example of "Austen Power" and the desire of filmmakers to "exploit the possibilities of both the Austen industry and the market for literary cinema and television – and more generally, the market for 'traditional' British drama." [49] While reviewing Austen adaptations of the 1990s and 2000s in her book Heritage Film: Nation, Genre and Representation, author Belén Vidal viewed Becoming Jane as yet another "transformation of Austen's novels into icons of popular culture." [50] To Vidal, this and other productions, such as The Jane Austen Book Club (2007) and Miss Austen Regrets (2008), confirmed "the generic status of the Austen phenomenon whilst dispensing with the incorporation of the literary text." [50]

Becoming Jane followed a different formula than the Austen adaptations of the 1990s and attempted to draw viewers from a variety of demographic groups. [48] Hathaway's casting was intended to attract young female viewers who had enjoyed the actress in The Princess Diaries and The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement . [51] According to producers, the view was that this demographic group would have been in their early teens during the release of the Princess films, making them "the right age" for Austen as 15-year-olds. Expecting Becoming Jane to be a popular film, in February 2007 Penguin Books announced new editions of six of Austen's best-known novels; their redesigned covers were intended to attract teenage readers. [52]

Heritage and other themes

Becoming Jane has been referred to as a heritage costume drama film, a genre which has been popular in the United States among both its audiences and its film studios. According to Andrew Higson, Becoming Jane falls into the continuing trend of American attitudes influencing British film. [53] Belén Vidal wrote that the film "exploit[s] a well-defined heritage iconography and strategically combine[s] American stars with supporting casts of international 'quality' players." [50] Hilary Radner analysed the presence of the "marriage plot" – a girl succeeding only by marrying the man of her choice – in film and television, and noted that while Becoming Jane critiques this film trope, it "points to the power of the traditional marriage plot as a residual paradigm influencing feminine identity." [54]

Jarrold's adaptation also came in the wake of a number of literary biographical films, such as Shakespeare in Love and Miss Potter . [55] Deborah Cartmell, author of Screen Adaptations: Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice: A Close Study of the Relationship between Text and Film, found similarities between Becoming Jane and Shakespeare in Love "almost so obvious that the [former] film risks the accusation of being dangerously derivative." A given example included the characters of Austen and William Shakespeare inputting their personal experiences directly into their works. [56] Marina Cano López and Rosa María García-Periago explained that the film "follows the path opened by John Madden’s Shakespeare in Love. The numerous intertextual connections between both movies can be reduced to one: just as Shakespeare is imagined as the hero of his own play, Jane Austen becomes the heroine of her own novel." Among other listed similarities, they noted that the romantic interests of both protagonists serve as their literary muses, and that the middle part of both films "lie" when viewed from a historical perspective. [57]

Release and reception

Premiere, theatrical release, distribution and box office

The world premiere of Becoming Jane took place in London on 5 March 2007. [58] It was released to cinemas on 9 March 2007 in the United Kingdom [59] [60] and a week later in Ireland by Buena Vista International. [8] It ultimately grossed £3.78 million in the UK and Ireland, placing in sixteenth among all UK films for the year in those markets. Sixty-three percent of the audience was female, and 40.5 percent were above the age of 55. [61] The film's performance was considered "disappointing", and it influenced the US release date. [62] It arrived in Australia on 29 March. [63]

Miramax Films distributed the film in the United States, [64] giving it a release date of 3 August 2007. [65] Originally, the studio intended to release Becoming Jane in June or July due to a "counter-programming" strategy, [note 1] attempting to attract demographic groups who were not interested in large blockbusters. [62] The film was expected to perform well during all seven days of the week and gradually gain more viewers during its time in cinemas. Due to the presence of recognizable stars such as Hathaway, Becoming Jane was expected to also do well among mainstream audiences. However, due to its weak UK release, the film's release was moved to August, when it opened on 100 screens in its first week. It increased to 601 screens the following week, later reaching 1,210 screens. [62] While the film made under $1 million in its first week, it was considered "a highly respectable showing for a heritage biopic" and enough of a figure to "justify a ten-week run." [66] The film eventually grossed a total of $18,670,946 in the US. [65]

On an international scale, Becoming Jane received a total of $37,311,672. It earned its highest grosses in the US, the UK, and Australia. [65]

Home media

Becoming Jane was released on DVD and Blu-ray in the UK on 10 September 2007, [67] a month after it arrives in cinemas in the US. On 12 February 2008, Disney and Miramax released the DVD and Blu-ray in the US. [68] Both versions contained audio commentary with Jarrold, Hood, and Bernstein, deleted scenes, "Pop-Up Facts & Footnotes," and a featurette called "Discovering the Real Jane Austen". [69] [70] The US home video rights to the film have since been picked up by Echo Bridge Entertainment and the film has seen several reissues on Blu-ray and DVD, often packaged with other films such as Jane Eyre .

Critical response

Film review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a score of 58% based on reviews from 139 critics. The site summarized the consensus: "Although Becoming Jane is a well-crafted period piece, it lacks fresh insight into the life and works of Jane Austen. The film focuses too much on wardrobe and not enough on Austen's achievements." [71] The New York Times called the film a "triumph" for Hathaway, but observed that "the screenplay’s pseudo-Austen tone is so consistent that its lapses into modern romance-novel fantasy [and] threatens to derail the film." [72] More positive, Entertainment Weekly called the film "a charmer," articulating that "the supporting cast (Julie Walters, Maggie Smith, James Cromwell) is top-drawer; and Anne Hathaway, with her coltish beauty and frank demeanor, is a welcome Jane." [73]

Critics lauded Hathaway and McAvoy for the chemistry between their characters, finding that it lent authenticity to the love story between Austen and Lefroy. [13] [47] While Hathaway was admired for her performance by some critics, [13] [73] some reviews negatively focused on her nationality [74] as well as the inauthenticity of her accent. [75] [76] James McAvoy defended the decision of casting Hathaway by stating that a director should, "find the right actor…and [she] is undoubtedly brilliant." [77] Hathaway herself admitted the persistent tendency to "sound too much like myself and not at all like Jane", blaming cold weather in Ireland, which meant she had to do voice retakes for several scenes. [5] Nonetheless, Jarrold praised Hathaway for her performance. In a wrap up party after the filming, the director confessed that the actress had been a different person, "not just her accent but also the whole character, the way of holding yourself and speaking was so completely different". [10]

Time Out London gave a positive review, enunciating that "Overall, the approach is less fluffily contrived than you’d expect, and though the alignment of circumstance and social status thwarting innocent passions is hardly fresh, it’s handled with thoughtful decorum. The emotional temperature’s rather restrained as a result, but with luxury casting all down the line,... elegant visuals balancing verdant and velvet, and a delightful faux-classical score, it’s a classy package, all right – just missing the extra spark." [78] Some reviewers have questioned the historical accuracy of the film, for instance critiquing the depicted relationship between Austen and Lefroy. [79] [80]

Accolades

AwardCategoryRecipients and nomineesResult
British Independent Film Awards [81] Best ActressAnne HathawayNominated
Evening Standard British Film Awards [82] Best ActorJames McAvoy
Also for Atonement
Nominated
Golden Trailer Awards [83] Best Romance TV SpotBecoming Jane, "Great Story", Miramax Films, Mojo LLCNominated
Heartland Film Festival [84] Truly Moving Sound AwardBecoming JaneWon
Irish Film and Television Awards [85] Best Costume Design Eimer Ni Mhaoldomhnaigh Nominated
Best FilmDouglas Rae, James FlynnNominated
Best SoundNick Adams, Tom Johnson, Mervyn MooreNominated
Ivor Novello Awards [86] Best Original Film ScoreAdrian JohnstonNominated
People's Choice Awards [87] Favorite Independent MovieBecoming JaneWon

Impact and legacy

Becoming Jane and the 2008 BBC serial Sense and Sensibility have been credited with "renew[ing] interest" in Jane Austen's House Museum in Chawton. [88] According to Robin Bischert, the chief executive of Bath Tourism Plus, Bath, Somerset gained "more than £150,000 worth of free media exposure" in the wake of Becoming Jane and Persuasion , a 2007 television production adapted from another Austen novel. [89] As the city is heavily associated with Austen, the company took advantage of Becoming Jane's release in order to celebrate the author and her writings. [90] In late September 2007, Bath launched the seventh Jane Austen festival, which included a parade of people in Regency costumes, readings, tours, and discussions about the author. In addition, the city offered events such as Tea with Mr. Darcy to mark the release of the Becoming Jane DVD. [91]

The film's production had a positive impact on the Irish economy, as it resulted in a direct expenditure of €7.1 million, providing jobs for 116 crew members and 17 actors, and also offered 1,250 days of work for extras. [8] [22] John O'Donoghue, the country's Minister for Arts, Sport and Tourism, visited the set and stated

The Irish economy continues to directly benefit from having major feature films such as Becoming Jane shoot on location here. As well as the direct benefits to the local economy such as job creation and tourism, it is also important to have images of Ireland screened to international audiences around the world. Encouraging feature films to shoot in Ireland remains a major priority for the Irish Government and we hope that the recent changes to Section 481 will mean that Ireland remains a competitive international location for feature film.

Minister for Arts, Sport and Tourism John O'Donoghue [22]

See also

Notes

  1. According to Higson, "counter-programming" involved "so-called small, intelligent, quality films [being] released in the same week as one of the big summer blockbusters." [62]

Related Research Articles

Jane Austen English novelist

Jane Austen was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century. Austen's plots often explore the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of favourable social standing and economic security. Her works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. Her use of biting irony, along with her realism, humour, and social commentary, have long earned her acclaim among critics, scholars, and popular audiences alike.

<i>Pride and Prejudice</i> Novel by Jane Austen

Pride and Prejudice is a romantic novel of manners written by Jane Austen in 1813. The novel follows the character development of Elizabeth Bennet, the dynamic protagonist of the book who learns about the repercussions of hasty judgments and comes to appreciate the difference between superficial goodness and actual goodness. Its humour lies in its honest depiction of manners, education, marriage, and money during the Regency era in Great Britain.

<i>Sense and Sensibility</i> (film) 1995 period drama film directed by Ang Lee

Sense and Sensibility is a 1995 American period drama film directed by Ang Lee and based on Jane Austen's 1811 novel of the same name. Emma Thompson wrote the screenplay and stars as Elinor Dashwood, while Kate Winslet plays Elinor's younger sister Marianne. The story follows the Dashwood sisters, members of a wealthy English family of landed gentry, as they must deal with circumstances of sudden destitution. They are forced to seek financial security through marriage. Hugh Grant and Alan Rickman play their respective suitors. The film was released on December 13, 1995, in the United States.

<i>Pride and Prejudice</i> (1995 TV series) 1995 British television drama series

Pride and Prejudice is a six-episode 1995 British television drama, adapted by Andrew Davies from Jane Austen's 1813 novel of the same name. Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth starred as Elizabeth Bennet and Mr Darcy. Produced by Sue Birtwistle and directed by Simon Langton, the serial was a BBC production with additional funding from the American A&E Network. BBC1 originally broadcast the 55-minute episodes from 24 September to 29 October 1995. The A&E Network aired the series in double episodes on three consecutive nights beginning 14 January 1996.

<i>Pride & Prejudice</i> (2005 film) 2005 film by Joe Wright

Pride & Prejudice is a 2005 romantic drama film directed by Joe Wright, in his feature directorial debut, and based on Jane Austen's 1813 novel of the same name. The film depicts five sisters from an English family of landed gentry as they deal with issues of marriage, morality and misconceptions. Keira Knightley stars in the lead role of Elizabeth Bennet, while Matthew Macfadyen plays her romantic interest Mr. Darcy. Produced by Working Title Films in association with StudioCanal, the film was released on 16 September 2005 in the United Kingdom and Ireland and on 11 November in the United States.

Elizabeth Bennet Pride and Prejudice character

Elizabeth Bennet is the protagonist in the 1813 novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. She is often referred to as Eliza or Lizzy by her friends and family. Elizabeth is the second child in a family of five daughters. Though the circumstances of the time and environment push her to seek a marriage of convenience for economic security, Elizabeth wishes to marry for love.

<i>Pride and Prejudice</i> (1940 film) 1940 film by Robert Zigler Leonard

Pride and Prejudice is a 1940 American film adaptation of Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice, directed by Robert Z. Leonard and starring Greer Garson and Laurence Olivier. The screenplay was written by Aldous Huxley and Jane Murfin, adapted specifically from the stage adaptation by Helen Jerome in addition to Jane Austen's novel. The film is about five sisters from an English family of landed gentry who must deal with issues of marriage, morality, and misconceptions. The film was released by MGM on July 26, 1940, in the United States and was critically well received. The New York Times film critic praised the film as "the most deliciously pert comedy of old manners, the most crisp and crackling satire in costume that we in this corner can remember ever having seen on the screen."

<i>Pride & Prejudice: A Latter-Day Comedy</i> 2003 film by Andrew Black

Pride & Prejudice: A Latter-Day Comedy is a 2003 independent romantic comedy film directed by Andrew Black and produced by Jason Faller. The screenplay, by Anne Black, Jason Faller, and Katherine Swigert, is an adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice set in modern-day Provo, Utah. The film stars Kam Heskin as college student Elizabeth Bennet whose dreams of becoming an author supersede the cultural and societal pressures to be married. Elizabeth tries to escape the advances of several bachelors, including handsome but haughty businessman Will Darcy.

<i>Persuasion</i> (1995 film) 1995 television film directed by Roger Michell

Persuasion is a 1995 period drama film directed by Roger Michell and based on Jane Austen's 1817 novel of the same name. In her theatrical film debut, the British actress Amanda Root stars as protagonist Anne Elliot, while Ciarán Hinds plays her romantic interest, Captain Frederick Wentworth. The film is set in 19th century England, eight years after Anne was persuaded by others to reject Wentworth's proposal of marriage. Persuasion follows the two as they become reacquainted with each other, while supporting characters threaten to interfere.

Thomas Langlois Lefroy Irish politician and judge

Thomas Langlois Lefroy was an Irish-Huguenot politician and judge. He served as an MP for the constituency of Dublin University in 1830–1841, Privy Councillor of Ireland in 1835–1869 and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1852–1866.

Mr. Darcy Pride and Prejudice character

Fitzwilliam Darcy, generally referred to as Mr. Darcy, is one of the two central characters in Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice. He is an archetype of the aloof romantic hero, and a romantic interest of Elizabeth Bennet, the novel's protagonist. The story's narration is almost exclusively from Elizabeth's perspective; the reader is given a one-sided view of Darcy for much of the novel, but hints are given throughout that there is much more to his character than meets the eye. The reader gets a healthy dose of dramatic irony as Elizabeth continually censures Mr. Darcy's character despite the aforementioned hints that Mr. Darcy is really a noble character at heart, albeit somewhat prideful. Usually referred to only as "Mr. Darcy" or "Darcy" by characters and the narrator, his first name is mentioned twice in the novel.

<i>Persuasion</i> (2007 film) 2007 television film

Persuasion is a 2007 British television film adaptation of Jane Austen's novel Persuasion. It was directed by Adrian Shergold and the screenplay was written by Simon Burke. Sally Hawkins stars as the protagonist Anne Elliot, while Rupert Penry-Jones plays Frederick Wentworth. Eight years prior to the film's beginning, Anne was persuaded to reject Wentworth's proposal of marriage. Now 27 and unmarried, Anne re-encounters Wentworth, who has made his fortune in the Napoleonic Wars and is looking for a wife—anyone but Anne, whom he has not forgiven for rejecting him all those years ago.

Becoming Jane Austen was researched and written by the Jane Austen scholar Jon Hunter Spence. It chronicles a demi-biographical version of Austen's early biography based on Spence's interpretation of the novel Pride and Prejudice as possibly being modeled on Austen's real life, although Austen herself does not make this claim for her novel.

Timeline of Jane Austen

Jane Austen lived her entire life as part of a family located socially and economically on the lower fringes of the English gentry. The Rev. George Austen and Cassandra Leigh, Jane Austen's parents, lived in Steventon, Hampshire, where Rev. Austen was the rector of the Anglican parish from 1765 until 1801. Jane Austen's immediate family was large and close-knit. She had six brothers—James, George, Charles, Francis, Henry, and Edward—and a beloved older sister, Cassandra. Austen's brother Edward was adopted by Thomas and Elizabeth Knight and eventually inherited their estates at Godmersham, Kent, and Chawton, Hampshire. In 1801, Rev. Austen retired from the ministry and moved his family to Bath, Somerset. He died in 1805 and for the next four years, Jane, Cassandra, and their mother lived first in rented quarters and then in Southampton where they shared a house with Frank Austen's family. During these unsettled years, they spent much time visiting various branches of the family. In 1809, Jane, Cassandra, and their mother moved permanently into a large "cottage" in Chawton village that was part of Edward's nearby estate. Austen lived at Chawton until she moved to Winchester for medical treatment shortly before her death in 1817.

Jane Austen in popular culture

The author Jane Austen and her works have been represented in popular culture in a variety of forms.

<i>Pride and Prejudice and Zombies</i> book by Seth Grahame-Smith

Pride and Prejudice and Zombies is a 2009 parody novel by Seth Grahame-Smith. It is a mashup combining Jane Austen's classic novel Pride and Prejudice (1813) with elements of modern zombie fiction, crediting Austen as co-author. It was first published in April 2009 by Quirk Books and in October 2009 a Deluxe Edition was released, containing full-color images and additional zombie scenes. The novel was adapted into a 2016 film starring Lily James and Sam Riley.

<i>Northanger Abbey</i> (2007 film) 2007 television film directed by Jon Jones

Northanger Abbey is a 2007 British television film adaptation of Jane Austen's eponymous novel. It was directed by British television director Jon Jones and the screenplay was written by Andrew Davies. Felicity Jones stars as the protagonist Catherine Morland and JJ Feild plays her love interest Henry Tilney. The story unfolds as the teenaged Catherine is invited to Bath to accompany some family friends. There she finds herself the object of Henry Tilney's and John Thorpe's affections. When she is asked to stay at Northanger Abbey, Catherine's youthful and naive imagination takes hold and she begins to confuse real life with the Gothic romance of her favorite novels.

Kevin Hood is a playwright and screenwriter who is perhaps best known for contributing scripts to the BBC television series Grange Hill and the 2007 film Becoming Jane.

<i>Austenland</i> (film) 2013 American romantic comedy film directed by Jared and Jerusha Hess

Austenland is a 2013 British-American romantic comedy film directed by Jerusha Hess. Based on Shannon Hale's 2007 novel of the same name and produced by author Stephenie Meyer, it stars Keri Russell as a single thirty-something obsessed with Jane Austen's 1813 novel Pride and Prejudice, who travels to a British resort called Austenland, in which the Austen era is recreated. JJ Feild, Jane Seymour, Bret McKenzie, and Jennifer Coolidge co-star.

George Wickham is a fictional character created by Jane Austen who appears in her novel Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813. George Wickham is introduced as a militia officer who has a shared history with Mr. Darcy. Wickham's charming demeanour and his story of being badly treated by Darcy attracts the sympathy of the heroine, Elizabeth Bennet, to the point that she is warned by her aunt not to fall in love and marry him. It is revealed through the course of the story that George Wickham's true nature is that of a manipulative unprincipled layabout, a ne'er-do-well wastrel, compulsive liar and a degenerate, compulsive gambler, a seducer and a libertine, living the lifestyle of a rake. Lacking the finances to pay for his lifestyle, he gambles regularly and cons credit from tradesmen and shopkeepers and skips out on paying-up.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hunter, Allan (7 March 2007). "Becoming Jane". Screen Daily . Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  2. "BECOMING JANE (PG)". British Board of Film Classification . 10 January 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  3. 1 2 "Becoming Jane (2007) - Financial Information".
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 "The Art of Adaptation: Becoming Jane". The Writing Studio. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Williams, Sally (17 February 2007). "Not so plain Jane". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  6. Cartmell, Deborah (2010). Screen Adaptations: Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice: A Close Study of the Relationship between Text and Film. A&C Black Publishers Ltd. p. 120. ISBN   978-1-4081-0593-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  7. 1 2 Higson, Andrew (2011). Film England: Culturally English Filmmaking Since the 1990s. I.B. Tauris. p. 185. ISBN   978-1-84885-454-3.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Julian Jarrold On 'Becoming Jane'". Irish Film & Television Network. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  9. King, Randall (4 August 2007). "From princess to pauper". Winnipeg Free Press . Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2012 via HighBeam Research.(subscription required)
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Felce, Silvia (2007). "Becoming Jane Q&A with Anne Hathaway and director Julian Jarrold". Phase9 Entertainment. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  11. 1 2 Levine, Nick (7 March 2007). "'Becoming Jane': James McAvoy, Julie Walters". Digital Spy . Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  12. Bray, Elisa (12 March 2007). "My dream is to go to the country and build an eco-friendly house". The Independent . Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2012 via HighBeam Research.(subscription required)
  13. 1 2 3 Elley, Derek (8 March 2007). "Becoming Jane". Variety . Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  14. "The day I dressed Colin Farrell . . ". The Independent . 5 June 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  15. "'Brokeback' gets Minister's seal of approval". The Irish Times . 27 May 2006. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2012 via HighBeam Research.(subscription required)
  16. Herman, Valli (11 August 2008). "'Brideshead' revisits costumed excess of aristocracy". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review . Retrieved 27 July 2012 via Questia Online Library.(subscription required)
  17. 1 2 "Becoming Jane in Irish cinemas this weekend". Irish Film Board. 13 March 2007. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  18. "Becoming Jane". The Numbers. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  19. Fitzsimons, Eleanor (5 February 2008). "Dublin, but not as we know it". The Dubliner. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  20. "Awards database". UK Film Council Lottery. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  21. Higson, pp. 18–19.
  22. 1 2 3 "Minister John O'Donoghue meets the stars of BECOMING JANE". Irish Film Board. 12 April 2006. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  23. Sarris, Andrew (31 July 2007). "Austen in Love". The Observer . Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  24. Tomalin, Claire (1999). Jane Austen: A Life. Vintage. ISBN   978-0679766766.
  25. O'Byrne, Robert (3 March 2007). "How Higginsbrook became Jane's house". The Irish Times. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  26. "Higginsbrook House, Meath". Irish Film and Television Network. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  27. Finneran, Aoife (8 March 2007). "Abbey days for Jane Austen's 'Irish Home'". Evening Herald . Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2012.(subscription required)
  28. Battles, Jan (2 July 2006). "Ireland plays England to Perfection". The Sunday Times . ProQuest   316652862.(subscription required)
  29. "Lights, camera and a tidy €450m in tourism". Irish Independent . 3 September 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  30. "Filming in Ireland". Irish Film Board . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Morita, Patsy. "Becoming Jane". Allmusic . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  32. 1 2 Newton, Robert (3 August 2007). "Noteworthy CD releases". The Christian Science Monitor . Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  33. Kent, Sari N. (4 August 2007). "Becoming Jane Soundtrack". The Celebrity Cafe. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  34. Clark, Tim (13 March 2008). "Becoming Jane (2007) Soundtrack". Soundtrack.net . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  35. Collett-White, Mike (21 April 2008). "Winehouse gets three Ivor Novello nods Soundtrack". Reuters . Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  36. "Becoming Jane [Original Score]" . Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  37. "Real Regency Dancers Don't Turn Single: Ten Tips for Judging Authenticity". 12 March 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  38. Lynch, Deidre (3 August 2007). "See Jane Elope". Slate. ISSN   1091-2339 . Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  39. Spence, Jon (2003). Becoming Jane Austen. London: Hambledon Continuum.
  40. "Linda Robinson Walker". www.jasna.org. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  41. "Following Austen: 50: The truth about Jane Austen and Tom Lefroy" . Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  42. Hesse, Monica (31 July 2007). "See Jane". Washington Post . Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  43. Cartmell, p. 11.
  44. Cartmell, p. 113.
  45. Robey, Tim (9 March 2007). "A touching tribute to Austen's power". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  46. Johnson, Claudia L.; Clara Tuite (2012). A Companion to Jane Austen. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN   978-0470672389.
  47. 1 2 Smith, Anna. "Becoming Jane (2007)". Empire Online. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  48. 1 2 Sadoff, Dianne F. (2009). Victorian Vogue: British Novels on Screen. University of Minnesota Press. p. 246. ISBN   978-0816660919.
  49. Higson, p. 180.
  50. 1 2 3 Vidal, Belén (2012). Heritage Film: Nation, Genre and Representation. Wallflower Press. ISBN   978-0231162036.
  51. Higson, p. 186.
  52. Harzewski, Stephanie (2011). Chick Lit and Postfeminism. University of Virginia Press. ISBN   978-0813930718.
  53. Higson, p. 9.
  54. Radner, Hilary (2010). Neo-Feminist Cinema: Girly Films, Chick Flicks and Consumer Culture. Routledge. pp. 36, 68. ISBN   978-0415877732.
  55. Higson, pp. 180–81.
  56. Cartmell, pp. 116-18.
  57. Cano López, Marina; Rosa María García-Periago (Winter 2008). "Becoming Shakespeare and Jane Austen in Love: An Intertextual Dialogue between Two Biopics". Persuasions On-line. Jane Austen Society of North America. 29 (1). Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  58. "Star misses Jane Austen premiere". BBC. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  59. "March 2007". British Film Institute . Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  60. "In cinemas this weekend". The Guardian . 9 March 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  61. "08 Statistical Yearbook" (PDF) (PDF). British Film Institute . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  62. 1 2 3 4 Higson, p. 182.
  63. "Australia Box Office March 29–April 1, 2007". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  64. Mitchell, Wendy (1 March 2006). "Miramax gets North American rights to Becoming Jane". Screen Daily. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  65. 1 2 3 "Becoming Jane". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  66. Sadoff, pp. 247–48.
  67. "Becoming Jane [Blu-ray][Region Free]". Amazon.co.uk . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  68. "Becoming Jane (2007) -DVD / Home Video Rentals". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  69. Woodward, Tom. "Miramax sends over details on a new romantic comedy with Anne Hathaway". DVDactive . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  70. Bracke, Peter M. (11 February 2008). "Becoming Jane (Blu-ray)". High Def Digest. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  71. "Becoming Jane (2007)". Rotten Tomatoes . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  72. Holden, Stephen (3 August 2007). "Our Wit-Lit Heroine Avoids Marrying a Juiceless Man". The New York Times . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  73. 1 2 Valby, Karen (1 February 2008). "Becoming Jane (2008)". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  74. Tookey, Chris (9 March 2007). "Perfectly pleasant, but this Jane still falls short". Daily Mail . Retrieved 26 July 2012 via Questia Online Library.(subscription required)
  75. Edwards, David (9 March 2007). "MOVIES: A BIT OF A PLAIN JANE; THE BIG RELEASE BECOMING JANE". The Mirror . Retrieved 26 July 2012 via Questia Online Library.(subscription required)
  76. "Does Anne's accent ruin film?". The Belfast Telegraph . 24 August 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2012 via HighBeam Research.(subscription required)
  77. "Movie Q&A; JAMES McAVOY Becoming Jane". The Daily Record . 9 March 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  78. Johnston, Trevor (7 March 2007). "Becoming Jane (2007)". Time Out London . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  79. Torrance, Kelly Jane (3 August 2007). "'Becoming Jane' is fun without the genius; Strong cast, but love story about Austen built on a wisp". The Washington Times . Archived from the original on 10 June 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2012 via HighBeam Research.(subscription required)
  80. Papamichael, Stella (9 March 2007). "Movies - review - Becoming Jane (2007)". BBC . Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  81. "The British Independent Film Awards nominees". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  82. Soares, Andre (4 February 2008). "2008 EVENING STANDARD Awards". Alt Film Guide. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  83. "9th Annual Golden Trailer Award Winner and Nominees". Golden Trailer Awards. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  84. "Becoming Jane". Heartland Truly Moving Pictures. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  85. "Winners 2008". Irish Film & Television Awards . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  86. "Full list of nominees for the Ivor Novello awards 2008". The Guardian . 12 April 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  87. "People's Choice Awards Past Winners: 2008". PCAvote.com. Sycamore Productions. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  88. Byrne, Bridget (1 February 2008). "PBS airs adaptations, old and new, of all Jane Austen's novels ... and then some". Associated Press . Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2012 via HighBeam Research.(subscription required)
  89. "Warm welcome for Keira movie". Bath Chronicle . 15 September 2007. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2012 via HighBeam Research.(subscription required)
  90. "Somerset - In Pictures - Becoming Jane". BBC . Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  91. "Jane Austen Festival in Bath". Fame Magazine. 18 September 2007. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2012.