Part of a series on |

Regression analysis |
---|

Models |

Estimation |

Background |

In economics, **discrete choice** models, or **qualitative choice models**, describe, explain, and predict choices between two or more discrete alternatives, such as entering or not entering the labor market, or choosing between modes of transport. Such choices contrast with standard consumption models in which the quantity of each good consumed is assumed to be a continuous variable. In the continuous case, calculus methods (e.g. first-order conditions) can be used to determine the optimum amount chosen, and demand can be modeled empirically using regression analysis. On the other hand, discrete choice analysis examines situations in which the potential outcomes are discrete, such that the optimum is not characterized by standard first-order conditions. Thus, instead of examining “how much” as in problems with continuous choice variables, discrete choice analysis examines “which one.” However, discrete choice analysis can also be used to examine the chosen quantity when only a few distinct quantities must be chosen from, such as the number of vehicles a household chooses to own ^{ [1] } and the number of minutes of telecommunications service a customer decides to purchase.^{ [2] } Techniques such as logistic regression and probit regression can be used for empirical analysis of discrete choice.

- Applications
- Common features of discrete choice models
- Choice set
- Defining choice probabilities
- Consumer utility
- Properties of discrete choice models implied by utility theory
- Prominent types of discrete choice models
- Binary choice
- Multinomial choice without correlation among alternatives
- Multinomial choice with correlation among alternatives
- Estimation from choices
- Estimation from rankings
- Ordered models
- K. Ordered logit
- L. Ordered probit
- See also
- Notes
- References
- Further reading

Discrete choice models theoretically or empirically model choices made by people among a finite set of alternatives. The models have been used to examine, e.g., the choice of which car to buy,^{ [1] }^{ [3] } where to go to college,^{ [4] } which mode of transport (car, bus, rail) to take to work^{ [5] } among numerous other applications. Discrete choice models are also used to examine choices by organizations, such as firms or government agencies. In the discussion below, the decision-making unit is assumed to be a person, though the concepts are applicable more generally. Daniel McFadden won the Nobel prize in 2000 for his pioneering work in developing the theoretical basis for discrete choice.

Discrete choice models statistically relate the choice made by each person to the attributes of the person and the attributes of the alternatives available to the person. For example, the choice of which car a person buys is statistically related to the person's income and age as well as to price, fuel efficiency, size, and other attributes of each available car. The models estimate the probability that a person chooses a particular alternative. The models are often used to forecast how people's choices will change under changes in demographics and/or attributes of the alternatives.

Discrete choice models specify the probability that an individual chooses an option among a set of alternatives. The probabilistic description of discrete choice behavior is used not to reflect individual behavior that is viewed as intrinsically probabilistic. Rather, it is the lack of information that leads us to describe choice in a probabilistic fashion. In practice, we cannot know all factors affecting individual choice decisions as their determinants are partially observed or imperfectly measured. Therefore, discrete choice models rely on stochastic assumptions and specifications to account for unobserved factors related to a) choice alternatives, b) taste variation over people (interpersonal heterogeneity) and over time (intra-individual choice dynamics), and c) heterogeneous choice sets. The different formulations have been summarized and classified into groups of models.^{ [6] }

- Marketing researchers use discrete choice models to study consumer demand and to predict competitive business responses, enabling choice modelers to solve a range of business problems, such as pricing, product development, and demand estimation problems. In market research, this is commonly called conjoint analysis.
^{ [1] } - Transportation planners use discrete choice models to predict demand for planned transportation systems, such as which route a driver will take and whether someone will take rapid transit systems.
^{ [5] }^{ [7] }The first applications of discrete choice models were in transportation planning, and much of the most advanced research in discrete choice models is conducted by transportation researchers. - Energy forecasters and policymakers use discrete choice models for households’ and firms’ choice of heating system, appliance efficiency levels, and fuel efficiency level of vehicles.
^{ [8] }^{ [9] } - Environmental studies utilize discrete choice models to examine the recreators’ choice of, e.g., fishing or skiing site and to infer the value of amenities, such as campgrounds, fish stock, and warming huts, and to estimate the value of water quality improvements.
^{ [10] } - Labor economists use discrete choice models to examine participation in the work force, occupation choice, and choice of college and training programs.
^{ [4] } - Ecological studies employ discrete choice models to investigate parameters that drive habitat selection in animals.
^{ [11] }

Discrete choice models take many forms, including: Binary Logit, Binary Probit, Multinomial Logit, Conditional Logit, Multinomial Probit, Nested Logit, Generalized Extreme Value Models, Mixed Logit, and Exploded Logit. All of these models have the features described below in common.

The choice set is the set of alternatives that are available to the person. For a discrete choice model, the choice set must meet three requirements:

- The set of alternatives must be collectively exhaustive, meaning that the set includes all possible alternatives. This requirement implies that the person necessarily does choose an alternative from the set.
- The alternatives must be mutually exclusive, meaning that choosing one alternative means not choosing any other alternatives. This requirement implies that the person chooses only one alternative from the set.
- The set must contain a
*finite*number of alternatives. This third requirement distinguishes discrete choice analysis from forms of regression analysis in which the dependent variable can (theoretically) take an infinite number of values.

As an example, the choice set for a person deciding which mode of transport to take to work includes driving alone, carpooling, taking bus, etc. The choice set is complicated by the fact that a person can use multiple modes for a given trip, such as driving a car to a train station and then taking train to work. In this case, the choice set can include each possible combination of modes. Alternatively, the choice can be defined as the choice of “primary” mode, with the set consisting of car, bus, rail, and other (e.g. walking, bicycles, etc.). Note that the alternative “other” is included in order to make the choice set exhaustive.

Different people may have different choice sets, depending on their circumstances. For instance, the Scion automobile was not sold in Canada as of 2009, so new car buyers in Canada faced different choice sets from those of American consumers. Such considerations are taken into account in the formulation of discrete choice models.

A discrete choice model specifies the probability that a person chooses a particular alternative, with the probability expressed as a function of observed variables that relate to the alternatives and the person. In its general form, the probability that person *n* chooses alternative *i* is expressed as:

where

- is a vector of attributes of alternative
*i*faced by person*n*,

- is a vector of attributes of the other alternatives (other than
*i*) faced by person*n*,

- is a vector of characteristics of person
*n*, and

- is a set of parameters giving the effects of variables on probabilities, which are estimated statistically.

In the mode of transport example above, the attributes of modes (*x _{ni}*), such as travel time and cost, and the characteristics of consumer (

**Properties:**

*P*is between 0 and 1_{ni}- where
*J*is the total number of alternatives. - (Expected fraction of people choosing
*i*) where N is the number of people making the choice.

Different models (i.e., models using a different function G) have different properties. Prominent models are introduced below.

Discrete choice models can be derived from utility theory. This derivation is useful for three reasons:

- It gives a precise meaning to the probabilities
*P*_{ni} - It motivates and distinguishes alternative model specifications, e.g., the choice of a functional form for
*G*. - It provides the theoretical basis for calculation of changes in consumer surplus (compensating variation) from changes in the attributes of the alternatives.

*U _{ni}* is the utility (or net benefit or well-being) that person

Consider now the researcher who is examining the choice. The person's choice depends on many factors, some of which the researcher observes and some of which the researcher does not. The utility that the person obtains from choosing an alternative is decomposed into a part that depends on variables that the researcher observes and a part that depends on variables that the researcher does not observe. In a linear form, this decomposition is expressed as

where

- is a vector of observed variables relating to alternative
*i*for person*n*that depends on attributes of the alternative,*x*, interacted perhaps with attributes of the person,_{ni}*s*, such that it can be expressed as for some numerical function_{n}*z*, - is a corresponding vector of coefficients of the observed variables, and
- captures the impact of all unobserved factors that affect the person's choice.

The choice probability is then

Given *β*, the choice probability is the probability that the random terms, *ε _{nj}* −

The probability that a person chooses a particular alternative is determined by comparing the utility of choosing that alternative to the utility of choosing other alternatives:

As the last term indicates, the choice probability depends only on the difference in utilities between alternatives, not on the absolute level of utilities. Equivalently, adding a constant to the utilities of all the alternatives does not change the choice probabilities.

Since utility has no units, it is necessary to normalize the scale of utilities. The scale of utility is often defined by the variance of the error term in discrete choice models. This variance may differ depending on the characteristics of the dataset, such as when or where the data are collected. Normalization of the variance therefore affects the interpretation of parameters estimated across diverse datasets.

Discrete choice models can first be classified according to the number of available alternatives.

- * Binomial choice models (dichotomous): 2 available alternatives
- * Multinomial choice models (polytomous): 3 or more available alternatives

Multinomial choice models can further be classified according to the model specification:

- * Models, such as standard logit, that assume no correlation in unobserved factors over alternatives
- * Models that allow correlation in unobserved factors among alternatives

In addition, specific forms of the models are available for examining rankings of alternatives (i.e., first choice, second choice, third choice, etc.) and for ratings data.

Details for each model are provided in the following sections.

*U _{n}* is the utility (or net benefit) that person n obtains from taking an action (as opposed to not taking the action). The utility the person obtains from taking the action depends on the characteristics of the person, some of which are observed by the researcher and some are not. The person takes the action,

The description of the model is the same as model **A**, except the unobserved terms are distributed standard normal instead of logistic.

where is cumulative distribution function of standard normal.

*U _{ni}* is the utility person

We can relate this specification to model ** A ** above, which is also binary logit. In particular, *P*_{n1} can also be expressed as

Note that if two error terms are iid extreme value,^{ [nb 1] } their difference is distributed logistic, which is the basis for the equivalence of the two specifications.

The description of the model is the same as model **C**, except the difference of the two unobserved terms are distributed standard normal instead of logistic.

Then the probability of taking the action is

where Φ is the cumulative distribution function of standard normal.

The utility for all alternatives depends on the same variables, *s _{n}*, but the coefficients are different for different alternatives:

*U*=_{ni}*β*+_{i}s_{n}*ε*,_{ni}- Since only differences in utility matter, it is necessary to normalize for one alternative. Assuming ,
*ε*are iid extreme value_{ni}^{ [nb 1] }

The choice probability takes the form

where J is the total number of alternatives.

The utility for each alternative depends on attributes of that alternative, interacted perhaps with attributes of the person:

where *J* is the total number of alternatives.

Note that model **E** can be expressed in the same form as model **F** by appropriate respecification of variables. Define where is the Kronecker delta and *s _{n}* are from model

where *J* is the total number of alternatives.

A standard logit model is not always suitable, since it assumes that there is no correlation in unobserved factors over alternatives. This lack of correlation translates into a particular pattern of substitution among alternatives that might not always be realistic in a given situation. This pattern of substitution is often called the Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives (IIA) property of standard logit models. See the Red Bus/Blue Bus example in which this pattern does not hold,^{ [12] } or the path choice example.^{ [13] } A number of models have been proposed to allow correlation over alternatives and more general substitution patterns:

- Nested Logit Model - Captures correlations between alternatives by partitioning the choice set into 'nests'
- Cross-nested Logit model
^{ [14] }(CNL) - Alternatives may belong to more than one nest - C-logit Model
^{ [15] }- Captures correlations between alternatives using 'commonality factor' - Paired Combinatorial Logit Model
^{ [16] }- Suitable for route choice problems.

- Cross-nested Logit model
- Generalized Extreme Value Model
^{ [17] }- General class of model, derived from the random utility model^{ [13] }to which multinomial logit and nested logit belong - Conditional probit
^{ [18] }^{ [19] }- Allows full covariance among alternatives using a joint normal distribution. - Mixed logit
^{ [9] }^{ [10] }^{ [19] }- Allows any form of correlation and substitution patterns.^{ [20] }When a mixed logit is with jointly normal random terms, the models is sometimes called "multinomial probit model with logit kernel".^{ [13] }^{ [21] }Can be applied to route choice.^{ [22] }

The following sections describe Nested Logit, GEV, Probit, and Mixed Logit models in detail.

The model is the same as model **F** except that the unobserved component of utility is correlated over alternatives rather than being independent over alternatives.

*U*=_{ni}*βz*+_{ni}*ε*,_{ni}- The marginal distribution of each
*ε*is extreme value,_{ni}^{ [nb 1] }but their joint distribution allows correlation among them. - The probability takes many forms depending on the pattern of correlation that is specified. See Generalized Extreme Value.

The model is the same as model **G** except that the unobserved terms are distributed jointly normal, which allows any pattern of correlation and heteroscedasticity:

where is the joint normal density with mean zero and covariance .

The integral for this choice probability does not have a closed form, and so the probability is approximated by quadrature or simulation.

When is the identity matrix (such that there is no correlation or heteroscedasticity), the model is called independent probit.

Mixed Logit models have become increasingly popular in recent years for several reasons. First, the model allows to be random in addition to . The randomness in accommodates random taste variation over people and correlation across alternatives that generates flexible substitution patterns. Second, advances in simulation have made approximation of the model fairly easy. In addition, McFadden and Train have shown that any true choice model can be approximated, to any degree of accuracy by a mixed logit with appropriate specification of explanatory variables and distribution of coefficients.^{ [20] }

*U*=_{ni}*βz*+_{ni}*ε*,_{ni}- for any distribution , where is the set of distribution parameters (e.g. mean and variance) to be estimated,
*ε*∼ iid extreme value,_{ni}^{ [nb 1] }

The choice probability is

where

is logit probability evaluated at with the total number of alternatives.

The integral for this choice probability does not have a closed form, so the probability is approximated by simulation.^{ [23] }

Discrete choice models are often estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Logit models can be estimated by logistic regression, and probit models can be estimated by probit regression. Nonparametric methods, such as the maximum score estimator, have been proposed.^{ [24] }^{ [25] } Estimation of such models is usually done via parametric, semi-parametric and non-parametric maximum likelihood methods,^{ [26] } but can also be done with the Partial least squares path modeling approach. ^{ [27] }

In many situations, a person's ranking of alternatives is observed, rather than just their chosen alternative. For example, a person who has bought a new car might be asked what he/she would have bought if that car was not offered, which provides information on the person's second choice in addition to their first choice. Or, in a survey, a respondent might be asked:

__Example__: Rank the following cell phone calling plans from your most preferred to your least preferred.- * $60 per month for unlimited anytime minutes, two-year contract with $100 early termination fee
- * $30 per month for 400 anytime minutes, 3 cents per minute after 400 minutes, one-year contract with $125 early termination fee
- * $35 per month for 500 anytime minutes, 3 cents per minute after 500 minutes, no contract or early termination fee
- * $50 per month for 1000 anytime minutes, 5 cents per minute after 1000 minutes, two-year contract with $75 early termination fee

The models described above can be adapted to account for rankings beyond the first choice. The most prominent model for rankings data is the exploded logit and its mixed version.

Under the same assumptions as for a standard logit (model **F**), the probability for a ranking of the alternatives is a product of standard logits. The model is called "exploded logit" because the choice situation that is usually represented as one logit formula for the chosen alternative is expanded ("exploded") to have a separate logit formula for each ranked alternative. The exploded logit model is the product of standard logit models with the choice set decreasing as each alternative is ranked and leaves the set of available choices in the subsequent choice.

Without loss of generality, the alternatives can be relabeled to represent the person's ranking, such that alternative 1 is the first choice, 2 the second choice, etc. The choice probability of ranking J alternatives as 1, 2, ..., J is then

As with standard logit, the exploded logit model assumes no correlation in unobserved factors over alternatives. The exploded logit can be generalized, in the same way as the standard logit is generalized, to accommodate correlations among alternatives and random taste variation. The "mixed exploded logit" model is obtained by probability of the ranking, given above, for *L _{ni}* in the mixed logit model (model

This model is also known in econometrics as the *rank ordered logit model* and it was introduced in that field by Beggs, Cardell and Hausman in 1981.^{ [28] }^{ [29] } One application is the Combes et al. paper explaining the ranking of candidates to become professor.^{ [29] } It is also known as Plackett–Luce model in biomedical literature.^{ [29] }^{ [30] }^{ [31] }

In surveys, respondents are often asked to give ratings, such as:

__Example__: Please give your rating of how well the President is doing.- 1: Very badly
- 2: Badly
- 3: Okay
- 4: Well
- 5: Very well

Or,

__Example__: On a 1-5 scale where 1 means disagree completely and 5 means agree completely, how much do you agree with the following statement. "The Federal government should do more to help people facing foreclosure on their homes."

A multinomial discrete-choice model can examine the responses to these questions (model **G**, model **H**, model **I**). However, these models are derived under the concept that the respondent obtains some utility for each possible answer and gives the answer that provides the greatest utility. It might be more natural to think that the respondent has some latent measure or index associated with the question and answers in response to how high this measure is. Ordered logit and ordered probit models are derived under this concept.

Let *U _{n}* represent the strength of survey respondent

- 1, if
*U*< a_{n} - 2, if a <
*U*< b_{n} - 3, if b <
*U*< c_{n} - 4, if c <
*U*< d_{n} - 5, if
*U*> d,_{n}

for some real numbers *a*, *b*, *c*, *d*.

Defining Logistic, then the probability of each possible response is:

The parameters of the model are the coefficients *β* and the cut-off points *a − d*, one of which must be normalized for identification. When there are only two possible responses, the ordered logit is the same a binary logit (model **A**), with one cut-off point normalized to zero.

The description of the model is the same as model **K**, except the unobserved terms have normal distribution instead of logistic.

The choice probabilities are ( is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution):

**Fermi-Dirac statistics** is a type of quantum statistics that applies to the physics of a system consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle. A result is the Fermi–Dirac distribution of particles over energy states. It is named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, each of whom derived the distribution independently in 1926. Fermi–Dirac statistics is a part of the field of statistical mechanics and uses the principles of quantum mechanics.

In statistics, the **logit** function is the quantile function associated with the standard logistic distribution. It has many uses in data analysis and machine learning, especially in data transformations.

In statistics, the **logistic model** is used to model the probability of a certain class or event existing such as pass/fail, win/lose, alive/dead or healthy/sick. This can be extended to model several classes of events such as determining whether an image contains a cat, dog, lion, etc. Each object being detected in the image would be assigned a probability between 0 and 1, with a sum of one.

In thermodynamics, the **Helmholtz free energy** is a thermodynamic potential that measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature (isothermal). The change in the Helmholtz energy during a process is equal to the maximum amount of work that the system can perform in a thermodynamic process in which temperature is held constant. At constant temperature, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized at equilibrium.

In statistics, a **generalized linear model** (**GLM**) is a flexible generalization of ordinary linear regression. The GLM generalizes linear regression by allowing the linear model to be related to the response variable via a *link function* and by allowing the magnitude of the variance of each measurement to be a function of its predicted value.

**Mode choice analysis** is the third step in the conventional four-step transportation forecasting model. The steps, in order, are trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice analysis, and route assignment. Trip distribution's zonal interchange analysis yields a set of origin destination tables that tells where the trips will be made. Mode choice analysis allows the modeler to determine what mode of transport will be used, and what modal share results.

In statistics, a **probit model** is a type of regression where the dependent variable can take only two values, for example married or not married. The word is a portmanteau, coming from * probability* +

In statistics, the **ordered logit model** is an ordinal regression model—that is, a regression model for ordinal dependent variables—first considered by Peter McCullagh. For example, if one question on a survey is to be answered by a choice among "poor", "fair", "good", and "excellent", and the purpose of the analysis is to see how well that response can be predicted by the responses to other questions, some of which may be quantitative, then ordered logistic regression may be used. It can be thought of as an extension of the logistic regression model that applies to dichotomous dependent variables, allowing for more than two (ordered) response categories.

In statistics, **multinomial logistic regression** is a classification method that generalizes logistic regression to multiclass problems, i.e. with more than two possible discrete outcomes. That is, it is a model that is used to predict the probabilities of the different possible outcomes of a categorically distributed dependent variable, given a set of independent variables.

In statistics, **binomial regression** is a regression analysis technique in which the response has a binomial distribution: it is the number of successes in a series of independent Bernoulli trials, where each trial has probability of success . In binomial regression, the probability of a success is related to explanatory variables: the corresponding concept in ordinary regression is to relate the mean value of the unobserved response to explanatory variables.

In statistics and econometrics, the **multivariate probit model** is a generalization of the probit model used to estimate several correlated binary outcomes jointly. For example, if it is believed that the decisions of sending at least one child to public school and that of voting in favor of a school budget are correlated, then the multivariate probit model would be appropriate for jointly predicting these two choices on an individual-specific basis. J.R. Ashford and R.R. Sowden initially proposed an approach for multivariate probit analysis. Siddhartha Chib and Edward Greenberg extended this idea and also proposed simulation-based inference methods for the multivariate probit model which simplified and generalized parameter estimation.

**Mixed logit** is a fully general statistical model for examining discrete choices. It overcomes three important limitations of the standard logit model by allowing for random taste variation across choosers, unrestricted substitution patterns across choices, and correlation in unobserved factors over time. Mixed logit can choose any distribution for the random coefficients, unlike probit which is limited to the normal distribution. It is called "mixed logit" because the choice probability is a mixture of logits, with as the mixing distribution. It has been shown that a mixed logit model can approximate to any degree of accuracy any true random utility model of discrete choice, given appropriate specification of variables and the coefficient distribution.

In statistics and econometrics, the **multinomial probit model** is a generalization of the probit model used when there are several possible categories that the dependent variable can fall into. As such, it is an alternative to the multinomial logit model as one method of multiclass classification. It is not to be confused with the *multivariate* probit model, which is used to model correlated binary outcomes for more than one independent variable.

Although the concept choice models is widely understood and practiced these days, it is often difficult to acquire hands-on knowledge in **simulating choice models**. While many stat packages provide useful tools to simulate, researchers attempting to test and simulate new choice models with data often encounter problems from as simple as scaling parameter to misspecification. This article goes beyond simply defining discrete choice models. Rather, it aims at providing a comprehensive overview of how to simulate such models in computer.

In statistics, **ordinal regression** is a type of regression analysis used for predicting an ordinal variable, i.e. a variable whose value exists on an arbitrary scale where only the relative ordering between different values is significant. It can be considered an intermediate problem between regression and classification. Examples of ordinal regression are ordered logit and ordered probit. Ordinal regression turns up often in the social sciences, for example in the modeling of human levels of preference, as well as in information retrieval. In machine learning, ordinal regression may also be called **ranking learning**.

Denote a binary response index model as: , where .

In statistics and econometrics, the **maximum score estimator** is a nonparametric estimator for discrete choice models developed by Charles Manski in 1975. Unlike the multinomial probit and multinomial logit estimators, it makes no assumptions about the distribution of the unobservable part of utility. However, its statistical properties are more complicated than the multinomial probit and logit models, making statistical inference difficult. To address these issues, Joel Horowitz proposed a variant, called the smoothed maximum score estimator.

In statistics, **linear regression** is a linear approach for modelling the relationship between a scalar response and one or more explanatory variables. The case of one explanatory variable is called *simple linear regression*; for more than one, the process is called **multiple linear regression**. This term is distinct from multivariate linear regression, where multiple correlated dependent variables are predicted, rather than a single scalar variable.

In statistics, specifically regression analysis, a **binary regression** estimates a relationship between one or more explanatory variables and a single output binary variable. Generally the probability of the two alternatives is modeled, instead of simply outputting a single value, as in linear regression.

**Dynamic discrete choice (DDC) models**, also known as **discrete choice models of** dynamic programming, model an agent's choices over discrete options that have future implications. Rather than assuming observed choices are the result of static utility maximization, observed choices in DDC models are assumed to result from an agent's maximization of the present value of utility, generalizing the utility theory upon which discrete choice models are based.

- 1 2 3 Train, K. (1986).
*Qualitative Choice Analysis: Theory, Econometrics, and an Application to Automobile Demand*. MIT Press. Chapter 8. - ↑ Train, K.; McFadden, D.; Ben-Akiva, M. (1987). "The Demand for Local Telephone Service: A Fully Discrete Model of Residential Call Patterns and Service Choice".
*RAND Journal of Economics*.**18**(1): 109–123. doi:10.2307/2555538. JSTOR 2555538. - ↑ Train, K.; Winston, C. (2007). "Vehicle Choice Behavior and the Declining Market Share of US Automakers".
*International Economic Review*.**48**(4): 1469–1496. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2354.2007.00471.x. - 1 2 Fuller, W. C.; Manski, C.; Wise, D. (1982). "New Evidence on the Economic Determinants of Post-secondary Schooling Choices".
*Journal of Human Resources*.**17**(4): 477–498. doi:10.2307/145612. JSTOR 145612. - 1 2 Train, K. (1978). "A Validation Test of a Disaggregate Mode Choice Model" (PDF).
*Transportation Research*.**12**(3): 167–174. doi:10.1016/0041-1647(78)90120-x. - ↑ Baltas, George; Doyle, Peter (2001). "Random utility models in marketing research: a survey".
*Journal of Business Research*.**51**(2): 115–125. doi:10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00058-2. - ↑ Ramming, M. S. (2001). "Network Knowledge and Route Choice". Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT catalogue. hdl:1721.1/49797.Cite journal requires
`|journal=`

(help) - ↑ Goett, Andrew; Hudson, Kathleen; Train, Kenneth E. (2002). "Customer Choice Among Retail Energy Suppliers".
*Energy Journal*.**21**(4): 1–28. - 1 2 Revelt, David; Train, Kenneth E. (1998). "Mixed Logit with Repeated Choices: Households' Choices of Appliance Efficiency Level".
*Review of Economics and Statistics*.**80**(4): 647–657. doi:10.1162/003465398557735. JSTOR 2646846. - 1 2 Train, Kenneth E. (1998). "Recreation Demand Models with Taste Variation".
*Land Economics*.**74**(2): 230–239. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.27.4879 . doi:10.2307/3147053. JSTOR 3147053. - ↑ Cooper, A. B.; Millspaugh, J. J. (1999). "The application of discrete choice models to wildlife resource selection studies".
*Ecology*.**80**(2): 566–575. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[0566:TAODCM]2.0.CO;2. - ↑ Ben-Akiva, M.; Lerman, S. (1985).
*Discrete Choice Analysis: Theory and Application to Travel Demand*. Transportation Studies. Massachusetts: MIT Press. - 1 2 3 Ben-Akiva, M.; Bierlaire, M. (1999). "Discrete Choice Methods and Their Applications to Short Term Travel Decisions" (PDF). In Hall, R. W. (ed.).
*Handbook of Transportation Science*. - ↑ Vovsha, P. (1997). "Application of Cross-Nested Logit Model to Mode Choice in Tel Aviv, Israel, Metropolitan Area".
*Transportation Research Record*.**1607**: 6–15. doi:10.3141/1607-02. Archived from the original on 2013-01-29. - ↑ Cascetta, E.; Nuzzolo, A.; Russo, F.; Vitetta, A. (1996). "A Modified Logit Route Choice Model Overcoming Path Overlapping Problems: Specification and Some Calibration Results for Interurban Networks" (PDF). In Lesort, J. B. (ed.).
*Transportation and Traffic Theory. Proceedings from the Thirteenth International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory*. Lyon, France: Pergamon. pp. 697–711. - ↑ Chu, C. (1989). "A Paired Combinatorial Logit Model for Travel Demand Analysis".
*Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Transportation Research*.**4**. Ventura, CA. pp. 295–309. - ↑ McFadden, D. (1978). "Modeling the Choice of Residential Location" (PDF). In Karlqvist, A.; et al. (eds.).
*Spatial Interaction Theory and Residential Location*. Amsterdam: North Holland. pp. 75–96. - ↑ Hausman, J.; Wise, D. (1978). "A Conditional Probit Model for Qualitative Choice: Discrete Decisions Recognizing Interdependence and Heterogenous Preferences".
*Econometrica*.**48**(2): 403–426. doi:10.2307/1913909. JSTOR 1913909. - 1 2 Train, K. (2003).
*Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation*. Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. - 1 2 McFadden, D.; Train, K. (2000). "Mixed MNL Models for Discrete Response" (PDF).
*Journal of Applied Econometrics*.**15**(5): 447–470. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.68.2871 . doi:10.1002/1099-1255(200009/10)15:5<447::AID-JAE570>3.0.CO;2-1. - ↑ Ben-Akiva, M.; Bolduc, D. (1996). "Multinomial Probit with a Logit Kernel and a General Parametric Specification of the Covariance Structure" (PDF).
*Working Paper*. - ↑ Bekhor, S.; Ben-Akiva, M.; Ramming, M. S. (2002). "Adaptation of Logit Kernel to Route Choice Situation".
*Transportation Research Record*.**1805**: 78–85. doi:10.3141/1805-10. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. - ↑ . Also see Mixed logit for further details.
- ↑ Manski, Charles F. (1975). "Maximum score estimation of the stochastic utility model of choice".
*Journal of Econometrics*. Elsevier BV.**3**(3): 205–228. doi:10.1016/0304-4076(75)90032-9. ISSN 0304-4076. - ↑ Horowitz, Joel L. (1992). "A Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator for the Binary Response Model".
*Econometrica*. JSTOR.**60**(3): 505–531. doi:10.2307/2951582. ISSN 0012-9682. JSTOR 2951582. - ↑ Park, Byeong U.; Simar, Léopold; Zelenyuk, Valentin (2017). "Nonparametric estimation of dynamic discrete choice models for time series data" (PDF).
*Computational Statistics & Data Analysis*.**108**: 97–120. doi:10.1016/j.csda.2016.10.024. - ↑ Hair, J.F.; Ringle, C.M.; Gudergan, S.P.; Fischer, A.; Nitzl, C.; Menictas, C. (2019). "Partial least squares structural equation modeling-based discrete choice modeling: an illustration in modeling retailer choice" (PDF).
*Business Research*.**12**: 115–142. doi: 10.1007/s40685-018-0072-4 . - ↑ Beggs, S.; Cardell, S.; Hausman, J. (1981). "Assessing the Potential Demand for Electric Cars".
*Journal of Econometrics*.**17**(1): 1–19. doi:10.1016/0304-4076(81)90056-7. - 1 2 3 Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Linnemer, Laurent; Visser, Michael (2008). "Publish or Peer-Rich? The Role of Skills and Networks in Hiring Economics Professors".
*Labour Economics*.**15**(3): 423–441. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2007.04.003. - ↑ Plackett, R. L. (1975). "The Analysis of Permutations".
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C*.**24**(2): 193–202. JSTOR 2346567. - ↑ Luce, R. D. (1959).
*Individual Choice Behavior: A Theoretical Analysis*. Wiley.

- Anderson, S., A. de Palma and J.-F. Thisse (1992),
*Discrete Choice Theory of Product Differentiation*, MIT Press, - Ben-Akiva, M.; Lerman, S. (1985).
*Discrete Choice Analysis: Theory and Application to Travel Demand*. MIT Press. - Greene, William H. (2012).
*Econometric Analysis*(Seventh ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice-Hall. pp. 770–862. ISBN 978-0-13-600383-0. - Hensher, D.; Rose, J.; Greene, W. (2005).
*Applied Choice Analysis: A Primer*. Cambridge University Press. - Maddala, G. (1983).
*Limited-dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics*. Cambridge University Press. - McFadden, Daniel L. (1984).
*Econometric analysis of qualitative response models*. Handbook of Econometrics, Volume II. Chapter 24. Elsevier Science Publishers BV. - Train, K. (2009) [2003].
*Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation*. Cambridge University Press.

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.