Elliott Cresson Medal

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Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal, Berliner, 1913.jpg
Elliott Cresson Medal given to Emile Berliner in 1913
Country USA
Presented by Franklin Institute
First awarded1875
Last awarded1997

The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute. The award was established by Elliott Cresson, life member of the Franklin Institute, with $1,000 granted in 1848. [1] The endowed award was to be "for some discovery in the Arts and Sciences, or for the invention or improvement of some useful machine, or for some new process or combination of materials in manufactures, or for ingenuity skill or perfection in workmanship." [1] The medal was first awarded in 1875, 21 years after Cresson's death. [1]

The Franklin Institute continued awarding the medal on an occasional basis until 1998 when they reorganized their endowed awards under one umbrella, The Benjamin Franklin Awards. [2] A total of 268 Elliott Cresson Medals were given out during the award's lifetime. [3]

YearAwardeeCategoryCitation
1875
William Gibson A. Bonwill Life ScienceElectro Magnetic Dental Mallet
1875
Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co. Engineering Worsted Yarns
1875
Powers & Weightman EngineeringDrug Manufacturing
1875
William P. Tatham InventionPrinting press
1875
Benjamin Chew Tilghman EngineeringSand Blast
1875
Joseph Zentmayer EngineeringMicroscopes and Objectives
1877
John Charlton EngineeringShaft Coupling
1877
P. H. Dudley EngineeringDynomagraph
1878
Henry Bower ChemistryInodorous Glycerin
1878
Cyrus Chambers, Jr. EngineeringBolt and rivet clipper
1878
Williams Farr Goodwin EngineeringCompetitive test of mowing machines
1879
Norbert Delandtsheer InventionMachine for Testing Flax
1880
Louis H. Spellier InventionTime Telegraph
1881
W. Woodnut Griscom EngineeringElectric Induction Motor and Battery
1885
Cyprien Chabot EngineeringShoe Sewing Machine
1885
Frederick Siemens EngineeringRegenerative Gas Burner
1886
Patrick Bernard Delany EngineeringSynchronous Telegraphy
1886
Thaddeus S. C. Lowe EngineeringWater Gas Process and Apparatus
1886
Ott & Brewer EngineeringChina and Porcelain Wares
1886
Pratt & Whitney Co. EngineeringSystem of Interchangeable Cut Gears
1886
Robert H. Ramsay EngineeringRailway Car Transfer Apparatus
1886
Liberty Walkup Invention Airbrush
1887
Charles F. Albert EngineeringViolins and Bows
1887
Hugo Bilgram EngineeringBevel Gear Cutter
1887
Alfred H. Cowles EngineeringElectric Smelting Furnace
1887
Eugene H. Cowles EngineeringElectric Smelting Furnace
1887
Thomas Shaw EngineeringTesting for Mine Gases and system of Mine Signaling
1889
Edward Alfred Cowper InventionWriting Telegraph
1889
Ottmar Mergenthaler Engineering Linotype machine
1889
T. Hart Robertson InventionWriting Telegraph
1889
George Frederick Simonds EngineeringUniversal Rolling Machine
1890
James B. Hammond EngineeringTypewriter Improvements
1890
Herman Hollerith Computer and Cognitive ScienceElectric Tabulating Device
1890
Mayer Hayes & Co. EngineeringManufacture of files
1891
Stockton Bates EngineeringSpindle Support
1891
James H. Bevington EngineeringWelding Metal and Spinning and Shaping Tube
1891
Bradley Allen Fiske Engineering Rangefinder
1891
Tinius Olsen EngineeringTesting Machine
1891
Edwin F. Shaw EngineeringSpindle Support
1891
Samuel M. Vauclain EngineeringCompound Locomotive
1891
George M. Von Culin EngineeringSpindle Support
1892
Philip H. Holmes EngineeringComposition for Journal Bearings
1892
Henry M. Howe EngineeringMetallurgy of Steel
1893
Clifford H. Batchellor EngineeringCompound Locomotive
1893
Frederic Eugene Ives Engineering Color photography
1893
George E. Marks Life ScienceImprovements in Artificial Limbs
1893
Paul von Jankó Engineering Jankó piano keyboard
1894
Nikola Tesla EngineeringAlternating Electric Currents of High Frequency
1895
Henry M. Howe EngineeringExperimental Researches on Steel
1895
James Peckover InventionStone Sawing Machine
1895
Lester Allan Pelton Engineering Water Wheel
1896
Patrick Bernard Delany EngineeringTelegraphy, High speed system
1896
Tolbert Lanston InventionMonotype Machine
1897
Hamilton Y. Castner EngineeringProcess of electrolytic decomposing of alkaline chlorides
1897
Elisha Gray Engineering Telautograph
1897
Charles Francis Jenkins InventionPhantoscope projector
1897
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen PhysicsDiscovery of X-rays
1897
Joseph Wilckes InventionEconometer [4]
1898
Wilbur Olin Atwater EngineeringRespiration Calorimeter
1898
Thomas Corscaden EngineeringAll-Wrought Steel Belt Pulley
1898
Clemens Hirschel InventionVenturi Meter
1898
Henri Moissan EngineeringInvestigations with his electric furnace
1898
Edward Bennett Rosa EngineeringRespiration Calorimeter
1900
American Cotton Company EngineeringRound Lap Bale System
1900
Louis Edward Levy EngineeringMethod and apparatus for acid blast etching of metal plates
1900
Pencoyd Iron Works EngineeringBridge construction
1900
United States Geological Survey Earth ScienceExhibit of the USGS
1900
Carl Auer von Welsbach ChemistryDiscoveries regarding metallic oxides
1901
Rudolph Diesel Engineering Diesel engine
1901
John S. Forbes ChemistryProcess of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1901
Lewis M. Haupt EngineeringReaction Breakwater
1901
Mason & Hamlin Company EngineeringLiszt Pipe Organ
1901
A. G. Waterhouse EngineeringProcess of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1902
Charles Ernest Acker EngineeringManufacturing Caustic Alkali and Halogen Gas
1902
Fred W. Taylor EngineeringProcess of Treating Tool Steel
1902
Maunsel White EngineeringProcess of Treating Tool Steel
1903
G. H. Clam EngineeringMethod of eliminating metals from mixtures of metals
1903
Joseph L. Ferrell EngineeringProcess of fireproofing wood
1903
Wilson Lindsley Gill Engineering; Computer and Cognitive ScienceSchool City Educational Plan
1903
Victor Goldschmidt EngineeringTheory of Musical Harmony
1903
Frank J. Sprague EngineeringSystem of Electric Traction
1904
James Mapes Dodge EngineeringSystem of Storing Coal
1904
Wilson Lindsley Gill Engineering; Computer and Cognitive ScienceSchool City
1904
Hans Goldschmidt Physics Alumino-Thermics
1904
Louis E. Levy EngineeringMachine for preparation of plates for etching
1904
L. D. Lovekin EngineeringExpanding and Flanging Machinery for Tubes
1904
Alexander E. Outerbridge, Jr. EngineeringMolecular Structure of Cast Iron
1904
John Clinton Parker EngineeringSteam Generator
1905
Gray National Telautograph Company Engineering Telautograph
1905
Michael Idvorsky Pupin PhysicsReducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves
1906
American Paper Bottle Company EngineeringPaper Milk Bottles
1906
William Joseph Hammer (unspecified) Historic Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps
1907
Baldwin Locomotive Works EngineeringContributions to Evolution of American Locomotive
1907
John L. Borsch PhysicsA new Bi-Focal Lens
1907
J. Allen Heany EngineeringFireproof Insulated Wire
1907
Ferdinand Philips EngineeringPressed Steel Pulley for Power Transmission
1907
Edward R. Taylor ChemistryElectric Furnace Manufacture of Carbon bisulfide
1908
Romeyn Beck Hough EngineeringUses of American Woods
1908
Anatole Mallet EngineeringImproved Articulated Compound Locomotive
1909
Marie Curie ChemistryThe discovery of radium
1909
Pierre Curie ChemistryThe discovery of radium
1909
Wolfgang Gaede EngineeringMolecular Air Pump
1909
James Gayley EngineeringDry air blast in blast furnace operation
1909
Auguste and Louis Lumière Engineering Color photography
1909
George Owen Squier Engineering Multiplex Telephony
1909
Benjamin Talbot EngineeringOpen Hearth Steel Process
1909
Walter Victor Turner EngineeringAir Brake Design and Application
1909
Underwood Typewriter Co. EngineeringUnderwood Typewriter
1909
Alexis Vernasz Engineering Milling files
1909
H. A. Wise Wood EngineeringThe Autoplate Machine
1910
Automatic Electric Company EngineeringAutomatic System of Telephony
1910
John A. Brashear PhysicsDistinguished work in astronomical instruments
1910
Peter Cooper Hewitt Invention Mercury rectifier
1910
John Fritz EngineeringDistinguished work in iron and steel industries
1910
Robert Abbott Hadfield EngineeringDistinguished work in metallurgical sciences
1910
Ernest Rutherford EngineeringDistinguished work in electrical theory
1910
Joseph John Thomson PhysicsFor distinguished work in physical sciences
1910
Edward Weston EngineeringDistinguished work in electrical discovery
1910
Harvey W. Wiley Life ScienceDistinguished work in agricultural chemistry
1912
Alexander Graham Bell EngineeringElectrical Transmission of Articulate Speech
1912
William Crookes ChemistryDiscoveries in Chemistry
1912
Alfred E Noble EngineeringDistinguished work in civil engineering
1912
Edward Williams Morley ChemistryDetermination of fundamental magnitudes in chemistry
1912
Albert A. Michelson PhysicsInvestigations in physical optics
1912
Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe ChemistryImportant Research in Chemistry
1912
Samuel Wesley Stratton EngineeringDistinguished work in metrology
1912
Elihu Thomson EngineeringIndustrial applications of electricity
1912
Adolf von Baeyer ChemistryExtended research in organic chemistry
1913
Emile Berliner EngineeringContributions to telephony and science of sound reproduction
1913
Hermann Emil Fischer Life Science Organic and biological chemistry
1913
Sir William Ramsay ChemistryDiscoveries in chemistry
1913
Isham Randolph EngineeringDistinguished work in civil engineering
1913
John Strutt PhysicsExtended researches in physical science
1913
Albert Sauveur EngineeringMetallography of Iron and Steel
1913
Charles Proteus Steinmetz EngineeringAnalytical methods in electrical engineering
1914
Josef Maria von Eder ChemistryOriginal Researches in Photo-Chemistry
1914
Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde EngineeringLiquefaction of gases and refrigeration
1914
Edgar Fahs Smith ChemistryLeading work in electro-chemistry
1914
Orville Wright EngineeringThe art and science of aviation
1915
Michael J. Owens EngineeringAutomatic Bottle Blowing Machine
1916
American Telephone & Telegraph EngineeringDevelopment of the Art of telephony
1916
Byron E. Eldred EngineeringLow Expansion Wire for Incandescent Lamps
1916
Robert Gans EngineeringPermutit water softening process
1917
Edwin Fitch Northrup EngineeringInvestigation of Electric Furnaces and High Temperature
1918
Isaac Newton Lewis Engineering Lewis Machine Gun
1920
William LeRoy Emmet EngineeringElectrical Propulsion of Ships
1923
Lee DeForest Engineering Audion
1923
Raymond D. Johnson EngineeringHydraulic Valve
1923
Albert Kingsbury Engineering Thrust bearing
1925
Francis Hodgkinson EngineeringTurbo-Electric Appliances
1926
George Ellery Hale PhysicsAstronomical Researches of sun, solar atmosphere and solar physics
1926
Charles S. Hastings EngineeringDesign of Optical Systems
1927
Dayton C. Miller PhysicsResearches in Sound
1927
Edward Leamington Nichols PhysicsInvestigations in the Physical Sciences
1928
Gustaf W. Elmen Engineering Permalloy
1928
Henry Ford EngineeringRevolutionizing automobile industry, and industrial leadership
1928
Vladimir Karapetoff Computer and Cognitive ScienceKinematic Computing Devices
1928
Charles L. Lawrance Engineering Wright Whirlwind Air-Cooled Engine, Model J-5
1929
James Colquhoun Irvine Life ScienceCarbohydrate chemistry
1929
Chevalier Jackson Life ScienceInstruments for Removal of Foreign Bodies from Respiratory and food Passages
1929
Elmer Ambrose Sperry [5] EngineeringNavigational and Recording Instruments (Gyroscopic)
1930
Norman Rothwell Gibson PhysicsMeasurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits
1930
Irving Edwin Moultrop EngineeringHigh Pressure Steam Boilers in Electric Generating Stations
1931
Clinton Joseph Davisson PhysicsScattering and diffraction of electrons by crystals
1931
Lester Halbert Germer PhysicsScattering and Diffraction of Electrons by Crystals
1931
Kotaro Honda EngineeringContributions to magnetism and metallurgy
1931
Theodore Lyman PhysicsWork in Spectroscopy
1932
Percy W. Bridgman PhysicsWork in high pressure
1932
Charles LeGeyt Fortescue EngineeringSymmetrical Coordinates in Polyphase Networks
1932
John B. Whitehead (unspecified)Dielectric Behavior
1933
Walther Bauersfeld PhysicsOptical Planetarium
1933
Juan de la Cierva EngineeringAutogiro-flying machine with freely rotating wings
1934
Stuart Ballantine EngineeringVertical Antenna for Radio Transmission
1934
Union Switch & Signal EngineeringContinuous Cab Signal and Automatic Train Control Systems
1936
George O. Curme Chemistry Development of synthetic aliphatic chemistry
1936
Robert J. Van de Graaff EngineeringHigh Voltage Electrostatic Generator
1937
Carl David Anderson ChemistryDiscovery of the positron
1937
William Bowie Earth ScienceContributions to the Science of Geodesy (Isostasy)
1937
Jacques Edwin Brandenberger EngineeringProcess for Manufacture of Cellophane
1937
William F. Giauque PhysicsLow temperature research
1937
Ernest O. Lawrence EngineeringDevelopment of the Cyclotron
1938
Edwin H. Land Engineering Polaroid camera
1939
Charles Vernon Boys PhysicsCreation of new methods for measuring gravitation, sound, heat, radiation and current and static electricity
1939
George Ashley Campbell EngineeringTheory of electric circuits for improvements in telephony
1939
John R. Carson EngineeringContributions to electric communications
1940
Frederick M. Backet EngineeringLow carbon ferro-alloys and electro-metallurgy
1940
Robert R. Williams Life ScienceResearches upon Vitamin B1 including its isolation in the pure state in quantities sufficient for further study
1941
United States Navy EngineeringSubmarine rescue devices, U.S. lung and rescue chamber
1942
Claude Silbert Hudson Life ScienceInvestigation in Carbohydrate chemistry
1942
Isidor I. Rabi PhysicsMeasurement of magnetic moments of atomic nuclei, and their radio frequency spectra
1943
Charles Metcalf Allen EngineeringSalt velocity method for measuring the flow of water in conduits
1944
Roger Adams ChemistryContributions in organic chemistry
1945
Stanford Caldwell Hooper EngineeringLeadership in field of radio for U.S. Navy
1945
Lewis Ferry Moody EngineeringHydraulic turbines
1946
Gladeon M. Barnes EngineeringContributions to design and development of anti-aircraft guns, tanks, seacoast artillery and welded gun carriages
1948
Edwin H. Colpitts EngineeringPractical systems of long distance communications
1950
Basil Ferdinand Jamieson Schonland PhysicsWork in the field of atmospheric electricity and the mechanism of lightning discharge
1952
Edward C. Molina EngineeringContributions to improvement of telephonic communications by applying mathematical probability to the study of telephone traffic and by the invention of switching equipment
1952
H. Birchard Taylor EngineeringDevelopment of the single runner vertical reaction turbine
1953
William Blum PhysicsScientific basis for the electro-deposition of metals
1953
George Russell Harrison PhysicsPrecision measurement in Zeeman effect
1953
William F. Meggers PhysicsContributions to field of spectroscopy and to the knowledge of the electronic structure of many elements
1955
F. Philip Bowden PhysicsFor extensive investigations involving frictions between solid surfaces
1957
Willard F. Libby PhysicsTechnique of radio carbon dating
1957
Reginald James Seymour Pigott EngineeringEngineering accomplishments, inventions and leadership
1957
Robert Alexander Watson-Watt EngineeringPulsed radar, and development of radar systems
1958
Joseph C. Patrick ChemistryDiscoveries in polysulfide polymers and new processes of combining chemical compounds for the manufacture of synthetic rubber
1958
Stephen P. Timoshenko EngineeringTheory of elasticity and elastic stability
1959
John Hays Hammond EngineeringDeveloped remote radio control of moving vehicles
1959
Henry Charles Harrison EngineeringMatched impedance principle in electro-mechanical devices
1959
Irving Wolff EngineeringContributions to radio, radar and electronics
1960
Hugh Latimer Dryden EngineeringContributions to theory and application of aerodynamics which advanced the art of wind tunnel and aircraft design and for contributions to design and development of first automatic radar homing guided missile
1960
Arpad Ludwig Nadai EngineeringPioneering work in elasticity of materials
1960
William Francis Gray Swann PhysicsSignificant studies in the field of cosmic radiation
1961
Donald A. Glaser PhysicsThe bubble chamber for tracking and photographing tracks of high energy ionizing particles and the fragments of nuclear collisions
1961
Rudolf L. Mössbauer PhysicsDiscovery of recoilless emission
1961
Reinhold Rudenberg EngineeringPerformance of electric power systems
1961
James Alfred Van Allen PhysicsPioneering achievements in space science, Van Allen Radiation Belts
1962
James G. Baker PhysicsInnovations in the design of astronomical instruments and the mathematics of optical design
1962
Wernher von Braun EngineeringLiquid rocket motors and rocket development
1963
Nicholas Christofilos PhysicsContributions to applied electromagnetism and nuclear physics such as conception of strange-focusing principle in synchrotrons, the ARGUS experiment and principles in Astron development
1963
Grote Reber Physics Radio astronomy, early radio telescopes, and the identification of the first radio star
1964
Waldo L. Semon EngineeringAchievements in natural and synthetic rubber production
1964
Richard V. Southwell PhysicsSolution of buckling problems in physics and engineering
1964
Robert Rathbun Wilson PhysicsContributions to the control and direction of high-energy particle beams and as a designer of instrumentation for measurement of high-energy physical phenomena
1965
Donald Dexter Van Slyke Life ScienceClinical chemistry procedures and apparatus
1966
Everitt P. Blizard PhysicsDevelopment of the theory of radiation shielding
1966
Herman Francis Mark Chemistry Polymers
1968
Neil Bartlett Chemistry Fluorine Compounds of Xenon and Radon
1969
Henry Eyring ChemistryQuantum mechanical calculations of activation energies
1969
Peter Carl Goldmark EngineeringContributions in the fields of electronics
1970
Walter Henry Zinn Engineering Nuclear power reactors
1971
Paul J. Flory Chemistry Polymer science
1971
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck PhysicsTheories of magnetism and dielectrics
1972
Brian D. Josephson Physics Josephson effect and theory of matter at low temperatures
1972
William Powell Lear EngineeringDevelopment of full maneuvering automatic pilot and Lear jet
1973
Allan R. Sandage Physics Astronomy
1973
John Paul Stapp Life ScienceCrash Injury Research
1974
Theodore L. Cairns ChemistryPercyano compounds, synthesis and exploration of chemical and physical properties
1974
Robert H. Dicke PhysicsRole in gravitational experiment and theory
1974
Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Earth SciencePlant hormones and air pollution chemistry
1974
Bruno B. Rossi Physics Cosmic rays, gamma-ray astronomy
1975
Mildred Cohn Life ScienceNuclear magnetic resonance analysis of enzymatic complexes
1975
Michael James Lighthill PhysicsAcoustic quadrupole theory of aerodynamic noise generation
1976
Leon Lederman PhysicsLeadership in forefront of experimentation in study of high energy interactions, nuclear forces and particle physics
1978
Herbert C. Brown ChemistryDevelopment of methods for synthesis of diborane and alkali metal hydrides
1978
Frank H. Stillinger Chemistry Computer-generated model for water molecules
1979
Steven Weinberg Physics Unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions
1980
Riccardo Giacconi PhysicsOutstanding work in X-ray astronomy
1981
Marion King Hubbert Earth ScienceApplication of quantitative methods to geological problems
1982
Harold P. Eubank Physics Plasma physics
1982
Edgar Bright Wilson, Jr. PhysicsContributions to the understanding of molecular structure and dynamics
1984
Elizabeth F. Neufeld Life ScienceFor investigation of genetics of mucopolysaccharide storage disease
1985
Robert N. Clayton EngineeringFor the application of mass spectrometry to geoscience research
1985
Andrei Sakharov PhysicsFor contributions to controlled thermonuclear reactions, baryon synthesis and proton decay, induced gravity and the quark model
1986
Leo P. Kadanoff PhysicsFor contributions to the current understanding of second order phase transition
1987
Gerd Binnig PhysicsFor development of the scanning tunneling microscope
1987
Heinrich Rohrer PhysicsFor the development of scanning tunneling microscope
1988
Harry G. Drickamer EngineeringFor clarification of the role of pressure in producing paramagnetic-ferromagnetic and conductor-insulator transitions
1989
Edward Norton Lorenz PhysicsFor interpretation of dynamical chaos in physical systems
1990
Marlan O. Scully PhysicsFor his discoveries in laser physics and quantum optics, atomic and statistical physics, and biological engineering
1991
Yakir Aharonov PhysicsFor observations of electromagnetic potentials and insights into quantum mechanics
1991
David Bohm PhysicsFor elevated electromagnetic potentials to status of physical observables
1992
Lap-Chee Tsui Life ScienceFor the discovery of the cystic fibrosis gene
1995
Marvin H. Caruthers Life ScienceFor his contributions in automating the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides
1995
Alfred Y. Cho PhysicsFor development and refinement of techniques of molecular beam epitaxy for use in quantum physics
1997
Irwin Fridovich Life ScienceFor discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms
1997
Joe Milton McCord Life ScienceFor discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms

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References

  1. 1 2 3 The Franklin Institute. Donors of the Medals and their histories. The Elliott Cresson Medal - Founded in 1848 - Gold Medal. Retrieved on July 13, 2009. Archived May 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  2. The Franklin Institute. Awards. About the Awards: History and Facts, Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
  3. The Franklin Institute. Winners. Cresson Medal winners. Note that the 269 listed awardees include two different entries for Lee DeForest, with different spellings of his name. DeForest received only one medal, in 1923. Retrieved on July 13, 2009. Archived February 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. Franklin Institute. Journal of the Franklin Institute, Pergamon Press, 1898, page 210. "The Econometer: A Gas Balance for Indicating Continuously the Proportion of Carbonic Acid Gas in the Flow of Furnace Gases"
  5. "Elmer Sperry Dies. Famous Inventor". The New York Times . June 17, 1930. Retrieved 2012-12-21. In 1914, he was awarded first prize of the Aero Club of France or his airplane stabilizer; he also was the winner of two Franklin Institute Medals in 1914 and 1929; Collier Trophies, 1915, 1916; Holley Medal, 1927; John Fritz Medal, 1927; Albert Gary Medal, 1929; two decorations from the last Czar of Russia; two decorations from the Emperor of Japan, the Order of the Rising Sun and the Order of the Sacred Treasure; and the grand prize of the Panama Exposition.