Fagus crenata

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Japanese beech
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Fagus
F. crenata
Binomial name
Fagus crenata

Fagus ferruginea
Fagus sieboldii

Fagus crenata, known as the Siebold's beech, Japanese beech, or buna, is a deciduous tree of the beech genus, Fagus, of the family Fagaceae.


Distribution and habitat

It is endemic to Japan, where it is widespread and often one of the dominant trees of Japan's deciduous forests. [2] It is found from the Oshima Peninsula in Hokkaidō south to the Ōsumi Peninsula in Kyūshū. In north-east Honshū it grows in large stands from sea level up to 1,400 metres (4,600 ft) but in the south-west of its range it is restricted to mountainous areas and occurs in small, isolated populations. It grows in well-drained, loamy or sandy soils.


It reaches 35 metres (115 ft) in height. The crown is rounded and the bark is smooth and grey. The simple leaves are arranged alternately along the branch. They are broadest towards the base and have 7 to 11 pairs of veins. The nut has a short thick stalk, 15 millimetres (0.6 in) long. There are flattened green whiskers at the base of the husk of the nut. The flowers are wind-pollinated. The young leaves and seeds are edible.

Related Research Articles

Fagaceae Family of flowering plants

Fagaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes beeches and oaks, and comprises eight genera with about 927 species. The Fagaceae are mostly deciduous but often evergreen trees and shrubs, characterized by alternate simple leaves with pinnate venation, unisexual flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of cup-like (cupule) nuts. Their leaves are often lobed and both petioles and stipules are generally present. Their fruits lack endosperm and lie in a scaly or spiny husk that may or may not enclose the entire nut, which may consist of one to seven seeds. In the oaks, genus Quercus, the fruit is a non-valved nut called an acorn. The husk of the acorn in most oaks only forms a cup in which the nut sits. Other members of the family have fully enclosed nuts. Fagaceae is one of the most ecologically important woody plant families in the Northern Hemisphere, as oaks form the backbone of temperate forest in North America, Europe, and Asia and one of the most significant sources of wildlife fodder.

Beech Genus of flowering plants in the family Fagaceae

Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America. Recent classifications recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus. The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, distinctive for their low branches, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. The European beech is the most commonly cultivated.

<i>Fagus sylvatica</i> Species of deciduous tree

European beech or common beech is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae.

<i>Fagus grandifolia</i> Species of tree

Fagus grandifolia, the American beech or North American beech, is the species of beech tree native to the eastern United States and extreme southeast Canada.

Temperate rainforest Forests in the temperate zone with heavy rainfall

Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.

Laurel forest

Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical forest found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable, mild temperatures. The forest is characterized by broadleaf tree species with evergreen, glossy and elongated leaves, known as "laurophyll" or "lauroid". Plants from the laurel family (Lauraceae) may or may not be present, depending on the location.

<i>Juglans cinerea</i> Species of tree

Juglans cinerea, commonly known as butternut or white walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada.

<i>Fagus orientalis</i> Species of beech

Fagus orientalis, commonly known as the Oriental beech, is a deciduous tree in the beech family Fagaceae. It is native to Eurasia, in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

<i>Nothofagus pumilio</i> Species of plant

Nothofagus pumilio, the lenga beech, is a deciduous tree or shrub in the Nothofagaceae family that is native to the southern Andes range, in the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina to Tierra del Fuego, from 35° to 56° South latitude. This tree is in the same genus as the coihue. It regenerates easily after fires. The wood is of good quality, moderate durability, and is easy to work with. It is used in furniture, shingles and construction and sometimes as a substitute for American black cherry in the manufacturing of cabinets.

<i>Nothofagus gunnii</i> Species of plant (fossil)

Nothofagus gunnii, the tanglefoot- or deciduous beech, or Australian beech, is a deciduous shrub endemic to the highlands of Tasmania, Australia. It was discovered in 1847 by R.C Gunn and evidence exists that it once lived in Antarctica. N. gunnii is a small woody tree with a shrubby appearance known to grow up to 10 metres (33 ft). It lives only on mountains due to temperature limitations within the Tasmanian maritime climate and can survive up to heights of 1,600 metres (5,200 ft). It grows in alpine and sub-alpine regions in the central portions of the state but is absent from the coast zones. Though capable of reaching the size of a small tree, it rarely exceeds 10 metres (33 ft) in height, instead growing as a thick shrub or as a woody ground cover hence its common name of "tanglefoot".

<i>Castanea crenata</i> Species of flowering plant

Castanea crenata, known as Korean chestnut, Korean castanea, and Japanese chestnut, is a species of chestnut native to Japan and Korea. Castanea crenata exhibits resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the fungal pathogen that causes ink disease in several Castanea species. The mechanism of resistance of Castanea crenata to Phytophthora cinnamomi may derive from its expression of the Cast_Gnk2-like gene.

<i>Castanea mollissima</i> Species of tree

Castanea mollissima, also known as the Chinese chestnut, is a member of the family Fagaceae, and a species of chestnut native to China, Taiwan, and Korea.

<i>Ulmus castaneifolia</i> Species of tree

Ulmus castaneifoliaHemsley, the chestnut-leafed elm or multinerved elm, is a small deciduous tree found across much of China in broadleaved forests at elevations of 500–1,600 metres (1,600–5,200 ft).

<i>Quercus faginea</i> Species of oak tree

Quercus faginea, the Portuguese oak, is a species of oak native to the western Mediterranean region in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Similar trees in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa are usually included in this species, or sometimes treated as a distinct species Quercus tlemcenensis. It occurs in mountains from sea level to 1900 m altitude, and flourishes in a variety of soils and climates.

<i>Fagus hayatae</i> Species of beech

Fagus hayatae, also known as Taiwan beech, is a species of beech tree. It can grow 20 metres (66 ft) tall.It is the only beech species native to Taiwan. While IUCN reports it, as endemic to Taiwan, "Flora of China" and "Flora of Taiwan" also report it from China; "Flora of China" reports a wide but discontinuous mainland distribution between Sichuan in the southwest to Zhejiang in the east.

<i>Fagus japonica</i> Species of beech

Fagus japonica, known as the Japanese beech, Japanese blue beech or in Japanese as inubuna or kurobuna, is a deciduous tree of the beech family Fagaceae.

<i>Gmelina leichhardtii</i> Species of tree

Gmelina leichhardtii, the white beech, is a tree of eastern Australia. Scattered individuals or small groups of trees naturally occur from the Illawarra district of New South Wales to near Proserpine in tropical Queensland. The white beech or grey teak is a fast-growing tree, growing on volcanic and alluvial soils in areas of moderate to high rainfall. It also grows on poorer sedimentary soils in fire free areas. White beech may occasionally be seen in Australian rainforests, though their status is considered "uncommon". Unlike the Australian red cedar, the white beech has not recovered particularly well after logging in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Weeping beech

The weeping beech, Fagus sylvatica 'Pendula', is a cultivar of the deciduous European beech.

Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests

The Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests ecoregion stretches for about 700 km along the eastern slopes of the island of Honshu, with some small patches on the southern islands of Shikoku and Kyushu. Lower elevations to the east along the coast are in the Taiheiyo evergreen forests ecoregion; higher elevations to the west are in the Nihonkai montane deciduous forests ecoregion. Characteristic forests are of Japanese beech, stone pine, and spruce.

Nihonkai montane deciduous forests

The Nihonkai montane deciduous forests ecoregion covers the Nihonkai mountain slopes of Japan's central island of Honshu, including most of the northern half of the island. Also included in the ecoregion are the forested lowland hills of the Oshima Peninsula, which is the southern extension of Hokkaido Island.


  1. Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) & IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group. 2019. Fagus crenata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T138593394A143485665. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T138593394A143485665.en. Downloaded on 13 April 2021
  2. Okaura, T; K Harada (2002). "Phylogeographical structure revealed by chloroplast DNA variation in Japanese Beech (Fagus crenata Blume)" (PDF). Heredity. Nature Publishing Group. 88 (4): 322–329. doi: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800048 . PMID   11920142 . Retrieved 2007-06-30.