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The Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii) is a rare species of fish endemic to the U.S. state of Texas, where it also is the official state fish. It is restricted to creeks and rivers (including the Guadalupe River, hence the name Guadalupe Bass), and is listed as Near Threatened.Today, most fly fishermen and anglers practice catch-and-release techniques to improve fish populations. The Guadalupe bass is often difficult to distinguish from the smallmouth bass or spotted bass, and the fish is known to hybridize.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.
The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County, Texas, to San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico. It is a popular destination for rafting, fly fishing, and canoeing. Larger cities along it include Kerrville, New Braunfels, Seguin, Gonzales, Cuero, and Victoria. It has several dams along its length, the most notable of which, Canyon Dam, forms Canyon Lake northwest of New Braunfels.
Guadalupe bass, like most black bass, are lime to olive green in color, this particular species being lighter in shade usually in river specimens. They have a lateral line covered in mostly separate diamond shaped or circular spots, which with age fades from black to olive. There are also many smaller diamond marks scattered on the back which are less distinguished than the ones on the lateral line. Its physical traits are very similar to the spotted bass (i.e. small mouth that doesn't extend past the eye, sleek figure, etc.) with one exception: the green coloring tends to extend lower on the body past the lateral line than their cousins. So far the record is 3.71 lbs (3 lbs 11.360 oz.), caught by Dr. Bryan Townsend of Austin in 2014. The fish is only found in Edward's Plateau in central Texas. Its main habitats are the San Marcos, Colorado, Llano, and Guadalupe rivers. They can also be found in run-off creeks such as Barton Creek, Onion Creek, San Gabriel river, and The Comal river. The species has also been farm raised and stocked in the Llano river.
The Guadalupe bass has almost no predators. In fact its main threat is not predation, but hybridization with the introduced smallmouth bass. The two species are very closely related and in some rivers almost half the Guadalupe Bass are hybrids. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept. stated it will likely stock many bass in the future to beat out the hybrid population. This will be a pilot for several other areas where rare spotted bass sub-species are having the same problems.
Typically, Guadalupe bass are found in streams and reservoirs; they are absent from extreme headwaters. The Guadalupe Bass prefer flowing waters of streams within native variety, and use covers like large rocks, cypress trees or stumps for refuge.
The fish (especially juveniles and very old fish), unlike other bass, have an inclination towards insects. Guadalupe bass at their predatory peak prefer larger bait fish such as shad and small bass or bluegill.
While almost unheard of elsewhere, the Guadalupe bass is very popular among fishermen in central Texas. It is cherished for its long tough fights, in which it manipulates the current and its unusually strong muscles, and beautiful colors which tend to be more natural and bright than those of spotted bass. Its preference for strong current and its large diet of insects earned it the name "Texas Brook Trout" and make it popular for fly fishermen. It fights similarly to both smallmouth bass and rainbow trout—making long runs and manipulating current, but also making sharp turns and attempting to entangle the line on structures, and even making large jumps like both species. Altogether, it makes a very satisfying fight, and it can be difficult and extremely fun to land a 2+ lb. fish.
If fishing in a larger river, one will most likely find large fish in deep pools with some current, scavenging off whatever the current brings, and in the shallows, looking for fry, bait fish, frogs, the occasional rodent, and hatching insects if in the right season. Smaller fish are found in fast current behind riffles, eating passing nymphs that were sucked in and small minnows eating the same. Due to their preference for small fish and insects, fly fishermen are at a large advantage.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish. The term encompasses both freshwater and marine species, all belonging to the large order Perciformes, or perch-like fishes. The word bass comes from Middle English bars, meaning "perch".
Micropterus is a genus of freshwater fish in the sunfish family of order Perciformes. The species of this genus are known as the black bass.
The spotted bass, also called spotty, or spots in various fishing communities, is a species of freshwater fish of the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of the order Perciformes. One of the black basses, it is native to the Mississippi River basin and across the Gulf states, from central Texas through the Florida panhandle. Its native range extends into the western Mid-Atlantic states and it has been introduced into western North Carolina and Virginia. It has also been introduced to southern Africa, where it has become established in some isolated waters. It is often mistaken for the similar and more common largemouth bass.
The smallmouth bass is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of the order Perciformes. It is the type species of its genus. One of the black basses, it is a popular game fish sought by anglers throughout the temperate zones of North America, and has been spread by stocking—as well as illegal introductions—to many cool-water tributaries and lakes in Canada and more so introduced in the United States. The maximum recorded size is approximately 27 inches and 12 pounds. The smallmouth bass is native to the upper and middle Mississippi River basin, the Saint Lawrence River–Great Lakes system, and up into the Hudson Bay basin. Its common names include smallmouth, bronzeback, brown bass, brownie, smallie, bronze bass, and bareback bass.
The largemouth bass is a carnivorous freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae (sunfish) family, a species of black bass native to eastern and central United States, adjacent southeastern Canada and northern Mexico, but widely introduced elsewhere. It is known by a variety of regional names, such as the widemouth bass, bigmouth bass, black bass, bucketmouth, largies, Potter's fish, Florida bass, Florida largemouth, green bass, Green trout, gilsdorf bass, Oswego bass, southern largemouth and (paradoxically) northern largemouth, LMB. The largemouth bass is the state fish of Georgia and Mississippi, and the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama.
The Redeye bass is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) native to the Coosa River system of Georgia, Alabama. The waters it is normally found in are cool streams and rivers in the foothills of mountains.
Bass fishing is the activity of angling for the North American gamefish known colloquially as the black bass. There are numerous black bass species considered as gamefish in North America, including largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass or Kentucky bass, and Guadalupe bass. Black bass are members of the sunfish (Centrarchidae) family.
The shoal bass is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. One of the black basses, it is native to subtropical waters in Florida and Georgia. It is also occasionally found in rivers and streams of East Alabama where it has been declared an endangered species and cannot legally be kept if caught by fishermen. Of typical size for a black bass, M. cataractae reaches a maximum recorded length of 24 inches (61 cm) and a maximum published weight of 8 pounds, 12 ounces.
The rainbow darter is a native North American perch-like freshwater fish found in small, fast-moving streams and small to medium-sized rivers. It grows to 2 to 3 in in length. The species is very sensitive to pollution and silt, staying in clean, pollution-free water. The rainbow darter is easily identified by three dark spots on the back, and blue and orange in the dorsal and anal fins.
The bonytail chub or bonytail is a cyprinid freshwater fish native to the Colorado River basin of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming in the southwestern United States; it has been extirpated from the part of the basin in Mexico. It was once abundant and widespread in the basin, its numbers and range have declined to the point where it has been listed as endangered since 1980 (ESA) and 1986 (IUCN), a fate shared by the other large Colorado basin endemic fish species like the Colorado pikeminnow, humpback chub, and razorback sucker. It is now the rarest of the endemic big-river fishes of the Colorado River. There are 20 species in the genus Gila, seven of which are found in Arizona.
The Devils River minnow is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae. The minnow coexists with other closely related species and other cyprinids in the range of northern Mexico and southern Texas.
The bridle shiner is a member of the minnow family (Cyprinidae). This species has been identified as being of Special Concern by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).
The hornyhead chub is a small species of minnow in the Cypriniformes Order. It mainly inhabits small rivers and streams of the northern central USA, up into Canada. The adults inhabit faster, rocky pools of rivers.
The common shiner is a freshwater fish of the Cyprinidae family, found in North America. It ranges in length between 4 and 6 inches, although they can reach lengths of up to 8 inches.
The border barb is a ray-finned fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It is placed with the South African redfins in Pseudobarbus. Like Pseudobarbus. It is tetraploid.
The blacktail shiner is a small freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae native to the United States.
The river chub is a minnow in the family Cyprinidae. It is one of the most common fishes in North American streams.
The greenfin darter is a species of darter endemic to the eastern United States.
The bluehead chub ) is a cyprinid native to North America. Its name is due to its appearance, as breeding males have a blue head. Adult bluehead chubs are, on average, between 70 and 160 mm in length. They have a robust body with uniformly large scales. The scales are present on the belly and breast. They have a pored body, a weakly falcate pectoral fin, and pharyngeal teeth. They have a large mouth, small eyes, and a terminal barbel. Other characteristics include a darkened lateral band, spot on the caudal fin, and red coloration of the fins and iris of the eyes. They have 40 lateral line scales and 8 anal rays. The bluehead chub is a freshwater fish, and lives in pools, rivers, and streams. They feed on insects and plants.
FishBase is a global species database of fish species. It is the largest and most extensively accessed online database on adult finfish on the web. Over time it has "evolved into a dynamic and versatile ecological tool" that is widely cited in scholarly publications.
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ITIS was originally formed in 1996 as an interagency group within the US federal government, involving several US federal agencies, and has now become an international body, with Canadian and Mexican government agencies participating. The database draws from a large community of taxonomic experts. Primary content staff are housed at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and IT services are provided by a US Geological Survey facility in Denver. The primary focus of ITIS is North American species, but many biological groups exist worldwide and ITIS collaborates with other agencies to increase its global coverage.