HMS Garth (L20)

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HMS Garth 1941 IWM FL 13374.jpg
HMS Garth, 1941
History
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svgUnited Kingdom
Name: HMS Garth
Ordered: 21 March 1939
Builder: John Brown & Company, Clydebank
Laid down: 8 June 1939
Launched: 14 February 1940
Completed: 8 June 1940
Identification: pennant number: L20
Honours and
awards:
  • North Sea 1941-45
  • English Channel 1942-44
  • Dieppe 1942
  • Normandy 1944
Fate: Scrapped in August 1958
Badge: On a Field Red. a Pendant from a cross-crosslet fitchy White a bugle horn stringed Gold
General characteristics
Class and type: Type I Hunt-class destroyer
Displacement:
  • 1,000 long tons (1,000 t) standard
  • 1,340 long tons (1,360 t) full load
Length: 85 m (278 ft 10 in) o/a
Beam: 8.8 m (28 ft 10 in)
Draught: 3.27 m (10 ft 9 in)
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 27.5 knots (31.6 mph; 50.9 km/h)
  • 26 kn (30 mph; 48 km/h) full
Range:
  • 3,500  nmi (6,500 km) at 15 kn (28 km/h)
  • 1,000 nmi (1,900 km) at 26 kn (48 km/h)
Complement: 146
Armament:

HMS Garth was a Type I Hunt-class destroyer of the Royal Navy built by John Brown & Company on the River Clyde, and launched on 28 December 1939. She was adopted by the Civil Community of Wokingham, Berkshire, as part of the Warship Week campaign in 1942.

Hunt-class destroyer ship class

The Hunt class was a class of escort destroyer of the Royal Navy. The first vessels were ordered early in 1939, and the class saw extensive service in the Second World War, particularly on the British east coast and Mediterranean convoys. They were named after British fox hunts. The modern Hunt class GRP hulled mine countermeasure vessels maintain the Hunt names lineage in the Royal Navy.

Destroyer Type of warship

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

Contents

Service history

On commissioning in 1940 Garth completed work ups for service in Home waters, including the Northwestern approaches and the English Channel. She provided escort cover for the monitor HMS Erebus during the evacuation of Dunkirk. In November 1940 along with HMS Campbell she sunk the E-Boat S38 off Southwold - the first E-Boat sunk during an attack on a coastal convoy.

Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its country's military forces. The ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries old naval tradition.

English Channel Arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France

The English Channel, also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates Southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is the busiest shipping area in the world.

Monitor (warship) small ironclad warship

A monitor was a relatively small warship which was neither fast nor strongly armoured but carried disproportionately large guns. They were used by some navies from the 1860s, during the First World War and with limited use in the Second World War. During the Vietnam War they were used by the United States Navy. The Brazilian Navy's Parnaíba is the last monitor in service.

Royal Navy officers aboard HMS Garth with a captured German E-boat ensign at Sheerness, 21 October 1944. (IWM) A26034 Royal Navy officers aboard the destroyer HMS GARTH with a captured German E-boat ensign at Sheerness, 21 October 1944. A26034.jpg
Royal Navy officers aboard HMS Garth with a captured German E-boat ensign at Sheerness, 21 October 1944. (IWM) A26034

During 1941 and 1942 she continued escort duties for convoy defence off the East coast. In 1942 she was nominated to provide cover for the Dieppe Raid (Operation Jubilee) in August 1942. Following this the destroyer continued duties in the English Channel and North sea. In February 1943 Garth rammed and sank the E-Boat S73 off Yarmouth.

Dieppe Raid World War II battle on north coast of France

Operation Jubilee, more commonly referred to as the Dieppe Raid, was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War. The main assault lasted less than six hours until strong German defences and mounting Allied losses forced its commanders to call a retreat.

In April 1944 Garth was nominated to provide support for the Allied landings in Normandy. In October 1944 she provided naval gunfire support ahead of the Allied assault on Walcheren, which defended the Scheldt estuary and port of Antwerp. She then returned to convoy escort and patrol duties in the North Sea.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Normandy Administrative region of France

Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

Naval gunfire support use of naval artillery to provide fire support for amphibious assault

Naval gun fire support (NGFS) is the use of naval artillery to provide fire support for amphibious assault and other troops operating within their range. NGFS is one of a number of disciplines encompassed by the term Naval Fires. Modern naval gunfire support is one of the three main components of amphibious warfare assault operations support, along with aircraft and ship-launched land-attack missiles. Shipborne guns have been used against shore defences since medieval naval warfare.

In August 1945, she attended the first British Navy week in a foreign port, in Rotterdam. Also there were the cruiser HMS Bellona, and the destroyer Onslow as well as the submarine Tuna. Foreign vessels included two of the Dutch Navy submarines of the T-class, Dolfijn and Zeehond. [1]

HMS <i>Bellona</i> (63)

HMS Bellona was the name ship of her sub-class of light cruisers for the Royal Navy. She was a modified Dido-class design with only four turrets but improved anti-aircraft armament. Entering service in 1943, the cruiser operated during World War II as an escort for the Arctic convoys, as a jamming ship to prevent the use of radio-controlled bombs and in support of the Omaha Beach landings.

HMS <i>Onslow</i> (G17) destroyer

HMS Onslow was an O-class destroyer flotilla leader of the Royal Navy. She was ordered from John Brown & Company at Clydebank, Glasgow on 3 September 1939. The ship was laid down on 1 July 1940 and launched on 31 March 1941. She was completed on 8 October 1941 at a cost of £416,942.

HMS <i>Tuna</i> (N94) submarine

HMS Tuna (N94) was a T-class submarine of the Royal Navy. She was laid down by Scotts, Greenock and launched on 10 May 1940. She was equipped with German-built engines and spent her career in World War II in western European waters, in the North Sea and off the west coast of France, and most famously taking part in Operation Frankton. The raid on Bordeaux harbour was later immortalised in the classic 1955 film The Cockleshell Heroes starring Trevor Howard. Tuna also took part in many war patrols and her crew received service medals for the boat's destruction of several U-boats.

After August 1945 she was used as an accommodation ship at Chatham. [2] She was subsequently placed in reserve. She was then sold to Thos W Ward for scrap. She arrived for scrapping at Barrow on 25 August 1958.

Chatham, Kent town in Kent, England, United Kingdom

Chatham is one of the Medway towns located within the Medway unitary authority, in North Kent, in South East England.

Thos W Ward

Thos. W. Ward Ltd was a Sheffield, Yorkshire, steel, engineering and cement business which began as coal and coke merchants then expanded to recycling metal for Sheffield's steel industry, engineering and the supply of machinery.

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References

  1. "British Navy Week in Rotterdam". The Times (50223). 17 August 1945. p. 6.
  2. Critchley, Mike (1982). British Warships Since 1945: Part 3: Destroyers. Liskeard, UK: Maritime Books. p. 26. ISBN   0-9506323-9-2.

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