Hill-holder is a name for a mechanism in motor vehicles invented by Wagner Electric and manufactured by Bendix Brake Company in South Bend, Indiana. It is a device that holds the brake until the clutch is at the friction point, making it easier to start up hill from stationary in manual transmission and automatic transmission automobiles. Hill-holder works by holding the brake in position while the driver sets up and activates the first gear to move the car forward from a complete stop, without fear of roll-back.
It was first introduced in 1936 as an option for the Studebaker President. By 1937 the device, called "NoRoL" by Bendix, was available on Hudson, Nash and many other cars. Studebakerand many other carmakers offered the device as either optional or standard equipment for many years. In modern usage, this driver-assistance system is also called hill-hold control (HHC), hill-start assist (HSA) or hill-start assist control (HAC).
As a trade name, it was introduced by Studebaker in the 1936 President. It was also promoted by Studebaker as an option in the 1939 model year. Later, the technology became available on a variety of modern automobiles, starting with the 2005-onwards Volkswagen Passat, 2011-onwards Volkswagen Jetta, and 2004-onwards Volkswagen Phaeton and Touareg. It is further available on the Subaru Forester,Subaru Impreza and Subaru Legacy. The 2009 Dodge Challenger SRT8 also comes equipped with hill-holder.
Similar systems are or were in use by Alfa Romeo, Citroën, Fiat (including the new Fiat 500), BMW, Skoda Superb 2009, Lancia, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, Lamborghini Aventador, Saab, smart ("Hill Start Assist"), Subaru, Cadillac ("NoRol") and Stutz ("Noback").
The mechanism was available in American car parts stores so that car owners could add to their vehicle to improve it from the late 1930s through the 1950s. But it required that the car have hydraulic brakes, so it could not be added to Ford Motor Company products before 1939. In 1949 it became available on factory-built Fords.
|VinFast|| Fadil |
|Honda||CR-Z||2012||Called "Hill Start Assist"|
|Honda||Fit and Fit Hybrid||2015 (NOT 2013)|
|Chevrolet||Spark||2013||Called "Hill Start Assist"|
|Mercedes-Benz Smart||ForTwo||2011||Called "Hill Start Assist"|
|MINI||Cooper||Part of Dynamic Stability Control|
|Toyota||RAV4EV||2012-2014||Called "Hill-start assist control"|
|Kia||Kia_Soul||2012+||Called "Hill Start Assist"|
|BMW||5-Series||2012||Called "Drive-off assistant"|
|Lada||Vesta||2015 - current|
|BMW||3-Series||2007+||Called "Drive-off assistant"|
In layman’s terms, the modern hill-holder function works by using two sensors, in concert with the brake system on the vehicle. The first sensor measures the forward-facing incline (nose higher than tail) of the vehicle, while the second is a disengaging mechanism. The 1930s-1950s NoRoL used a ball bearing as a check valve in the hydraulic brake line; when the car was on an uphill incline, the ball rolled back and blocked the brake line - when the car was level or facing downhill, the ball rolled away, leaving the line free. The clutch linkage slightly dislodged the ball when the clutch was released, enabling the car to move away from a stop.
When the driver stops the vehicle on an incline where the nose of the car is sufficiently higher than the rear of the car, the system is engaged when the driver's foot is depressing the brake pedal, and then the clutch pedal is fully depressed. Once set, the driver must keep the clutch pedal fully depressed but may remove the foot from the brake pedal. To disengage the system and move the car forward, the driver selects first gear, gently depresses the fuel pedal, and slowly releases the clutch pedal which at a point in its travel releases the braking system, allowing the car to proceed.
In an automatic transmission vehicle, the car is equipped with a tilt sensor that, when it reaches a certain angle or greater, tells the brake system to keep the brakes clamped for a few seconds longer after the driver releases the brake. This allows time for the driver to depress the accelerator, moving the vehicle forward.
Hill-holder works best for those who are inexperienced with manual shift techniques, or in situations with heavy traffic in steep hilly conditions (as in San Francisco, or Duluth for example).
However the same technique can be accomplished by a driver through the use of the manual parking brake lever, coordinated with the brake, clutch, gear shift and accelerator. This is a standard technique in most countries where manual transmissions remain popular, for example the UK. Cars equipped with a parking brake pedal are not suited for this maneuver unless it is released by hand, for example in the Citroen XM.
The Subaru Forester is a compact crossover SUV that's been manufactured since 1997 by Subaru. Available in Japan from 1997, the Forester shares its platform with the Impreza.
The Citroën C2 is a supermini that was produced by the French manufacturer Citroën, with production starting August 2003. It replaced the Citroën Saxo and was built at the Aulnay plant, on the outskirts of Paris. A different design of the C2, based on that of the Peugeot 206, is sold in China. The Citroën C2 was discontinued in October 2009, and replaced by the Citroën DS3 in January 2010.
An automatic transmission is multi-speed transmission used in motor vehicles that does not require any driver input to change gears under normal driving conditions.
In automobiles, a start-stop system or stop-start system automatically shuts down and restarts the internal combustion engine to reduce the amount of time the engine spends idling, thereby reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This is most advantageous for vehicles which spend significant amounts of time waiting at traffic lights or frequently come to a stop in traffic jams. Start-stop technology may become more common with more stringent government fuel economy and emissions regulations. This feature is present in hybrid electric vehicles, but has also appeared in vehicles which lack a hybrid electric powertrain. For non-electric vehicles fuel economy gains from this technology are typically in the range of 3-10 percent, potentially as high as 12 percent. In the United States, idling wastes approximately 3.9 billion gallons of gasoline per year.
A manual transmission is a multi-speed motor vehicle transmission system, where gear changes require the driver to manually select the gears by operating a gear stick and clutch.
The Volkswagen Touran is a compact MPV first launched in February 2003, sold in Europe and other select markets. It fills a gap in Volkswagen's model lineup, above the related Volkswagen Golf and below Sharan. In some regions, such as Japan, the car is called Golf Touran. The name 'Touran' derives from the combination of 'Tour' and 'Sharan'. Despite the similarity of their names, the Touran is not related to the North American market Volkswagen Routan. With Renault Scénic it is most popular compact MPV in Europe.
The Subaru 360 is a rear-engined, two-door city car manufactured and marketed from 1958 to 1971 by Subaru. As the company's first automobile, production reached 392,000 over its 12-year model run.
Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) are electronic systems that assist drivers in driving and parking functions. Through a safe human-machine interface, ADAS increase car and road safety. ADAS systems use automated technology, such as sensors and cameras, to detect nearby obstacles or driver errors, and respond accordingly.
The modern usage of the automotive term manumatic denotes an automatic transmission that allows the driver control to select a specific gear, typically using paddle-shifters, steering wheel-mounted push-buttons, or "+" and "-" controls on the gear selector.
A direct-shift gearbox, commonly abbreviated to DSG, is an electronically-controlled, dual-clutch, multiple-shaft, automatic gearbox, in either a transaxle or traditional transmission layout, with automated clutch operation, and with fully-automatic or semi-manual gear selection. The first dual-clutch transmissions were derived from Porsche in-house development for the Porsche 962 in the 1980s.
In road vehicles, the parking brake, also known as a hand brake or emergency brake (e-brake), is a mechanism used to keep the vehicle securely motionless when parked. Historically, it was also used to help perform an emergency stop should the main hydraulic brakes fail. Parking brakes often consist of a cable connected to two wheel brakes, which is then connected to a pulling mechanism. In most vehicles, the parking brake operates only on the rear wheels, which have reduced traction while braking. The mechanism may be a hand-operated lever, a straight pull handle located near the steering column or a foot-operated pedal located with the other pedals.
The Volkswagen Tiguan is a crossover SUV manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen. Introduced in 2007 as the second crossover SUV model under the Volkswagen brand, the first generation model uses the PQ46 platform. The second generation model was released in 2016 and is built on the Volkswagen Group MQB platform.
In an automobile, the dead pedal, often also called a footrest, is typically a non-moving piece of rubber or metal that the driver is supposed to rest his or her left foot on when driving. Although the dead pedal serves no function in the car, many cars opt to implement it because it provides a number of benefits to the driver. In manual transmission cars, the dead pedal is designed to promote a smoother actuation of the clutch by keeping the driver's foot in the same plane as the pedal. Automatic transmission cars can also benefit from the dead pedal because it prevents fatigue by offering a stable inclined surface on which the driver can place their foot. Even if a car does not have a dead pedal installed, there are a variety of aftermarket accessories that can be installed.
The name Autostick has been used for a Volkswagen semi-automatic transmission, which was a vacuum-operated automatic clutch system, coupled with a conventional 3-speed manual transmission. The "AutoStick" system designed by Chrysler allows for manual selection of gears with a standard hydraulic automatic transmission, also known as a manumatic. Similar systems have been offered and are marketed by other automakers. The Autostick systems used by Volkswagen and Chrysler are largely unrelated, and are not mechanically similar in their operation, and do not share any similarities with their internal design and build.
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) is an available cruise control advanced driver-assistance system for road vehicles that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead. As of 2019, it is also called by 20 unique names that describe that basic functionality. This is also known as Dynamic cruise control.
Clutch control refers to the act of controlling the speed of a vehicle with a manual transmission by partially engaging the clutch plate, using the clutch pedal instead of the accelerator pedal. The purpose of a clutch is in part to allow such control; in particular, a clutch provides transfer of torque between shafts spinning at different speeds. In the extreme, clutch control is used in performance driving, such as starting from a dead stop with the engine producing maximum torque at high RPM.
A non-synchronous transmission— also called a crash gearbox— is a form of manual transmission based on gears that do not use synchronizing mechanisms. They require the driver to manually synchronize the transmission's input speed and output speed.
A collision avoidance system (CAS), also known as a pre-crash system, forward collision warning system, or collision mitigation system, is a motorcar safety system designed to prevent or reduce the severity of a collision. In its basic form, a forward collision warning system monitors a vehicle's speed, the speed of the vehicle in front of it, and the distance between the vehicles, so that it can provide a warning to the driver if the vehicles get too close, potentially helping to avoid a crash. Various technologies and sensors that are used include radar (all-weather) and sometimes laser (LIDAR) and cameras to detect an imminent crash. GPS sensors can detect fixed dangers such as approaching stop signs through a location database. Pedestrian detection can also be a feature of these types of systems.
Car controls are the components in automobiles and other powered road vehicles, such as trucks and buses, used for driving and parking.
The Volkswagen Golf (Mk8) is a compact car, the eighth generation of the Volkswagen Golf and the successor to the Volkswagen Golf Mk7. It was launched in Wolfsburg on 24 October 2019, and arrived in German showrooms in December 2019.
|url=value (help) on 2014-08-19.Missing or empty