Juicing

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Juice extracted using an electric centrifugal juicer Karottensaft.JPG
Juice extracted using an electric centrifugal juicer
A hand press juicer Hand Press Juicer.jpg
A hand press juicer
Pomegranate juice extracted using a hand press juicer Pomegranate Juice (2019).jpg
Pomegranate juice extracted using a hand press juicer

Juicing is the process of extracting juice from plant tissues such as fruit or vegetables.

Contents

Overview

There are many methods of juicing, from squeezing fruit by hand to wide-scale extraction with industrial equipment. Juicing is generally the preferred method of consuming large amounts of produce quickly and is often completed with a household appliance called a juicer, which may be as simple as a cone upon which fruit is mashed or as sophisticated as a variable-speed, motor-driven device. It may also refer to the act of extracting and then drinking juice or those who extract the juice.

Juicing is different from buying juice in the supermarket because it focuses on fresh pressed fruits and vegetables. Residential juicing is often practiced for dietary reasons or as a form of alternative medicine. Becoming first popular in the early 1970s, interest in juicing has since increased. Films such as Fat, Sick and Nearly Dead , Food Matters , and Hungry for Change have increased the sales of juicers. [1]

In America, juicing was popularized by Gayelord Hauser, Jay Kordich and Norman W. Walker. [2] [3] [4]

Methods

Juicing tools have been used throughout history. Manual devices include barrel-shaped presses, hand-operated grinders, and inverted cones upon which fruit is mashed and twisted. Modern juicers are powered by electric motors generating from 200 to 1000 or more watts. There are several types of electric juicers: masticating, centrifugal, and triturating juicers. These variations are defined by the means of extracting the juice.

Health effects

Longitudinal prospective cohort studies conducted at Harvard showed an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes when fruit juice is consumed. Comparatively, consuming whole fruits significantly reduced the risk, suggesting that juicing process may not be beneficial to prevent diabetes. [6] Similarly, consumption of whole apples helped lower cholesterol levels, while clear apple juice did not have such an effect. [7]

The American Journal of Public Health proposed that the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 in the United States eliminate 100% fruit juices since it has been linked to childhood obesity, and substitute instead with whole fruits. [8]

Juicing removes the fiber content of the fruit or vegetable, and the full benefits of the plant is thus not experienced. [7] Re-adding fiber to the juice cannot be equated to whole fruits. [8] There is a loss in non-extracted polyphenols, a class of phytonutrients, in fruit juice compared to whole plant foods. [9] Most polyphenols are bound to the plant fibers, and constitute the major portion of dietary polyphenols. [10] There is therefore a marked loss of phytonutrients in consuming fruits and vegetables through the juicing process alone. [11]

The American Cancer Society says, "there is no convincing scientific evidence that extracted juices are healthier than whole foods". [12]

Juicing may not be the best way to extract all of the nutritional value from fruits and vegetables. According to Uckoo, when juiced grapefruit was compared with blended, the latter was superior. [13] Smoothies, which are the blending of fruit into juice, not the extraction, leave pulp and seeds within the drink leading to better nutrition. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

Food pyramid (nutrition) Visual representation of optimal servings from basic groups

A food pyramid is a representation of the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups. The first pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974. The 1992 pyramid introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was called the "Food Guide Pyramid" or "Eating Right Pyramid". It was updated in 2005 to "MyPyramid", and then it was replaced by "MyPlate" in 2011.

Juicer Tool for extracting fruit and vegetable juices

A juicer, also known as a juice extractor, is a tool used to extract juice from fruits, herbs, leafy greens and other types of vegetables in a process called juicing. It crushes, grinds, and/or squeezes the juice out of the pulp.

Polyphenol Class of chemical compounds

Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized by multiples of phenol units. They are abundant in plants and structurally diverse. Polyphenols include flavonoids, tannic acid, and ellagitannin, some of which have been used historically as dyes and for tanning garments.

The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of people who live near the Mediterranean Sea. When initially formulated in the 1960s, it drew on the cuisines of Greece, Italy, France and Spain. In decades since, it has also incorporated other Mediterranean cuisines, such as those in the Balkans, the Middle East, North Africa and Portugal.

Phytochemical Chemical compounds produced by plants

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them resist fungi, bacteria and plant virus infections, and also consumption by insects and other animals. The name comes from Greek φυτόν (phyton) 'plant'. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine.

Chewing Mechanical procedure for crushing the food and its first enzymatic splitting

Chewing or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth. It is the first step of digestion, and it increases the surface area of foods to allow a more efficient break down by enzymes. During the mastication process, the food is positioned by the cheek and tongue between the teeth for grinding. The muscles of mastication move the jaws to bring the teeth into intermittent contact, repeatedly occluding and opening. As chewing continues, the food is made softer and warmer, and the enzymes in saliva begin to break down carbohydrates in the food. After chewing, the food is swallowed. It enters the esophagus and via peristalsis continues on to the stomach, where the next step of digestion occurs. Increasing the number of chews per bite increases relevant gut hormones. Studies suggest that chewing may decrease self-reported hunger and food intake. Chewing gum has been around for many centuries; there is evidence that northern Europeans chewed birch bark tar 9,000 years ago.

Food browning Food process

Browning is the process of food turning brown due to the chemical reactions that take place within. The process of browning is one of the chemical reactions that take place in food chemistry and represents an interesting research topic regarding health, nutrition, and food technology. Though there are many different ways food chemically changes over time, browning in particular falls into two main categories: enzymatic versus non-enzymatic browning processes.

Vegetable juice

Vegetable juice is a juice drink made primarily of blended vegetables and also available in the form of powders. Vegetable juice is often mixed with fruits such as apples or grapes to improve flavor. It is often touted as a low-sugar alternative to fruit juice, although some commercial brands of vegetable juices use fruit juices as sweeteners, and may contain large amounts of sodium.

Açaí palm Palm tree with many uses, mainly fruit as cash crop

The açaí palm, Euterpe oleracea, is a species of palm tree (Arecaceae) cultivated for its fruit, hearts of palm, leaves, and trunk wood. Global demand for the fruit has expanded rapidly in the 21st century, and the tree is cultivated for that purpose primarily.

Healthy diet Type of diet

A healthy diet is a diet that maintains or improves overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, macronutrients such as protein, micronutrients such as vitamins, and adequate fibre and food energy.

Juice Plus Line of dietary supplements

Juice Plus is a branded line of dietary supplements. It is produced by Natural Alternatives International of San Marcos, California, for National Safety Associates. Introduced in 1993, the supplements are distributed by NSA via multi-level marketing. Juice Plus supplements contain fruit and vegetable juice extracts with added vitamins and nutrients.

A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood sugar to minimize symptoms and dangerous complications of long-term elevations in blood sugar.

Smoothie Drink made from fruit or vegetables

A smoothie is made by puréeing ingredients in a blender to make a beverage. A smoothie commonly has a liquid base, such as fruit juice or milk, yogurt, ice cream or cottage cheese. Other ingredients may be added, including fruits, vegetables, non-dairy milk, crushed ice, whey powder or nutritional supplements.

Nutritional rating systems are used to communicate the nutritional value of food in a more-simplified manner, with a ranking, than nutrition facts labels. A system may be targeted at a specific audience. Rating systems have been developed by governments, non-profit organizations, private institutions, and companies. Common methods include point systems to rank foods based on general nutritional value or ratings for specific food attributes, such as cholesterol content. Graphics and symbols may be used to communicate the nutritional values to the target audience.

Western pattern diet Modern dietary pattern

The Western pattern diet is a modern dietary pattern that is generally characterized by high intakes of pre-packaged foods, refined grains, red meat, processed meat, high-sugar drinks, candy and sweets, fried foods, conventionally-raised animal products, butter and other high-fat dairy products, eggs, potatoes, corn, and low intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, pasture-raised animal products, fish, nuts, and seeds.

Obesity in Mexico Overview of obesity in Mexico

Obesity in Mexico is a relatively recent phenomenon, having been widespread since the 1980s with the introduction of processed food into much of the Mexican food market. Prior to that, dietary issues were limited to under and malnutrition, which is still a problem in various parts of the country. Following trends already ongoing in other parts of the world, Mexicans have been foregoing the traditional Mexican diet high in whole grains, fruits, legumes and vegetables in favor of a diet with more animal products and processed foods. It has seen dietary energy intake and rates of overweight and obese people rise with seven out of ten at least overweight and a third clinically obese.

Juice Naturally-occurring liquid present in fruits and vegetables

Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood, such as clam juice. Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods enabled its preservation without using fermentation. The largest fruit juice consumers are New Zealand and Colombia. Fruit juice consumption on average increases with country income level.

Weight management Techniques for maintaining body weight

Weight management includes the techniques and physiological processes that contribute to a person's ability to attain and maintain a certain weight. Most weight management techniques encompass long-term lifestyle strategies that promote healthy eating and daily physical activity. Moreover, weight management involves developing meaningful ways to track weight over time and to identify ideal body weights for different individuals.

Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body's dietary needs. Well-maintained nutrition includes a balanced diet as well as a regular exercise routine. Nutrition is an essential aspect of everyday life as it aids in supporting mental as well as physical body functioning. The National Health and Medical Research Council determines the Dietary Guidelines within Australia and it requires children to consume an adequate amount of food from each of the five food groups, which includes fruit, vegetables, meat and poultry, whole grains as well as dairy products. Nutrition is especially important for developing children as it influences every aspect of their growth and development. Nutrition allows children to maintain a stable BMI, reduces the risks of developing obesity, anemia and diabetes as well as minimises child susceptibility to mineral and vitamin deficiencies.

References

  1. Claire Reilly (November 29, 2011). "Give it some juice: Breville doubles juicer sales following health doco". Current.com.au. Archived from the original on September 1, 2012.
  2. Barrett, Stephen; Herbert, Victor. (1994). The Vitamin Pushers: How the "Health Food" Industry is Selling America a Bill of Goods. Prometheus Books. pp. 161-162. ISBN   0-87975-909-7
  3. Laskow, Sarah. (2014). "The Man Who First Juiced". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  4. Shoshi Parks. (2018). "American women’s obsession with being thin began with this ‘scientist’". Timeline.com. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  5. "Cold Press vs. Traditional: Which Juicer Should You Buy?". Huffington Post. February 8, 2013.
  6. Muraki, Isao; Imamura, Fumiaki; Manson, Joann E.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; van Dam, Rob M.; Sun, Qi (2013-01-01). "Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 347: f5001. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5001. ISSN   1756-1833. PMC   3978819 . PMID   23990623.
  7. 1 2 Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O.; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N.; Jensen, Runa I.; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea (2013-12-01). "Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers". European Journal of Nutrition. 52 (8): 1875–1889. doi:10.1007/s00394-012-0489-z. ISSN   1436-6215. PMID   23271615.
  8. 1 2 Wojcicki, Janet M.; Heyman, Melvin B. (2012-09-01). "Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice". American Journal of Public Health. 102 (9): 1630–1633. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300719. ISSN   1541-0048. PMC   3482038 . PMID   22813423.
  9. Bravo, Laura; Abia, Rocio; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio (2002-05-01). "Polyphenols as dietary fiber associated compounds. Comparative study on in vivo and in vitro properties". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 42 (7): 1481–1487. doi:10.1021/jf00043a017.
  10. Arranz, Sara; Silván, Jose Manuel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio (2010-11-01). "Nonextractable polyphenols, usually ignored, are the major part of dietary polyphenols: a study on the Spanish diet". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 54 (11): 1646–1658. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200900580. hdl: 10261/50305 . ISSN   1613-4133. PMID   20540148.
  11. Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio (2012-11-14). "Concept and health-related properties of nonextractable polyphenols: the missing dietary polyphenols". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60 (45): 11195–11200. doi:10.1021/jf303758j. hdl:10261/77921. ISSN   1520-5118. PMID   23095074.
  12. "Juicing". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013.{{cite web}}: Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  13. Uckoo, R. M.; Jayaprakasha, G. K.; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Patil, B. S. (2012). "Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad) Phytochemicals Composition Is Modulated by Household Processing Techniques". Journal of Food Science. 77 (9): C921–C926. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02865.x. PMID   22957912.
  14. Ruxton, C. H. S. (2008). "Smoothies: One Portion Or Two?". Nutrition Bulletin. 33 (2): 129–132. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2008.00696.x.