In mathematics, specifically real analysis and functional analysis, the Kirszbraun theorem states that if U is a subset of some Hilbert space H1, and H2 is another Hilbert space, and
is a Lipschitz-continuous map, then there is a Lipschitz-continuous map
that extends f and has the same Lipschitz constant as f.
Note that this result in particular applies to Euclidean spaces En and Em, and it was in this form that Kirszbraun originally formulated and proved the theorem. 21). If H1 is a separable space (in particular, if it is a Euclidean space) the result is true in Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory; for the fully general case, it appears to need some form of the axiom of choice; the Boolean prime ideal theorem is known to be sufficient.The version for Hilbert spaces can for example be found in (Schwartz 1969, p.
The proof of the theorem uses geometric features of Hilbert spaces; the corresponding statement for Banach spaces is not true in general, not even for finite-dimensional Banach spaces. It is for instance possible to construct counterexamples where the domain is a subset of Rn with the maximum norm and Rm carries the Euclidean norm. equipped with any norm () (Schwartz 1969, p. 20).More generally, the theorem fails for
For an R-valued function the extension is provided by where is f's Lipschitz constant on U.
The theorem was proved by Mojżesz David Kirszbraun, and later it was reproved by Frederick Valentine,who first proved it for the Euclidean plane. Sometimes this theorem is also called Kirszbraun–Valentine theorem.
In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis which studies the transformations of functions and their algebraic and topological properties. The field builds upon and abstracts the results of Joseph Fourier's 1822 paper, Théorie analytique de la chaleur, which demonstrated how a change of basis by means of the Fourier transform could be used to permit manipulations of a function in the frequency domain to obtain insights that were previously unobtainable. Functional analysis has modern applications in many areas of algebra, in particular associative algebra, in probability, operator theory, wavelets and wavelet transforms. The functional data analysis (FDA) paradigm of James O. Ramsay and Bernard Silverman ties functional analysis into principal component analysis and dimensionality reduction.
The Hahn–Banach theorem is a central tool in functional analysis. It allows the extension of bounded linear functionals defined on a subspace of some vector space to the whole space, and it also shows that there are "enough" continuous linear functionals defined on every normed vector space to make the study of the dual space "interesting". Another version of the Hahn–Banach theorem is known as the Hahn–Banach separation theorem or the hyperplane separation theorem, and has numerous uses in convex geometry.
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a metric on the set. The metric is a function that defines a concept of distance between any two members of the set, which are usually called points. The metric satisfies a few simple properties. Informally:
In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence.
In mathematics, the Lp spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the p-norm for finite-dimensional vector spaces. They are sometimes called Lebesgue spaces, named after Henri Lebesgue, although according to the Bourbaki group they were first introduced by Frigyes Riesz. Lp spaces form an important class of Banach spaces in functional analysis, and of topological vector spaces. Because of their key role in the mathematical analysis of measure and probability spaces, Lebesgue spaces are used also in the theoretical discussion of problems in physics, statistics, finance, engineering, and other disciplines.
In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions. Intuitively, a Lipschitz continuous function is limited in how fast it can change: there exists a real number such that, for every pair of points on the graph of this function, the absolute value of the slope of the line connecting them is not greater than this real number; the smallest such bound is called the Lipschitz constant of the function. For instance, every function that has bounded first derivatives is Lipschitz continuous.
In the area of mathematics known as functional analysis, a reflexive space is a locally convex topological vector space (TVS) such that the canonical evaluation map from X into its bidual is an isomorphism of TVSs. Since a normable TVS is reflexive if and only if it is semi-reflexive, every normed space X is reflexive if and only if the canonical evaluation map from X into its bidual is surjective; in this case the normed space is necessarily also a Banach space. Note that in 1951, R. C. James discovered a non-reflexive Banach space that is isometrically isomorphic to its bidual.
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Fréchet spaces, named after Maurice Fréchet, are special topological vector spaces. They are generalizations of Banach spaces. All Banach and Hilbert spaces are Fréchet spaces. Spaces of infinitely differentiable functions are typical examples of Fréchet spaces, many of which are typically not Banach spaces.
In mathematics, Hausdorff measure is a generalization of the traditional notions of area and volume to non-integer dimensions, specifically fractals and their Hausdorff dimensions. It is a type of outer measure, named for Felix Hausdorff, that assigns a number in [0,∞] to each set in or, more generally, in any metric space.
In functional analysis and related branches of mathematics, the Banach–Alaoglu theorem states that the closed unit ball of the dual space of a normed vector space is compact in the weak* topology. A common proof identifies the unit ball with the weak-* topology as a closed subset of a product of compact sets with the product topology. As a consequence of Tychonoff's theorem, this product, and hence the unit ball within, is compact.
In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a compact operator is a linear operator L from a Banach space X to another Banach space Y, such that the image under L of any bounded subset of X is a relatively compact subset of Y. Such an operator is necessarily a bounded operator, and so continuous.
The Arzelà–Ascoli theorem is a fundamental result of mathematical analysis giving necessary and sufficient conditions to decide whether every sequence of a given family of real-valued continuous functions defined on a closed and bounded interval has a uniformly convergent subsequence. The main condition is the equicontinuity of the family of functions. The theorem is the basis of many proofs in mathematics, including that of the Peano existence theorem in the theory of ordinary differential equations, Montel's theorem in complex analysis, and the Peter–Weyl theorem in harmonic analysis and various results concerning compactness of integral operators.
In mathematical analysis, a modulus of continuity is a function ω : [0, ∞] → [0, ∞] used to measure quantitatively the uniform continuity of functions. So, a function f : I → R admits ω as a modulus of continuity if and only if
In mathematics, the Riesz–Fischer theorem in real analysis is any of a number of closely related results concerning the properties of the space L2 of square integrable functions. The theorem was proven independently in 1907 by Frigyes Riesz and Ernst Sigismund Fischer.
In mathematics, a real or complex-valued function f on d-dimensional Euclidean space satisfies a Hölder condition, or is Hölder continuous, when there are nonnegative real constants C, α>0, such that
Per H. Enflo is a Swedish mathematician working primarily in functional analysis, a field in which he solved problems that had been considered fundamental. Three of these problems had been open for more than forty years:
In the mathematical study of functional analysis, the Banach–Mazur distance is a way to define a distance on the set Q(n) of n-dimensional normed spaces. With this distance, the set of isometry classes of n-dimensional normed spaces becomes a compact metric space, called the Banach–Mazur compactum.
The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product, an operation that allows defining lengths and angles. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete, which means that there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.
This is a glossary for the terminology in a mathematical field of functional analysis.