List of hereditary peers elected under the House of Lords Act 1999

Last updated

This is a list of hereditary peers elected to serve in the House of Lords under the provisions of the House of Lords Act 1999 and the Standing Orders of the House of Lords. The Act excluded all hereditary peers who were not also life peers except for two holders of royal offices plus ninety other peers, to be chosen by the House.

Contents

Before the enactment of the Act, the House approved a Standing Order stating that the remaining hereditary peers shall consist of: [1]

The total number and sub-composition set out above reflects a compromise to ensure passage of the Act through the House reached between then-Prime Minister Tony Blair and the leader of the opposition Conservatives in the Lords, Viscount Cranborne (known since his father's death in 2003 as the Marquess of Salisbury), a descendant of the last Prime Minister to sit in the Lords throughout the entirety of their premiership. The number elected by each group reflected the relative strengths of the parties among hereditary peers at that time. Historically, the Conservatives had predominated in the House since 1890; it was this entrenched position which led to the removal of the absolute power of veto from the House of Lords by the Parliament Act 1911 and was the chief catalyst for the removal of most peers in 1999.[ citation needed ] The House of Lords Act 1999 reduced the proportion of Conservative peers in the House from 41% (in April 1999) to 33% (in June 2000), and the proportion of hereditary peers in the House from 59% to 13%. [2]

The fifteen peers elected by the whole house were intended to provide a group of experienced members ready to serve as Deputy Speakers or other officers.

The initial elections [3] took place before the House of Lords Act took effect;[ dubious ] therefore all hereditary peers could vote in those elections. From the end of the 19981999 session of parliament until the following session, vacancies (usually triggered by death) were to be filled by runners up in the initial elections. Two Crossbench peers, Lord Cobbold and Lord Chorley, returned to the House this way, having sat before 1999. Since then, vacancies among the group of 15 peers have been filled through by-elections, with all members of the House entitled to vote. The Procedure Committee has recommended that any peer elected at a by-election in this category should not be expected to serve as a Deputy Speaker. [4] In by-elections to fill vacancies in the political groups, only hereditary peers of that group sitting in the House may vote.

As of November 2022, there are 4 dukes, 25 earls, 15 viscounts, 45 barons and 2 Lords of Parliament among the 91 hereditary peers entitled to sit in the House of Lords. After the death of Queen Elizabeth II in 2022, the Marquess of Cholmondeley’s service as Lord Great Chamberlain came to an end; his successor was Lord Carrington, who was already an elected hereditary peer. No by-election to fill a 92nd place for hereditary peers has been called.

Only those with titles in the Peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom are currently eligible for a seat. Peers in the Peerage of Ireland are only eligible if they hold a title in one of the other peerages, but if elected, they may use their Irish peerage whilst in the Lords; for instance, the present Earl of Arran, whose highest title is an Irish one, is entitled to a seat as Lord Sudley, his subsidiary title in the UK peerage, but sits using his highest, Irish, title.

Elected by the whole House

Sitting

Hereditary peer and title used in the Lords PartyMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacing
Michael Brougham, 5th Baron Brougham and Vaux Conservative United Kingdom 19671999
Lucius Cary, 15th Viscount Falkland
Elected as Liberal Democrat; joined Crossbenchers in 2011 [5]
Crossbencher Scotland 19841999
Euan Geddes, 3rd Baron Geddes Conservative United Kingdom 19751999
John Eccles, 2nd Viscount Eccles
(left the house in 1999)
Conservative United Kingdom 19994 April 2005 Morys Bruce, 4th Baron Aberdare
David Pollock, 3rd Viscount Hanworth
(left the house in 1999)
Labour United Kingdom 199622 March 2011 David Kenworthy, 11th Baron Strabolgi
Charles Colville, 5th Viscount Colville of Culross Crossbencher United Kingdom 201120 July 2011 Geoffrey Russell, 4th Baron Ampthill
Jamie Borwick, 5th Baron Borwick Conservative United Kingdom 201317 July 2013 Hugh Mackay, 14th Lord Reay
Raymond Asquith, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Asquith
Elected as Liberal Democrat; became non-affiliated in 2019, Crossbencher in 2021 [6]
Crossbencher United Kingdom 201421 October 2014 Robert Methuen, 7th Baron Methuen
Alastair Campbell, 4th Baron Colgrain Conservative United Kingdom 201727 March 2017 Charles Lyell, 3rd Baron Lyell
Aeneas Mackay, 15th Lord Reay
Conservative Scotland 201922 January 2019 Roger Bootle-Wilbraham, 7th Baron Skelmersdale
Richard Denison, 9th Baron Londesborough
(left the house in 1999)
Crossbencher United Kingdom 199616 June 2021 Margaret of Mar, 31st Countess of Mar
Jasset Ormsby-Gore, 7th Baron Harlech Conservative United Kingdom 202114 July 2021 Rodney Elton, 2nd Baron Elton
David Hacking, 3rd Baron Hacking
(left the house in 1999)
Labour United Kingdom 197110 November 2021 Jan David Simon, 3rd Viscount Simon
Massey Lopes, 4th Baron Roborough Conservative United Kingdom 202218 October 2022 Nicholas Lowther, 2nd Viscount Ullswater
Timothy Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 7th Earl of Minto Conservative United Kingdom 202218 October 2022 Anthony Hamilton-Smith, 3rd Baron Colwyn

Deceased

Hereditary peer and title used in the Lords PartyMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingDied
George Makgill, 13th Viscount of Oxfuird Conservative Scotland 198619993 January 2003
Morys Bruce, 4th Baron Aberdare Conservative United Kingdom 1957199923 January 2005
David Kenworthy, 11th Baron Strabolgi Labour England 1953199924 December 2010
Geoffrey Russell, 4th Baron Ampthill Crossbencher United Kingdom 1973199923 April 2011
Hugh Mackay, 14th Lord Reay Conservative Scotland 1963199910 May 2013
Robert Methuen, 7th Baron Methuen Liberal Democrats United Kingdom 199419999 July 2014
Charles Lyell, 3rd Baron Lyell Conservative United Kingdom 1960199911 January 2017
Roger Bootle-Wilbraham, 7th Baron Skelmersdale Conservative United Kingdom 1973199931 October 2018
Jan David Simon, 3rd Viscount Simon Labour United Kingdom 1993199915 August 2021

Resigned

Hereditary peer and title used in the Lords PartyMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingResignedDied
Margaret of Mar, 31st Countess of Mar Crossbencher Scotland 197519991 May 2020
Rodney Elton, 2nd Baron Elton Conservative United Kingdom 1973199929 October 2020
Nicholas Lowther, 2nd Viscount Ullswater
(left the house in 1999)
Conservative United Kingdom 19662003 George Makgill, 13th Viscount of Oxfuird 20 July 2022
Anthony Hamilton-Smith, 3rd Baron Colwyn Conservative United Kingdom 1966199921 July 2022

Elected by the Conservative hereditary peers

Sitting

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacing
Thomas Galbraith, 2nd Baron Strathclyde United Kingdom 19861999
David Trefgarne, 2nd Baron Trefgarne United Kingdom 19621999
Benjamin Mancroft, 3rd Baron Mancroft United Kingdom 19871999
Frederick Curzon, 7th Earl Howe United Kingdom 19841999
Malcolm Sinclair, 20th Earl of Caithness Scotland 19691999
Oliver Eden, 8th Baron Henley Ireland [n 1] 19771999
Simon Arthur, 4th Baron Glenarthur United Kingdom 19761999
William Astor, 4th Viscount Astor United Kingdom 19721999
Patrick Stopford, 9th Earl of Courtown Ireland [n 2] 19751999
William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel
Joined Crossbencher in 2006 on becoming Lord Chamberlain [7]
United Kingdom 19731999
Colin Moynihan, 4th Baron Moynihan United Kingdom 19971999
John Attlee, 3rd Earl Attlee United Kingdom 19921999
Giles Goschen, 4th Viscount Goschen United Kingdom 19861999
James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose Scotland 19921999
Robin Bridgeman, 3rd Viscount Bridgeman United Kingdom 19821999
James Lindesay-Bethune, 16th Earl of Lindsay Scotland 19891999
Ralph Palmer, 12th Baron Lucas England 19911999
James Dugdale, 2nd Baron Crathorne United Kingdom 19771999
David Verney, 21st Baron Willoughby de Broke
Joined UKIP in 2007; [8] non-affiliated from 2018 [9]
England 19861999
Richard Fletcher-Vane, 2nd Baron Inglewood
Left party to become non-affiliated in 2018 [10]
United Kingdom 19891999
Francis Baring, 6th Baron Northbrook United Kingdom 19901999
Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 22nd Earl of Shrewsbury England 19801999
Edward Foljambe, 5th Earl of Liverpool United Kingdom 19691999
Arthur Gore, 9th Earl of Arran Ireland [n 3] 19831999
Alexander Scrymgeour, 12th Earl of Dundee Scotland 19831999
Hugh Trenchard, 3rd Viscount Trenchard
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 198727 May 2004 Nicholas Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian
Rupert Ponsonby, 7th Baron de Mauley United Kingdom 200514 March 2005 Hugh Lawson, 6th Baron Burnham
Charles Cathcart, 7th Earl Cathcart
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 19997 March 2007 Charles Stourton, 26th Baron Mowbray
James Younger, 5th Viscount Younger of Leckie United Kingdom 201023 June 2010 David Carnegie, 14th Earl of Northesk
Henry Ashton, 4th Baron Ashton of Hyde United Kingdom 201120 July 2011 Michael Onslow, 7th Earl of Onslow
Charles Wellesley, 9th Duke of Wellington
Left party to become non-affiliated in 2019 [11]
United Kingdom 201516 September 2015 Arthur Lawson Johnston, 3rd Baron Luke
Nicholas Fairfax, 14th Lord Fairfax of Cameron
(left the house in 1999)
Scotland 197724 November 2015 Edward Douglas-Scott-Montagu, 3rd Baron Montagu of Beaulieu
James Bethell, 5th Baron Bethell United Kingdom 201818 July 2018 Robin Dixon, 3rd Baron Glentoran
Guy Mansfield, 6th Baron Sandhurst United Kingdom 202114 June 2021 John Palmer, 4th Earl of Selborne
Thomas Coke, 8th Earl of Leicester United Kingdom 202114 June 2021 Bertram Bowyer, 2nd Baron Denham
Sebastian Grigg, 4th Baron Altrincham United Kingdom 202114 June 2021 Malcolm Mitchell-Thomson, 3rd Baron Selsdon
Ian Macpherson, 3rd Baron Strathcarron United Kingdom 20228 February 2022 Matthew White Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley
Jonathan Berry, 5th Viscount Camrose United Kingdom 202229 March 2022 Robin Cayzer, 3rd Baron Rotherwick
Philip Remnant, 4th Baron Remnant United Kingdom 20225 July 2022 Ivon Moore-Brabazon, 3rd Baron Brabazon of Tara
Clifton Wrottesley, 6th Baron Wrottesley
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 19935 July 2022 Roger Swinfen Eady, 3rd Baron Swinfen
Edward Howard, 8th Earl of Effingham United Kingdom 202220 October 2022 John Astor, 3rd Baron Astor of Hever
Mark Cubitt, 5th Baron Ashcombe United Kingdom 202220 October 2022 David Douglas-Home, 15th Earl of Home

Deceased

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingDied
Nicholas Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian United Kingdom 1991199928 February 2004
Hugh Lawson, 6th Baron Burnham United Kingdom 199319991 January 2005
Charles Stourton, 26th Baron Mowbray England 1965199912 December 2006
David Carnegie, 14th Earl of Northesk Scotland 1994199928 March 2010
Michael Onslow, 7th Earl of Onslow United Kingdom 1971199914 May 2011
Robert Shirley, 13th Earl Ferrers Great Britain 1954199913 November 2012
Edward Douglas-Scott-Montagu, 3rd Baron Montagu of Beaulieu United Kingdom 1947199931 August 2015
Roger Swinfen Eady, 3rd Baron Swinfen United Kingdom 197719995 June 2022
David Douglas-Home, 15th Earl of Home Scotland 1995199922 August 2022

Resigned

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingResignedDied
Arthur Lawson Johnston, 3rd Baron Luke United Kingdom 1996199924 June 20152 October 2015
Robin Dixon, 3rd Baron Glentoran United Kingdom 199519991 June 2018
John Palmer, 4th Earl of Selborne
Left party to become non-affiliated in 2019 [12]
United Kingdom 1971199926 March 202012 February 2021
Bertram Bowyer, 2nd Baron Denham United Kingdom 1949199926 April 20211 December 2021
Matthew White Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley United Kingdom 20136 February 2013 Robert Shirley, 13th Earl Ferrers 17 December 2021
Robin Cayzer, 3rd Baron Rotherwick United Kingdom 199619991 February 2022
Ivon Moore-Brabazon, 3rd Baron Brabazon of Tara United Kingdom 1976199928 April 2022
John Astor, 3rd Baron Astor of Hever United Kingdom 1984199922 July 2022

Removed for non-attendance

Pursuant to section 2 of House of Lords Reform Act 2014

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingRemovedDied
Malcolm Mitchell-Thomson, 3rd Baron Selsdon United Kingdom 1963199911 May 2021

Elected by the Crossbencher hereditary peers

Sitting

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacing
Valerian Freyberg, 3rd Baron Freyberg United Kingdom 19931999
Anthony St John, 22nd Baron St John of Bletso England 19781999
John Montagu, 11th Earl of Sandwich England 19951999
Adrian Palmer, 4th Baron Palmer United Kingdom 19901999
Alan Brooke, 3rd Viscount Brookeborough United Kingdom 19871999
Raymond Jolliffe, 5th Baron Hylton United Kingdom 19671999
Merlin Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll Scotland 19781999
Janric Craig, 3rd Viscount Craigavon United Kingdom 19741999
John Anderson, 3rd Viscount Waverley United Kingdom 19901999
Ambrose Greenway, 4th Baron Greenway United Kingdom 19751999
Peter St Clair-Erskine, 7th Earl of Rosslyn United Kingdom 19791999
John Dalrymple, 14th Earl of Stair
(left the house in 1999)
Scotland 199622 May 2008 Davina Ingrams, 18th Baroness Darcy de Knayth
Alastair Bruce, 5th Baron Aberdare United Kingdom 200915 July 2009 Christopher Bathurst, 3rd Viscount Bledisloe
Nicholas Trench, 9th Earl of Clancarty
(left the house in 1999)
Ireland [n 4] 199523 June 2010 Mark Colville, 4th Viscount Colville of Culross
John Lytton, 5th Earl of Lytton
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 198511 May 2011 John Monson, 11th Baron Monson
Godfrey Bewicke-Copley, 7th Baron Cromwell
(left the house in 1999)
England 19828 April 2014 John Wilson, 2nd Baron Moran
Simon Russell, 3rd Baron Russell of Liverpool
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 19819 December 2014 Michael Allenby, 3rd Viscount Allenby
John Seymour, 19th Duke of Somerset
(left the house in 1999)
England 19849 December 2014 David Lytton-Cobbold, 2nd Baron Cobbold
Roualeyn Hovell-Thurlow-Cumming-Bruce, 9th Baron Thurlow Great Britain 20153 February 2015 Roger Chorley, 2nd Baron Chorley
Charles Hay, 16th Earl of Kinnoull
Became non-affiliated in 2019 when appointed Principal Deputy Chairman of Committees [13]
Scotland 20153 February 2015 Flora Fraser, 21st Lady Saltoun
Jeffrey Evans, 4th Baron Mountevans United Kingdom 20156 July 2015 William Lloyd George, 3rd Viscount Tenby
Patrick Lawrence, 5th Baron Trevethin United Kingdom 201520 October 2015 David Montgomery, 2nd Viscount Montgomery of Alamein
John Boyle, 15th Earl of Cork Ireland [n 5] 201612 July 2016 Thomas Bridges, 2nd Baron Bridges
Richard Gilbey, 12th Baron Vaux of Harrowden England 201719 July 2017 Robert Walpole, 10th Baron Walpole
Charles Courtenay, 19th Earl of Devon England 20184 July 2018 Edward Baldwin, 4th Earl Baldwin of Bewdley
Rupert Carington, 7th Baron Carrington
Became Lord Great Chamberlain, an ex officio member, in 2022
Ireland [n 6] 201828 November 2018 Christopher James, 5th Baron Northbourne
Daniel Mosley, 4th Baron Ravensdale United Kingdom 201927 March 2019 John Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim
John Pakington, 7th Baron Hampton United Kingdom 202219 October 2022 Francis Hare, 6th Earl of Listowel

Deceased

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingDied
Ziki Robertson, 11th Baroness Wharton England 1990199915 May 2000
Henry Herbert, 7th Earl of Carnarvon Great Britain 1987199910 September 2001
Cherry Drummond, 16th Baroness Strange England 1986199911 March 2005
Davina Ingrams, 18th Baroness Darcy de Knayth
(Entered the house under the Peerage Act 1963)
England 1963199924 February 2008
Christopher Bathurst, 3rd Viscount Bledisloe United Kingdom 1979199912 May 2009
Mark Colville, 4th Viscount Colville of Culross United Kingdom 195419998 April 2010
John Monson, 11th Baron Monson Great Britain 1958199912 February 2011
John Wilson, 2nd Baron Moran United Kingdom 1977199914 February 2014
Michael Allenby, 3rd Viscount Allenby United Kingdom 198419993 October 2014
John Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim United Kingdom 1970199912 January 2019

Resigned

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingResignedDied
David Lytton-Cobbold, 2nd Baron Cobbold
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 198715 October 2000 Ziki Robertson, 11th Baroness Wharton 13 October 201410 May 2022
Roger Chorley, 2nd Baron Chorley
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 198711 September 2001 Henry Herbert, 7th Earl of Carnarvon 17 November 201421 February 2016
Flora Fraser, 21st Lady Saltoun Scotland 1979199912 December 2014
William Lloyd George, 3rd Viscount Tenby United Kingdom 198319991 May 2015
David Montgomery, 2nd Viscount Montgomery of Alamein
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 197628 June 2005 Cherry Drummond, 16th Baroness Strange 23 July 20158 January 2020
Robert Walpole, 10th Baron Walpole Great Britain 1989199913 June 20178 May 2021
Edward Baldwin, 4th Earl Baldwin of Bewdley United Kingdom 197619999 May 201816 June 2021
Christopher James, 5th Baron Northbourne United Kingdom 198219994 September 20188 September 2019
Francis Hare, 6th Earl of Listowel Ireland [n 7] 1997199921 July 2022

Removed for non-attendance

Pursuant to section 2 of House of Lords Reform Act 2014

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingRemovedDied
Thomas Bridges, 2nd Baron Bridges United Kingdom 1969199918 May 201627 May 2017

Elected by the Liberal Democrats hereditary peers

Sitting

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacing
Dominic Hubbard, 6th Baron Addington United Kingdom 19821999
Patrick Boyle, 10th Earl of Glasgow
(left the house in 1999)
Scotland 198425 January 2005 Conrad Russell, 5th Earl Russell
John Archibald Sinclair, 3rd Viscount Thurso
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 199519 April 2016 Eric Lubbock, 4th Baron Avebury

Deceased

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingDied
Conrad Russell, 5th Earl Russell United Kingdom 1987199914 October 2004
Eric Lubbock, 4th Baron Avebury United Kingdom 1971199914 February 2016

Elected by the Labour hereditary peers

Sitting

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacing
John Suenson-Taylor, 3rd Baron Grantchester
(left the house in 1999)
United Kingdom 19954 November 2003 Michael Milner, 2nd Baron Milner of Leeds
Stephen Benn, 3rd Viscount Stansgate United Kingdom 202110 July 2021 Nicolas Rea, 3rd Baron Rea

Deceased

Hereditary peer and title used in the LordsMost senior title in the peerage ofFirst satElectedReplacingDied
Michael Milner, 2nd Baron Milner of Leeds United Kingdom 1967199920 August 2003
Nicolas Rea, 3rd Baron Rea United Kingdom 198219991 June 2020

Notes

  1. Sits in the Lords as Lord Henley, but is entitled to a seat as Lord Northington, which is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
  2. Sits in the Lords as the Earl of Courtown, but is entitled to a seat as Lord Saltersford, which is in the Peerage of Great Britain.
  3. Sits in the Lords as the Earl of Arran, but is entitled to a seat as Lord Sudley, which is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
  4. Sits in the Lords as the Earl of Clancarty, but is entitled to a seat as Viscount Clancarty or Lord Trench, which both are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
  5. Sits in the Lords as the Earl of Cork and Orrery, but is entitled to a seat as Lord Boyle, which is in the Peerage of Great Britain and is a subsidiary title of the Earl of Orrery.
  6. Sits in the Lords as Lord Carrington, and is entitled to a seat as Lord Carrington (of Upton) in the junior creation, which is in the Peerage of Great Britain.
  7. Sat in the Lords as the Earl of Listowel, but was entitled to a seat as Lord Hare, which is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Lords</span> Upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

The peerages in the United Kingdom are a legal system comprising both hereditary and lifetime titles, composed of various noble ranks, and forming a constituent part of the British honours system. The term peerage can be used both collectively to refer to the entire body of nobles, and individually to refer to a specific title. British peerage title holders are termed peers of the Realm. The peerage's fundamental roles are ones of government, peers being eligible to a seat in the House of Lords, and of meritocracy, the receiving of any peerage being the highest of British honours. In the UK, five peerages or peerage divisions co-exist, namely:

The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It is one of the five divisions of Peerages in the United Kingdom. The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland. Article 40.2 of the Constitution of Ireland forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and an Irish citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Irish government. This issue has not arisen in respect of the Peerage of Ireland because no creation of titles in it has been made since the constitution came into force.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peerage Act 1963</span> United Kingdom legislation

The Peerage Act 1963 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that permits women peeresses and all Scottish hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords and allows newly inherited hereditary peerages to be disclaimed.

The Peerage of Scotland is one of the five divisions of peerages in the United Kingdom and for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707. Following that year's Treaty of Union, the Kingdom of Scots and the Kingdom of England were combined under the name of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent titles were created.

The Peerage of the United Kingdom is one of the five Peerages in the United Kingdom. It comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898.

In the United Kingdom, representative peers were those peers elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the British House of Lords. Until 1999, all members of the Peerage of England held the right to sit in the House of Lords; they did not elect a limited group of representatives. All peers who were created after 1707 as Peers of Great Britain and after 1801 as Peers of the United Kingdom held the same right to sit in the House of Lords.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Lords Act 1999</span> UK law removing hereditary peerage from the House of Lords

The House of Lords Act 1999 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed the House of Lords, one of the chambers of Parliament. The Act was given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999. For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members who inherited their seats ; the Act removed such a right. However, as part of a compromise, the Act did permit ninety-two hereditary peers to remain in the House on an interim basis. Another ten were created life peers to enable them to remain in the House.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lord of Parliament</span> Lowest rank of Scottish nobility

A Lord of Parliament was the holder of the lowest form of peerage, entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. Since that Union in 1707, it has been the lowest rank of the Peerage of Scotland, ranking below a viscount. A Lord of Parliament is said to hold a Lordship of Parliament.

The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of September 2022, there are 807 hereditary peers: 29 dukes, 34 marquesses, 190 earls, 111 viscounts, and 443 barons.

The history of the British peerage, a system of nobility found in the United Kingdom, stretches over the last thousand years. The current form of the British peerage has been a process of development. While the ranks of baron and earl predate the British peerage itself, the ranks of duke and marquess were introduced to England in the 14th century. The rank of viscount came later, in the mid-15th century. Peers were summoned to Parliament, forming the House of Lords.

In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Life Peerages Act 1958</span> United Kingdom legislation

The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of life peers by the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lords Temporal</span> Secular members of the House of Lords

The Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the British Parliament. These can be either life peers or hereditary peers, although the hereditary right to sit in the House of Lords was abolished for all but ninety-two peers during the 1999 reform of the House of Lords. The term is used to differentiate these members from the Lords Spiritual, who sit in the House as a consequence of being bishops in the Church of England.

The British nobility is made up of the peerage and the (landed) gentry. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although now they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights there, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, and the right to an audience with the monarch. More than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nicholas Trench, 9th Earl of Clancarty</span> Anglo-Irish peer and writer

Nicholas Le Poer Trench, 9th Earl of Clancarty, 8th Marquess of Heusden, is an Anglo-Irish peer, as well as a nobleman in the Dutch nobility. Lord Clancarty serves as an elected Crossbench hereditary peer in the British House of Lords. His earldom is in the Peerage of Ireland. He was educated at Westminster School. He also studied at Ashford Grammar School, Plymouth Polytechnic, University of Colorado, Denver, USA, and Sheffield University.

Following the enactment of the House of Lords Act 1999, the number of hereditary peers entitled to sit in the House of Lords was reduced to ninety-two. Ninety of the first ninety-two were elected by all the hereditary peers before the passing of the reform. Since November 2002, by-elections have been held to fill vacancies left by deaths, resignations or disqualifications of those peers. Since the passing of the House of Lords Reform Act 2014, by-elections have also been held to fill vacancies left by the retirements of those peers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Boyle, 15th Earl of Cork</span> British hereditary peer and member of the House of Lords (born 1945)

John Richard Boyle, 15th Earl of Cork and 15th Earl of Orrery is a British hereditary peer and a member of the House of Lords, where he sits as a Crossbencher. Boyle was an officer in the Royal Navy and then had a career in the sugar industry before inheriting his titles in 2003.

Elections of the excepted hereditary peers were held in October and November 1999, before the House of Lords Act 1999 excluded most hereditary peers from the membership of the House of Lords allowing Earl Marshal, Lord Great Chamberlain and 90 others to remain in the House.

References

  1. "Hansard, Vol 604 No 126 Cols 1290-1292". 26 July 1999. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
  2. Cracknell, Richard (15 June 2000). Lords Reform: The interim House – background statistics; Research Paper 00/61 (PDF). House of Commons Library. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  3. David Boothroyd. "House of Lords Act: Hereditary Peers Elections". United Kingdom Election Results. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  4. "Hereditary Peers' By-election" (PDF). 7 February 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  5. "House of Lords, Official Website - Viscount Falkland" . Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  6. "House of Lords, Official Website - Eal of Oxford and Asquith" . Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  7. "Earl Peel". UK Parliament. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  8. "UKIP members in the House of Lords". ukipderbyshire.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  9. "Lord Willoughby de Broke". UK Parliament. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  10. "Lord Inglewood". UK Parliament. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  11. "Duke of Wellington". UK Parliament. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  12. "Earl of Selborne". UK Parliament. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  13. "Earl of Kinnoull". UK Parliament. Retrieved 15 September 2019.