Last updated

MC50 - Fabrik Hamburg 2018 02.jpg
MC5 performing on the MC50 tour in Hamburg, Germany in 2018.
L-R: founding member Wayne Kramer, bassist Billy Gould, vocalist Marcus Durant, drummer Brendan Canty (obscured by Durant), guitarist Kim Thayil.
Background information
Also known asBounty Hunters
Origin Lincoln Park, Michigan, U.S.
Years active1963–1972, 1974–1975, 1992, 2003–2012, 2018, 2022–present
Members Wayne Kramer
Dennis Thompson
Past members Fred "Sonic" Smith
Rob Tyner
Michael Davis
Leo LeDuc
Billy Vargo
Bob Gaspar
Patrick Burrows
Steve "Annapurna" Moorhouse
Derek Hughes
Ray Craig
Ritchie Dharma
Frank Zee
Bob Schultz
Mark Manko
Tim Schaffe
Handsome Dick Manitoba
Kim Thayil
Matt Cameron
Brendan Canty
Doug Pinnick
Marcus Durant
Don Was
Billy Gould

MC5, also commonly called The MC5, [5] [6] is an American rock band from Lincoln Park, Michigan, formed in 1963. The original band line-up consisted of vocalist Rob Tyner, guitarists Wayne Kramer and Fred "Sonic" Smith, bassist Michael Davis, and drummer Dennis Thompson. MC5 was listed by VH1 as one of the most important American hard rock groups of their era. [7] Their three albums are regarded by many as classics, and their song "Kick Out the Jams" is widely covered.


"Crystallizing the counterculture movement at its most volatile and threatening", [1] according to AllMusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine, the MC5's leftist political ties and anti-establishment lyrics and music positioned them as emerging innovators of the punk movement in the United States.[ citation needed ] Their loud, energetic style of back-to-basics rock and roll included elements of garage rock, hard rock, blues rock, and psychedelic rock.

MC5 had a promising beginning that earned them a January 1969 cover appearance in Rolling Stone and a story written by Eric Ehrmann before their debut album was released. [8] They developed a reputation for energetic and polemical live performances, one of which was recorded as their 1969 debut album Kick Out the Jams before the original lineup disbanded in 1972.

Vocalist Tyner died of a heart attack in late 1991 at the age of 46 and was followed by Fred Smith, who also died of a heart attack, in 1994 at the age of 46. The remaining three members of the band reformed in 2003 with The Dictators' singer Handsome Dick Manitoba as its new vocalist, and this reformed line-up occasionally performed live over the next nine years until Davis died of liver failure in 2012 at the age of 68.

First incarnation

Early years

The origins of MC5 can be traced to the friendship between guitarists Wayne Kramer and Fred Smith. Friends since their teen years, they were both fans of R&B music, blues, Chuck Berry, Dick Dale, The Ventures, and what later was called garage rock: they adored any music with speed, energy and a rebellious attitude. Each guitarist/singer formed and led a rock group (Smith's Vibratones and Kramer's Bounty Hunters). As members of both groups left for college or straight jobs, the most committed members eventually united (under Kramer's leadership and the "Bounty Hunters" name) with Billy Vargo on guitar and Leo LeDuc on drums (at this point Smith played bass). [9] They were popular and successful enough in and around Detroit that the musicians were able to quit their day jobs and make a living from the group.

Kramer felt they needed a manager, which led him to Rob Derminer, a few years older than the others, and deeply involved in Detroit's hipster and left-wing political scenes. Derminer originally auditioned as a bass guitarist (a role which he held briefly in 1964, with Smith switching to guitar to replace Vargo and with Bob Gaspar replacing LeDuc). They quickly realized that Derminer's talents could be better used as a lead singer: Though not conventionally attractive and rather paunchy by traditional frontman standards, he nonetheless had a commanding stage presence, and a booming baritone voice that evidenced his abiding love of American soul and gospel music. Derminer renamed himself Rob Tyner (after John Coltrane's pianist McCoy Tyner). Instead of Derminer, their manager ended up being Ann Marston, a former national archery champion and beauty pageant winner. [10]

Tyner also conceived their new name, MC5, short for "Motor City Five" based on their Detroit roots. In some ways the group was similar to other garage bands of the period, composing soon-to-be historic workouts such as "Black to Comm" during their mid-teens in the basement of the home of Kramer's mother. Upon Tyner's switch from bassist to vocalist, he was initially replaced by Patrick Burrows before the line-up stabilized in 1965 with the arrival of Michael Davis and Dennis Thompson to replace Burrows and Gaspar, respectively.

The music also reflected Smith and Kramer's increasing interest in free jazz—the guitarists were inspired by the likes of Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, Sun Ra and late period John Coltrane, and tried to imitate the ecstatic sounds of the squealing, high-pitched saxophonists they adored. [11] MC5 even later opened a few U.S. midwest shows for Sun Ra, whose influence is obvious in "Starship". Kramer and Smith were also deeply inspired by Sonny Sharrock, one of the few electric guitarists working in free jazz, and they eventually developed a unique interlocking style that was like little heard before: Kramer's solos often used a heavy, irregular vibrato, while Smith's rhythms contained an uncommon explosive energy, including patterns that conveyed great excitement, as evidenced in "Black to Comm" and many other songs.[ citation needed ]

Success in Detroit

Playing almost nightly any place they could in and around Detroit, MC5 quickly earned a reputation for their high-energy live performances and had a sizeable local following, regularly drawing sellout audiences of 1000 or more. Contemporary rock writer Robert Bixby stated that the sound of MC5 was like "a catastrophic force of nature the band was barely able to control", while Don McLeese notes that fans compared the aftermath of an MC5 performance to the delirious exhaustion experienced after "a street rumble or an orgy". [12]

Having released a cover of Them's "I Can Only Give You Everything" backed with original composition "One of the Guys" on the tiny AMG label over a year earlier, in early 1968 their second single was released by Trans-Love Energies on A-Square records (though without the knowledge of that label's owner Jeep Holland). Housed in a striking picture sleeve, it comprised two original songs: "Borderline" and "Looking at You". The first pressing sold out in a few weeks, and by year's end it had gone through more pressings totaling several thousand copies. A third single that coupled "I Can Only Give You Everything" with the original "I Just Don't Know" appeared at about the same time on the AMG label, as well.

That summer MC5 toured the U.S. East Coast, which generated an enormous response, with the group often overshadowing the more famous acts they opened up for: McLeese writes that when opening for Big Brother and the Holding Company audiences regularly demanded multiple encores of MC5, and at a memorable series of concerts, Cream—one of the leading hard rock groups of the era—"left the stage vanquished". [13] This same east coast tour led to the rapturous aforementioned Rolling Stone cover story that praised MC5 with nearly evangelistic zeal, and also to an association with the radical group Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers.

MC5 became the leading band in a burgeoning hard rock scene, serving as mentors to fellow South-Eastern Michigan bands The Stooges and The Up, and major record labels expressed an interest in the group. As related in the notes for reissued editions of the Stooges' debut album, Danny Fields of Elektra Records came to Detroit to see MC5. At Kramer's recommendation, he went to see The Stooges. Fields was so impressed that he ended up offering contracts to both bands in September 1968. They were the first hard rock groups signed to Elektra Records.

Radical political affiliations

According to Kramer, MC5 of this period was politically influenced by the Marxism of the Black Panther Party and Fred Hampton, and poets of the Beat Generation such as Allen Ginsberg and Ed Sanders, or Modernist poets like Charles Olson. [14] Black Panther Party founder Huey P. Newton prompted John Sinclair to found the White Panthers, a militant leftist organization of white people working to assist the Black Panthers. Shortly after, Sinclair was arrested for possession of marijuana.

Under the "guidance" of John Sinclair (who dubbed his enterprise "Trans-Love Energies" and refused to be categorized as a traditional manager), MC5 were soon involved in left-wing politics: Sinclair was active with the White Panther Party and Fifth Estate . [15] [16] [17] In their early career, MC5 had a politically provocative stage show: They appeared onstage toting unloaded rifles, and at the climax of a performance, an unseen "sniper" would shoot Tyner. The band members were also all using the drugs LSD and marijuana.

Hippies in Lincoln Park, Chicago. The band MC5 can be seen playing, 1968

The band performed as part of the protests against the Vietnam War at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago that were broken up by a police riot. The group's appearance at the convention is also notable for their lengthy performance. In an interview featured in the documentary Get Up, Stand Up, Kramer reported that while many musicians were scheduled to perform at a day-long concert, only the MC5 initially appeared. The MC5 played for over eight hours straight. Of the other scheduled performers, Kramer stated in Get Up, Stand Up that only Neil Young actually arrived, though due to the chaos at the convention, Young didn't perform. Dennis Thompson asserted years later that Country Joe McDonald (of Country Joe and the Fish) was also present at the scene. [18] Other performers at the convention included the protest folk singer Phil Ochs. [19]


Kick Out the Jams

MC5 earned national attention with their first album, Kick Out the Jams , recorded live on October 30 and 31, 1968, at Detroit's Grande Ballroom. Elektra executive Jac Holzman and producer Bruce Botnick recognized that MC5 were at their best when playing for a receptive audience. Containing such songs as the proto-punk classics "Kick Out the Jams" and "Rocket Reducer No. 62 (Rama Lama Fa Fa Fa)", the spaced-out "Starship" (co-credited to Sun Ra because the lyrics were partly cribbed from one of Ra's poems), and an extended cover of John Lee Hooker's "Motor City Is Burning" wherein Tyner praises the role of the Black Panthers during the Detroit riots of 1967. Critic Mark Deming writes that Kick out the Jams "is one of the most powerfully energetic live albums ever made ... this is an album that refuses to be played quietly." [20]

The album caused some controversy due to Sinclair's inflammatory liner notes and the title track's rallying cry of "Kick out the jams, motherfuckers!" According to Kramer, the band recorded this as "Kick out the jams, brothers and sisters!" for the single released for radio play; Tyner claimed this was done without group consensus. [18] The edited version also appeared in some LP copies, which also withdrew Sinclair's excitable comments. The album was released in January 1969; reviews were mixed, but the album was relatively successful, quickly selling over 100,000 copies and peaking at #30 on the Billboard album chart in May 1969 during a 23-week stay.

When Hudson's, a Detroit-based department store chain, refused to stock Kick Out the Jams due to the obscenity, MC5 responded with a full page advertisement in the local underground magazine Fifth Estate saying "Stick Alive with the MC5, and Fuck Hudson's!", prominently including the logo of MC5's label, Elektra Records, in the ad. Hudson's pulled all Elektra records from their stores, and in the ensuing controversy, Jac Holzman, the head of Elektra, dropped the band from their contract. MC5 then signed with Atlantic Records. [21]

Back in the USA

Their second album, Back in the USA , produced by future Bruce Springsteen mentor Jon Landau, virtually provided a prototype for punk rock with its short, fast, hard-edged angry guitar rock. Released on Atlantic with a vastly different production and marketing effort, the band's sound radically differed from Kick, to such an extent that, except for Tyner's vocals, they were "barely recognizable as the same band." [22] The second album's production also sounded compressed and somewhat limited in the band's sonic palette compared to their earlier — band members later said that Landau was overbearing and heavy-handed in production, trying to shape the group to his own liking.

Reviews were again mixed, resulting in mediocre sales (it only peaked at #137 in the American charts in March 1970 during a seven-week stay), while the band's tours were not as well-received as before. Exhaustion was partly to blame, from the band's heavy touring schedule and increasingly heavy drug use.

They had fallen out with Sinclair as well, and were conspicuously not allowed to play at the December 1971 John Sinclair Freedom Rally, organized to protest his incarceration on marijuana possession, even though they were at the gig.[ citation needed ]

High Time

Their third album, High Time , produced by Geoffrey Haslam and recorded by Artie Fields, [23] proved influential on 1970s hard rock bands. The album was poorly promoted, and sales were worse than ever, but High Time was the best-reviewed of the band's original records upon its initial release. The group had much more creative control, and were very satisfied with the results. This release saw the band stretch out with longer, more experimental pieces like "Future/Now" and the Sun Ra-influenced "Skunk (Sonicly Speaking)" [sic].

Late career and disbandment

Both Back in the USA and High Time lost money for Atlantic Records, which dropped the band. Early in 1972, the band toured Europe, playing dates in England including Cambridge with Syd Barrett's band Stars and Canterbury with former Tyrannosaurus Rex percussionist Steve Peregrin Took, as well as a TV session in Bremen, Germany for Beat Club . [24]

On February 13, 1972, Michael Davis left the band (he was using heroin and was all but forced out by the others), and was replaced by a series of bassists (Steve Moorhouse, Derek Hughes, and Ray Craig). The remaining members recorded two new songs—"Gold Rush" (also known as "Gold" and "Train Music") and "Inside Out"—in London shortly afterwards for the soundtrack of a film called Gold. This was the band's final recording session.

The group limped along a while longer, eventually reduced to Kramer and Smith touring and playing with Ritchie Dharma on drums and Derek Hughes on bass, playing R&B covers as much as their original material.

MC5 reunited for a farewell show on December 31, 1972 at the Grande Ballroom. The venue that had only a few years before hosted over a thousand eager fans now had a few dozen people, and, distraught, Kramer left the stage after a few songs. The band dissolved not long after the event.

Post-break up

In 1973 Fred "Sonic" Smith formed a new group called Ascension, consisting of Smith on guitar, Thompson on drums, Davis on piano, and to replace Davis on bass a local working bass player, John Hefty, was brought in. They assembled a set of mostly original music and a few R&B and rock covers. Smith said the name Ascension symbolized the music and the band ascending to new heights and in new directions. They brought in a new manager, Chato Hill. They played only a few live performances and disbanded after less than a year. One live recording was made but never edited or released.[ citation needed ]

After this, Smith formed a new group called Sonic's Rendezvous Band, married singer Patti Smith, retired from music to raise a family, and died in 1994. Sonic's Rendezvous Band released only the "City Slang" single during their initial time as a group, though later recordings were released posthumously, and a reconstituted Rendezvous Band (including original member Scott Morgan, of The Rationals and a newly added Deniz Tek of Radio Birdman) reunited in tribute, years afterward. Smith also co-produced his wife's 1988 album Dream of Life and co-wrote all the songs with her, including the single "People Have the Power."

Wayne Kramer made scattered appearances on other people's records before being incarcerated in 1975 for two years for drug offenses. While in federal prison in Kentucky, he was unexpectedly reunited with MC5 bassist Michael Davis, also behind bars on a drug charge. After his parole, Kramer worked straight jobs for several years and focused on kicking drugs. In 1979 he played with Johnny Thunders in the band Gang War. By the early 1990s, he returned to the music industry and subsequently released several well-received albums.

Rob Tyner performed under his own name for many years but also performed under "The MC5" for some live gigs for a brief period, though he was the only active original member involved. He also collaborated with Eddie and the Hot Rods, releasing a 7" with them in 1979. During the mid-1980s, Tyner produced a single for Detroit band Vertical Pillows, and occasionally made brief guest appearances during some of their live shows, singing MC5 covers. Tyner became a successful producer, manager and promoter in Detroit, and released the warmly-reviewed Blood Brothers album in 1990, a year before his death in September 1991. [25]

Michael Davis joined Detroit band Destroy All Monsters for several years in the late 70s /early 80s; the band broke up in 1983. Dennis Thompson played with various bands, including The New Order, New Race, The Motor City Bad Boys, and The Secrets.

Later incarnations

First reunion

The first public reunion of the band after their recording years as a group was as a four-piece, at a performance celebrating the life of the late Rob Tyner, a concert event at the State Theater in Detroit on February 22, 1992. The event was heavily attended, and included The Rationals, Scott Richardson (SRC), The Romantics, Dee Dee Ramone, The Cult, and other musicians. The band on this evening was unbilled, but their appearance had been rumored—Wayne Kramer was the only group member advertised—and the set lasted about thirty minutes. The recording of this show remains unreleased.

Later years

2003 saw the three surviving members of MC5—Kramer, bassist Michael Davis, and drummer Dennis Thompson (Smith had died in 1994)—performing as the MC5 at the 100 Club in London [26] with Fred "Sonic" Smith's place temporarily being taken by Nicke Andersson of The Hellacopters, vocals at that time being taken variously by David Vanian of The Damned, Lemmy of Motörhead, Ian Astbury of The Cult, and singer Kate O'Brien, as well as seeing Charles Moore and Buzzy Jones reprise their roles in the brass section from the High Time album.

In 2004, the band set out on an extensive world tour using the name DKT/MC5. As with the 100 Club concert, a host of special guests joined them on tour such as Mark Arm of Mudhoney, Nicke Royale of The Hellacopters, Evan Dando of The Lemonheads, Marshall Crenshaw, Deniz Tek of Radio Birdman, Lisa Kekaula of the Bellrays, and others.

MC5 in 2005. L-R: Wayne Kramer, Handsome Dick Manitoba, Dennis Thompson (obscured by Manitoba), Michael Davis, Gilby Clarke. MC5 @ The Casbah.jpg
MC5 in 2005. L-R: Wayne Kramer, Handsome Dick Manitoba, Dennis Thompson (obscured by Manitoba), Michael Davis, Gilby Clarke.

After February 2005, MC5 stabilized into a new lineup, consisting of Kramer, Thompson, and Davis, with Handsome Dick Manitoba, vocalist of the 1970s New York punk band The Dictators, singing lead, along with Gilby Clarke, formerly of Guns and Roses, playing rhythm guitar. This lineup continued to exist until Michael Davis' death in February 2012, upon which the band dissolved.

In 2006, MC5 was voted into the Michigan Rock and Roll Legends Hall of Fame. [27]

In May 2006, Davis injured his back in a motorcycle accident. In August 2007, Davis joined the Lords of Altamont on bass. He also founded and led the Michael H. Davis Music Is Revolution Foundation, dedicated to supporting music education programs in public schools. Davis died of liver failure in February 2012 at the age of 68.

In May 2018, Wayne Kramer announced the MC50 tour to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Kick Out the Jams, with a line-up including himself, plus rock stalwarts Kim Thayil and Matt Cameron of Soundgarden, Brendan Canty of Fugazi, and Doug Pinnick of King's X, as well as Marcus Durant and Don Was. [28] Pinnick was eventually replaced by Faith No More bassist Billy Gould.

In 2022, Kramer announced that a tour under the banner of We Are All MC5 would take place that spring, and that a new MC5 studio album with veteran producer Bob Ezrin would also be released later that year [29] with original MC5 drummer Dennis Thompson playing on two tracks. [30] Joining Kramer on "The Heavy Lifting Tour" is singer Brad Brooks, guitarist Stevie Salas, bassist Vicki Randle, and drummer Winston Watson, who replaces originally named drummer Stephen Perkins. [31] In addition to San Francisco Bay area singer-songwriter Brooks, Native American Salas is a former advisor of contemporary music at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, Randle is known as the first permanent female member of The Tonight Show Band from 1992 to 2010, and Watson performed 400 shows with Bob Dylan from 1992 over five years of his Never Ending Tour. [32]


Current line-up

Former members

Touring members




Box sets


See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Lump</i> (album) 2000 greatest hits album by The Presidents of the United States of America

Lump is a 2000 greatest hits compilation album by The Presidents of the United States of America.

<i>Pure Frosting</i> 1998 compilation album by The Presidents of the United States of America

Pure Frosting is a compilation album by the American alternative rock band The Presidents of the United States of America. It was released on March 10, 1998.

<i>Rarities</i> (The Presidents of the United States of America album) 1997 compilation album by The Presidents of the United States of America

Rarities is a compilation album by the American alternative rock band The Presidents of the United States of America. It was released exclusively in Japan on November 1, 1997.

<i>Kick Out the Jams</i> 1969 live album by MC5

Kick Out the Jams is the debut album by American proto-punk band MC5. It was released in February 1969, through Elektra Records. It was recorded live at Detroit's Grande Ballroom over two nights, Devil's Night and Halloween, 1968.

<i>Back in the USA</i> (album) 1970 studio album by MC5

Back in the USA is the debut studio album by American rock band MC5.

<i>High Time</i> (MC5 album) 1971 studio album by MC5

High Time is the second studio album by the American rock band MC5, released in 1971 by Atlantic Records.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fred "Sonic" Smith</span> American guitarist (1948–1994)

Frederick Dewey Smith, known professionally as Fred "Sonic" Smith, was an American guitarist, best known as a member of the influential and political Detroit rock band MC5. At age 31, he married and raised a family with poet and fellow rock musician Patti Smith. The couple collaborated musically, and raised two children together.

<i>Jeff Buckley Live À LOlympia</i> 2001 live album by Jeff Buckley

Live À L'Olympia is a live album by Jeff Buckley, released in 2001. It is the second posthumous live album released since his death in 1997. The CD consists of performances taken from two separate concerts Buckley and his band played on July 6/7, 1995 at Paris Olympia. The French crowd were very receptive as he was well regarded there, as shown when he was awarded France's prestigious "Grand Prix International du Disque" earlier that year. Buckley paused midway in some of the songs to address the crowd and "Hallelujah" features ad-libbed lyrics in response to their enthusiasm. The album also features a version of a song from Nina Simone's repertoire, "That's All I Ask". It is one of two versions of the song officially released, the other appearing on a three-track bonus disc issued with Australian copies of Buckley's Mystery White Boy live album. Buckley played the song at various concerts on his 1995 European tour.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wayne Kramer (guitarist)</span> American musician

Wayne Kramer is an American guitarist, singer, songwriter, producer and film and television composer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rob Tyner</span> American musician

Robert W. Derminer, known as Rob Tyner, was an American musician best known as lead singer for the Detroit proto-punk band MC5. His adopted surname was in tribute to the jazz pianist McCoy Tyner. It was Tyner who issued the rallying cry of "kick out the jams, motherfuckers" at the MC5's live concerts. Tyner had originally auditioned as the bass player, but the band felt his talents would be best used as a lead vocalist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gary Grimshaw</span>

Gary Grimshaw was an American graphic artist active in Detroit and San Francisco who specialized in designing rock concert posters. He was also a radical political activist with the White Panther Party and related organizations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kick Out the Jams (song)</span> 1969 single by MC5

"Kick Out the Jams" is a song by MC5, released as a single in March 1969 by Elektra Records. The album of the same name caused some controversy due to Sinclair's inflammatory liner notes and the track's rallying cry of "Kick out the jams, motherfuckers!" According to Kramer, the band recorded this as "Kick out the jams, brothers and sisters!" for the single released for radio play; Tyner claimed this was done without group consensus. The edited version also appeared in some LP copies, which also withdrew Sinclair's excitable comments. The album was released in January 1969; reviews were mixed, but the album was relatively successful, quickly selling over 100,000 copies and peaking at #30 on the Billboard album chart in May 1969 during a 23-week stay.

Michael Davis was an American bass guitarist, singer, songwriter and music producer, best known as a member of the MC5.

Scott Morgan is an American rock and roll and soul musician, most known for his work with the Sonic's Rendezvous Band, the Rationals, The Solution as well as his solo work.

<i>Duck and Cover</i> (compilation) 1990 compilation album by Various Artists

Duck and Cover is a 1990 compilation album, issued by SST Records, featuring cover songs by 13 punk and alternative rock bands.

Babes in Arms is an album by the American band MC5, released in 1983. Originally released as a cassette, it has been reissued several times.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dennis Thompson (drummer)</span> American drummer

Dennis Thompson is an American drummer, most famous for being a member of the 1960s–70s Detroit proto-punk/hard rock group MC5, which had a No. 82 US single with "Kick Out the Jams" and a No. 30 US album with the same name.

<i>Teen Age Lust</i> 1996 live album by MC5

Teen Age Lust is a live album by American rock band MC5. It was recorded live at the Saginaw Civic Center in Saginaw, Michigan in January 1970. It was released in 1996 on Total Energy Records after digital remastering.

<i>Epilogue</i> (Blake Babies EP) 2002 EP by Blake Babies

Epilogue is an EP recording by the Blake Babies, released in 2002. This is the final release from the band before their break up.

<i>Beware (The Funk Is Everywhere)</i> 1986 studio album by Afrika Bambaataa

Beware is a studio album by Afrika Bambaataa, released in 1986 by Tommy Boy Records.


  1. 1 2 Ankeny, Jason. "MC5". AllMusic. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  2. Pinnock, Tom (July 27, 2012). "The Making Of… MC5's Kick Out The Jams". Uncut . Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  3. O'Hagan, Sean (March 3, 2014). "John Sinclair: 'We wanted to kick ass – and raise consciousness'". The Guardian . Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  4. Hann, Michael (June 28, 2008). "MC5/Primal Scream". The Guardian . Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  5. Pappademas, Alex (August 22, 2018). "Wayne Kramer, Rock Legend And Failed Outlaw, Assembles A Supergroup In The Rearview". NPR . Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  6. "5 Things You Might Not Know About The MC5". Rhino Entertainment . June 21, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  7. "VH1: 100 Greatest Hard Rock Artists: 1-50". Rock On The Net. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  8. "1969 Rolling Stone Covers Pictures - RS025". Rolling Stone. January 12, 1969. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  9. "MC5 Concert Dates". Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  10. Thompson, Matt (October 11, 2015). "Downriver's Rock n' Roll past relived through life of early MC5 manager Ann Marston". The News-Herald . Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  11. Jenkins, Todd S. (2004). Free Jazz and Free Improvisation: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. Greenwood. p. lxi. ISBN   9780313333149.
  12. McLeese 2005, p. 57.
  13. McLeese 2005, p. 65.
  14. Wayne Kramer (November 4, 1998). "Rocket Reducer - Page 1 - Music - Los Angeles". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on December 11, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  15. O'Hagan, Sean (March 3, 2014). "John Sinclair: 'We wanted to kick ass – and raise consciousness'". The Guardian. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  16. Julie Burchill, Tony Parsons, "The Boy Looked at Johnny": The Obituary of Rock and Roll, p.19-20, Pluto Press, London. 1978
  17. Tracey, Patrick (March 31, 2000). "Yippie Yi Yay". Washington City Paper.
  18. 1 2 Thompson 2000.
  19. Michael Schumacher, There But for Fortune: The Life of Phil Ochs, pp. 200–201.
  20. Deming, Mark. "Kick Out the Jams - MC5". AllMusic. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  21. Chris Smith (2009). 101 Albums that Changed Popular Music. Oxford University Press. p. 67. ISBN   9780195373714.
  22. McLeese 2005, p. 96.
  23. Austin, Dan. "Alhambra Theatre — Historic Detroit". Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  24. A Square 333. "MC5 Concert Dates".
  25. Tobler, John (1992). NME Rock 'N' Roll Years (1st ed.). London: Reed International Books Ltd. p. 488. CN 5585.
  26. Perry, Kevin (November 28, 2006). "Michael Davis interviewed about MC5 reunion". London: The Beaver . Retrieved September 29, 2010.
  27. OJ Advertising. "MC5". Michigan Rock and Roll Legends.
  28. Lewry, Fraser (May 2, 2018). "MC5 announce UK and European tour dates". Louder.
  29. McCollum, Brian (May 5, 2022). "MC5 name, legacy get redeployed by Wayne Kramer as he launches tour". Detroit Free Press . Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  30. Wayne Kramer Unveils ‘We Are All MC5’ Spring Tour - Yahoo!. 9 March 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  31. MC5’s Wayne Kramer talks punk, politics ahead of new album, tour - Michigan Radio. 5 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  32. "Bob Dylan Never Ending Tour Diaries: Drummer Winston Watson's Incredible Journey (Video 2009)". IMDb. Retrieved May 9, 2022.

Further reading