|Metropolitan Railway A Class and |
B Class (Including other 'Metropolitan' Pattern Beyer Peacock 4-4-0T's)
The Metropolitan Railway A Class and B Class were 4-4-0 T condensing steam locomotives built for the Metropolitan Railway by Beyer Peacock, first used in 1864. A total of 40 A Class and 26 of the slightly different B Class were delivered by 1885. Used underground, the locomotives condensed their steam, and coke or smokeless coal was burnt to reduce the smoke.
Most locomotives were withdrawn after electrification in the early 20th century, forty having been sold by 1907. The last one was withdrawn in 1948, and is now preserved at the London Transport Museum.
When the Metropolitan Railway (Met) opened in 1863, the Great Western Railway (GWR) provided the services with their Metropolitan Class locomotives. However, the GWR withdrew their services in August 1863, and the Met bought their own locomotives, which needed to condense as the line from Paddingdon to Farringdon was underground. A tender was received from Beyer, Peacock and Company of Manchester for building eighteen locomotives at £2,600 each that would be available in six months. The design of the locomotives is frequently attributed to the Metropolitan Engineer John Fowler, but the design was a development of a locomotive Beyers had built for the Spanish Tudela-Bilbao railway, Fowler only specifying the driving wheel diameter, axle weight and the ability to navigate sharp curves. 
The 4-4-0 T locomotives delivered in 1864 had 16 in × 20 in (406 mm × 508 mm) cylinders, 5 feet 0+1⁄2 inch (1.537 m) diameter driving wheels and weighed 42 ton 3 cwt in working order. The boiler pressure was 120 psi (830 kPa), the front wheels were on a Bissel truck and fitted with 40 cubic feet (1.1 m3) bunker. As they were intended for an underground railway, the locomotives did not have cabs, just a simple spectacle plate.  To reduce smoke underground, at first coke was burnt, changed in 1869 to smokeless Welsh coal. 
The first 18 locomotives originally carried names, although the nameplates were withdrawn during overhaul. 
These were followed by five more each year from 1866 to 1868, and six in 1869. These were supplied with a tender capacity of 67 cubic feet (1.9 m3); after 1868 the boiler pressure had been increased to 130 psi (900 kPa).  From 1879 more locomotives were needed, and these were a modified design,  with Adams bogies, and the wheelbase was 8 feet 1 inch (2.46 m), shorter than the previous locomotives at 8 feet 10 inches (2.69 m).  A total of 24 of these later locomotives were delivered between 1879 and 1885. 
The locomotives were numbered in sequence as they arrived, and in 1925 the examples built before 1870 were classified as A Class and those built after 1879 as B Class.[ citation needed ] When five Burnett 0-6-0 tank locomotives were received in 1868 for the St John's Wood Railway, they took the numbers 34-38, so the A Class consisted of Nos. 1-33 and 39-44. After the 0-6-0Ts were sold, the B Class reused the earlier numbers, becoming Nos. 34-38 and 50-66. 
Between 1880 and 1885, seventeen locomotives were reboilered at Edgware Road, and after 1886 this was done at Neasden Depot. At Neasden boiler pressure was increased to 150 pounds per square inch (1,000 kPa), and after 1894 the wheel diameter was increased to 5 feet 10 inches (1.78 m) and the cylinders increased to 17+1⁄2 inches (440 mm).  Cabs were fitted after 1895, although these became too hot when working in tunnels and were not popular with crews. 
Broken coupling rods were a cause of accidents in 1873 and 1884, and in 1885 the cross section was increased. The problem was eventually solved in 1893 when the original Allan motion was replaced by a Gibson & Lilley link motion, this being fitted to all locomotives by 1896. 
In 1898, No. 62 was experimentally fitted to burn oil, but oil of the right quality for underground use was too expensive.  In 1921, further experiments were carried out with oil burning.
The Metropolitan Railway A and B Class locomotives worked the whole of the Metropolitan Railway. In 1884, most of the locomotives up to No. 20 were stabled at Neasden, Nos. 27 to 33 were used on the East London Railway, the others from 21 to 50 were at Edgware Road and 51 to 66 at Hammersmith for the Hammersmith & City line. 
After electrification of the inner London lines in 1905-06, most of the locomotives were redundant. By 1907, forty had been sold or scrapped, No. 1 having been withdrawn earlier in 1897 after it was involved in an accident at Baker Street. Many locomotives went to R. Fraser and Sons for scrap by 1914, thirteen locomotives having been retained for shunting,  departmental work and working trains over the Brill Tramway.  The purchase of other locomotives, the closure of the Brill Tramway in 1935, and the transfer of freight duties to the LNER saw all but one of these remaining locomotives sold or scrapped around 1936. Class A No. 23 (LT No. L45) survived as a shunter at Neasden until 1948, and is now preserved at the London Transport Museum.
No. 22 was sold to the District Railway in 1925 and scrapped in 1931.  Some of the sold locomotives survived a little longer: No. 7, sold to the Mersey Railway, was withdrawn in 1939, and No. 44 was sold to Pelaw Main Colliery in Durham and survived until 1948. 
Originally, the locomotives were bright olive green lined in black and yellow. Chimneys were copper-capped with the number in brass figures at the front. The domes were also polished brass. It was in 1885 that the colour changed to dark red, known as Midcared, and the domes painted. Midcared was to remain the standard colour, and was carried on by London Transport in 1933. 
Beyer Peacock built a number of 4-4-0 T locomotives to the same basic 'Metropolitan' design, such as for the London and South Western Railway and the Midland Railway, with others being sold on by the Metropolitan to other railway companies including those mentioned previously. The following British companies owned and operated these tank engines, either from new or second hand from the Metropolitan (Excluding the District-owned machines): 
|Cambrian Railways||6||£500 each. Two converted to tender locomotives.|
|Great Western Railway||1||Inherited from the Cambrian and allocated Nos.1129-32 for the tanks and 1113-4 for the tender conversions. Only 1130 carried its GWR number, the rest having been scrapped by January 1923.|
|London and North Western Railway||16||Ordered new from Beyer Peacock in 1871. Some were later rebuilt as 4-4-2Ts.|
|London and South Western Railway||12 ||Ordered new from Beyer Peacock in 1875, as the 318 Class, for £3160 each.|
|Mersey Railway||2||Purchased from the Metropolitan Railway for £666 each.|
|Midland Railway||6||Ordered new from Beyer Peacock in 1868 for £2600 each.|
|Nidd Valley Railway||2||Purchased from the Metropolitan Railway for £625 each.|
|North Wales Granite Co.||1||Purchased from the Nidd Valley Railway.|
|Pelaw Main Colliery||1||Purchased from the Metropolitan Railway for £700.|
|South Eastern Railway||3||Whilst still under construction in April 1880, Met nos. 57–59 were sold to the SER for £2,045 each (or £2,150 each  ), becoming SER nos. 299–301. They were repurchased from the SER by the Met in November 1883 for £1,900 each, regaining their original Met numbers.  |
|West Somerset Mineral Railway||1||Purchased from the Metropolitan Railway |
- Sir Arthur Elvin is reported as purchasing two from the Metropolitan Railway for £190 each.
As well as working in Britain, examples of the same basic pattern of Beyer Peacock 4-4-0 T s are known to have operated in Spain, on the Tudela–Bilbao Railway, and in Germany, on the Rheinische Eisenbahn (Rhine Railway). The eight Spanish examples were ordered from Beyer Peacock in 1862, before the first Metropolitan Railway examples, and later passed into industrial use. Five were purchased by the Rheinische Eisenbahn.
In 1877, the New South Wales Government Railways (NSWGR) ordered 34 locomotives with tenders based on this design from Beyer Peacock. Another 26 were built by Dubs and Co., and a further eight were made in Australia by Atlas Engineering in Sydney. Of these, 20 were rebuilt as 4-4-2 T between 1896 and 1902 for suburban workings.
A whitemetal kit in 1:76 scale was produced by Keyser (K's) and later from IKB Models. 3D-printed plastic kits for the Metropolitan and District variations have been produced by CDC Designs in 1:87, 1:76 and 1:43 scales.  A live steam model runs regularly at the Acton Miniature railway. 
The Metropolitan Railway was a passenger and goods railway that served London from 1863 to 1933, its main line heading north-west from the capital's financial heart in the City to what were to become the Middlesex suburbs. Its first line connected the main-line railway termini at Paddington, Euston, and King's Cross to the City. The first section was built beneath the New Road using cut-and-cover between Paddington and King's Cross and in tunnel and cuttings beside Farringdon Road from King's Cross to near Smithfield, near the City. It opened to the public on 10 January 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, the world's first passenger-carrying designated underground railway.
The Mersey Railway was the first part of the passenger railway connecting the communities of Liverpool, Birkenhead, and now the rest of the Wirral Peninsula in England, which lie on opposite banks of the River Mersey, via the Mersey Railway Tunnel. The railway opened in 1886 with four stations using steam locomotives hauling unheated wooden carriages; in the next six years the line was extended and three more stations opened. Using the first tunnel under the Mersey the line is the world's oldest underground railway outside London.
Diesel locomotives have seen limited use on the London Underground, largely because exhaust gases cannot be discharged when the vehicles are working in tunnels. A prototype diesel engine numbered DEL120 was built in 1939 from two 1915 stock motor cars, which was expected to be part of a batch of ten, but experience with battery locomotives showed that these were a better alternative. Three 0-6-0 diesels (DL81-DL83) were obtained in 1971, to replace the last steam engines, but were too short to operate the signalling system, and too heavy for some of the bridges. In 1996, fourteen diesels were supplied by Schöma of Germany, which were used during the construction of the Jubilee line tunnels. They were fitted with exhaust scrubbers, to enable them to work in the tunnels. To speed up track renewals on the subsurface lines, Class 66 locomotives have been hired in since 2006 to handle permanent way trains, but again suffer from being too heavy for some of the bridges. Because they are not fitted with tripcock safety devices, and pull trains much longer than the signalling system is designed for, they are restricted to slow speed running.
Beyer, Peacock and Company was an English railway locomotive manufacturer with a factory in Openshaw, Manchester. Founded by Charles Beyer, Richard Peacock and Henry Robertson, it traded from 1854 until 1966. The company exported locomotives, and machine tools to service them, throughout the world.
The Metropolitan Railway E Class is a class of 0-4-4T steam locomotives. A total of seven locomotives were built between 1896 and 1901 for the Metropolitan Railway: three by the railway at their Neasden Works and four by Hawthorn Leslie and Company in Newcastle upon Tyne.
The Metropolitan Railway H Class consisted of eight 4-4-4T steam locomotives, numbered 103 to 110. They were built by Kerr, Stuart & Co of Stoke on Trent in 1920 at a cost of £11,575 each. A "notable addition" to the Metropolitan Railway, these locomotives were purchased for the express passenger trains on the mainline between Harrow —the change point from electric locomotives—and Aylesbury or Verney Junction.
The Metropolitan Railway K Class consisted of six 2-6-4T steam locomotives, numbered 111 to 116.
The Metropolitan Railway C class was a group of four 0-4-4T steam tank locomotives built in 1891 by Neilson and Company. They were to a design by James Stirling, originally the Q class of the South Eastern Railway, and were fitted with condensing apparatus for working in tunnels.
The Metropolitan Railway D Class was a group of six 2-4-0T locomotives built for the Metropolitan Railway in 1894-1895 by Sharp, Stewart and Company.
The New South Wales Z12 class was a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotives operated by the New South Wales Government Railways of Australia.
The London, Tilbury and Southend Railway (LT&SR) 2100 Class was a class of 4-6-4T steam locomotives. Eight were built in 1912, the year the Midland Railway took over the LT&SR, to the design of Robert Harben Whitelegg. Hence, they were numbered in the Midland numbering system as 2100–2107, and none received a name. The Midland gave them the power classification 3P. All subsequently passed into LMS ownership in 1923. They were all withdrawn 1929–1934, and all were scrapped.
The LSWR 330 class or Saddlebacks was a class of goods 0-6-0ST steam locomotives designed for the London and South Western Railway. Twenty were constructed by Beyer, Peacock and Company between 1876 and 1882.
District Railway steam locomotives were used on London's Metropolitan District Railway. When in 1871 the railway needed its own locomotives, they ordered twenty four condensing steam locomotives from Beyer Peacock similar to the A Class locomotives the Metropolitan Railway was using on the route. As they were intended for an underground railway, the locomotives did not have cabs, but had a weatherboard with a bent-back top and the back plate of the bunker was raised to provide protection when running bunker first.
The L&YR Class 2 (Aspinall) was a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway.
The LSWR 302 class was a class of 0-6-0 steam locomotives designed by William George Beattie for the London and South Western Railway (LSWR). Thirty-six locomotives were built between 1874 and 1878.
The SER Q class was a class of 0-4-4T steam locomotives of the South Eastern Railway. The class was designed by James Stirling and introduced in 1881.
The first Metropolitan Railway steam locomotives were ordered in 1864 for the Metropolitan Railway, to replace the Great Western Railway locomotive that had opened their first line the previous year. A total of 116 locomotives were built, of which two survive in preservation.
The London Underground opened in 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. The Metropolitan and District railways both used carriages exclusively until they electrified in the early 20th century. The District railway replaced all its carriages for electric multiple units, whereas the Metropolitan still used carriages on the outer suburban routes where an electric locomotive at the Baker Street end was exchanged for a steam locomotive en route.
The Cape Government Railways 1st Class 2-6-0 of 1879 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.
The LNWR 4ft 6in Tank was a class of 220 passenger 2-4-2T locomotives manufactured by the London and North Western Railway in their Crewe Works between 1879 and 1898. The "4ft 6in" in the title referred to the diameter of the driving wheels – although the stated dimension was for the wheel centres – the nominal diameter including the tyres was 4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm).