Metropolitan Railway electric multiple units were used on London's Metropolitan Railway after the lines were electrified in the early 20th century.
After a joint experiment with the District Railway with which they operated the inner circle in London, a four rail DC system was chosen. The first Metropolitan Railway electric multiple units ran on 1 January 1905 from Uxbridge to Baker Street, the circle service began a full electric service on 24 September 1905 and an electric service started on the joint Hammersmith and City line on 5 November 1906.
More trains were purchased in 1915 and 1921 to replace and supplement those operating the circle service. In 1927-33 compartment stock was built for use on the Extension line out of Baker Street through Harrow.
In 1933 the railway was amalgamated with the other London underground railway companies to form the London Passenger Transport Board. The older stock was withdrawn after replacement by the O Stock in the 1930s, the Circle stock was renovated and was later replaced by P Stock in 1950 and the units which ran on the Extension line were standardised and designated T Stock, and later replaced by A Stock in 1963.
The Metropolitan Railway was opened in 1863 with wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, but at the start of the 20th century the railway was seeing increased competition in central London from the new Underground Electric Railways of London (UERL) tube lines and the use of buses. The use of steam underground led to smoke-filled stations and carriages which was unpopular with passengers, and conversion to electric traction was seen as the way forward. 
Because of the jointly operated Inner Circle co-operation with the District Railway was essential. A jointly owned experimental train of six coaches was tested on passenger service on an Earl's Court to High Street Kensington shuttle in 1900. Composed of four trailers and two motor cars this had pick up shoes which made contact with conductor rails energised at 600 V DC on both sides of the track. Although the motor cars were connected by a bus line, there was no multiple working, meaning only the leading motor car was powered. 
The experiment was considered a success, and following tenders a 3000V AC system was recommended by the electrification joint committee,  and this was accepted by both parties until the American led UERL took control of the District. The group was led by Charles Yerkes, whose experience in the United States led him to favour DC, with conductor rail similar to that in use on the City & South London Railway and Central London Railway. After arbitration by the Board of Trade a DC system with four rails was taken up and the railways began electrifying their routes, using multiple-unit stock and electric locomotives hauling carriages. 
The first order was placed with Metropolitan Amalgamated in 1902 for 50 trailers and 20 motor cars, which were intended to run as ten 7-car trains, although due to problems with platform lengths these ran as 6-car trains. They were open saloon cars with access at the ends via open lattice gates. The units had two motor cars which were equipped with Westinghouse electric equipment and four 150 hp (110 kW) motors, and ran off-peak as 3-car units with a motor car and a driving trailer. Twenty 6-cars trains were ordered for the Hammersmith & City line that the Met jointly operated with the Great Western Railway with Thomson-Houston equipment (BTH) and GE76 150 hp motors. In 1904 an order was placed for a further 36 motor cars and 62 trailers with an option for a further 20 motor cars and 40 trailers. However problems with the Westinghouse equipment (BWE) meant when the option was taken up Thomson-Houston equipment (BTH) was specified, but more powerful 200 hp (150 kW) GE69 motors were fitted. 
The first electric multiple units ran on 1 January 1905 from Uxbridge to Baker Street, the Uxbridge branch having opened in July 1904 and worked by steam for six months.  After problems with the Metropolitan shoegear on the District Railway were solved the inner circle began a full electric service on 24 September 1905,  reducing the travel time from seventy to fifty minutes,  and an electric service started on the Hammersmith and City line on 5 November 1906. 
The trains had first and third class accommodation with electric lighting and heating. However, it was quickly found that the lattice gates left the coach ends exposed when working in the open and the cars were modified with vestibules from 1906. Having access only from the end of the coaches was a problem on the busy circle line and centre sliding doors were added from 1911.  Up to 1918 the motor cars with the more powerful GE69 motors were used on the Circle line with three trailers. 
In 1910 two motor cars were modified with driving cabs at both ends. One had 150 BWE equipment and the other 150 BTH, and they started work on the Uxbridge shuttle service, before being transferred to the Addison Road shuttle in 1918. From 1925 to 1934 these vehicles worked between Watford and Rickmansworth. 
In 1913 the Metropolitan bought the Great Northern and City Railway which ran from Finsbury Park directly into the City of London at Moorgate. It operated with electric multiple units and the original GN&C Stock operated on the line between 1904 and 1939.
Following electrification there were surplus carriages. The Ashbury bogie stock had been built recently and from 1906 some of these carriages were converted into multiple units.  Initially two 4-car rakes were converted by fitting control equipment and cabs to run with 150 BWE motor cars. It was found these were underpowered and the carriages were modified to use the more powerful 200 BTH motor cars. In 1907 these motor cars were needed on the inner circle services so four bogie carriages were converted into motor cars using 150 BWE equipment to make 2 x 6-car units. These were known as N stock and used on Uxbridge services until 1932 when they were reduced to four car units and transferred to the Stanmore branch. 
Two M stock 7-car units were built from Ashbury bogie stock by fitting control equipment and cabs and 200 BTH and GE 69 motors and these were later lengthened to 8-car by adding another carriage. 
In 1913 the Metropolitan needed additional stock to serve the East London Railway, and it had introduced through running at Baker Street. An order was placed for 23 motor cars and 20 trailers, saloon cars with sliding doors at the ends and the middle. All motor cars were ordered with 200 BWE equipment, but ten were installed on the electric locomotives and thirteen motor cars entered service with 200 BWE equipment and ten with 200 BTH equipment with GE69 motors, and worked with earlier stock on the circle and mainline services. 
In 1921 the electric equipment was replaced on the locomotives and the 200 BWE and 86M traction motors recovered were fitted to 20 new motor cars. These were ordered with 33 trailers and 6 first class driving trailers with three pairs of double sliding doors down both sides, and introduced on circle services. 
After London Underground was formed in 1933 the Circle stock was renovated, painted in a red and cream livery and the traction motors replaced a year later at Acton Works. All had been withdrawn by 31 December 1950 after being replaced by O Stock. 
In 1927–33 multiple unit compartment stock was built in batches by Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon and Birmingham Carriage and Wagon to be used on electric services from Baker Street and the city to Watford and Rickmansworth. The first order was only for motor cars; half had Westinghouse brakes, Metro-Vickers control systems and four MV153 motors rated at 275 horsepower (205 kW); they replaced the motor cars working with bogie stock trailers in the 'W' units. The rest of the motor cars had the same motor equipment but used vacuum brakes instead, and worked with converted Dreadnoughts of the 1920/23 batches to form 'MV' units. The 'MW' stock was ordered in 1929, 30 motor coaches and 25 trailers similar to the 'MV' units, but with Westinghouse brakes to make five 7-car trains. A further batch of 'MW' stock was ordered in 1931, this time from Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Company. This was to make 7 × 8-coach trains, and included additional trailers to increase the previous 'MW' batch to 8-coaches. These had GEC WT545 motors, and although designed to work in multiple with the MV153, this did not work well in practice. 
After the Metropolitan Railway became part of London Underground, the MV stock was fitted with Westinghouse brakes and the cars with GEC engines regeared to allow these to work in multiple with the MV153 engined cars. In 1938 9 × 8-coach and 10 × 6-coach MW units were redesignated London Underground T Stock.  This was replaced by the A Stock, with the final train running on 5 October 1962.  The Spa Valley Railway is home to two T-Stock carriages. 
P Stock was ordered to replace the remaining Metropolitan multiple units. A combination of 3-car units and 2-car units to run in six and eight car lengths were delivered from July 1939. Two trailers were included in an eight car formation, but these were designed to allow conversion to motor cars at a later date after improvements to the power supply.  F Stock trains had been built for the District Railway in the early 1920s. In the 1950s a number became available for use on the Metropolitan line and mainly worked the semi-fast Harrow and Uxbridge services and ran on the East London line as modified four-car sets. 
In 1933 when the Metropolitan amalgamated with the other London underground railway companies to form the London Passenger Transport Board it operated with the following stock. 
|W||5||1927/30/31||bogie stock trailer|
|M||2||8-car||200 BTH||Bogie stock conversion|
|N||2||4-car||150 BWE||Bogie stock conversion|
|H&C||23||6-car||Original 1906 H&C stock |
and 3 trains transferred from Met
The Metropolitan line, colloquially known as the Met, is a London Underground line between Aldgate in the City of London and Amersham and Chesham in Buckinghamshire, with branches to Watford in Hertfordshire and Uxbridge in Hillingdon. Coloured magenta on the tube map, the line is 41.4 miles (66.7 km) in length and serves 34 stations. Between Aldgate and Finchley Road the track is mostly in shallow "cut and cover" tunnels, apart from short sections at Barbican and Farringdon stations. The rest of the line is above ground, with a loading gauge of a similar size to those on main lines. Just under 67 million passenger journeys were made on the line in 2011/12.
Metro-Cammell, fully the Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company (MCCW) was an English manufacturer of railway carriages, locomotives and railway wagons, based in Saltley and subsequently Washwood Heath in Birmingham. Purchased by GEC Alstom in May 1989, the factory was closed by its eventual owner Alstom in 2005.
The Metropolitan Railway was a passenger and goods railway that served London from 1863 to 1933, its main line heading north-west from the capital's financial heart in the City to what were to become the Middlesex suburbs. Its first line connected the main-line railway termini at Paddington, Euston, and King's Cross to the City. The first section was built beneath the New Road using cut-and-cover between Paddington and King's Cross and in tunnel and cuttings beside Farringdon Road from King's Cross to near Smithfield, near the City. It opened to the public on 10 January 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, the world's first passenger-carrying designated underground railway.
London Underground rolling stock includes the electric multiple units that run on the London Underground. The trains come in two sizes, smaller deep-tube trains and larger sub-surface trains that are of a similar size to those on British main lines. New trains are designed for the maximum number of standing passengers and for speed of access to the cars.
The Standard Stock title was applied to a variety of Tube stock built between 1923 and 1934, all of which shared the same basic characteristics, but with some detailed differences. This design is also sometimes referred to as 1923 Tube Stock, 1923 Stock, or Pre 1938 Stock. Most of the Standard Stock was built to replace the first generation of "Gate Stock" Tube trains or to provide additional trains for extensions built in the 1920s and early 1930s. Standard Stock cars consisted of motor cars, plus trailer cars and "control trailers". All were equipped with air operated sliding doors, although the guard's door on the earlier trains was a manually operated inward-opening hinged door.
The Metropolitan District Railway was a passenger railway that served London from 1868 to 1933. Established in 1864 to complete the inner circle, an underground railway in London, the first part of the line opened using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. The Metropolitan Railway operated all services until the District introduced its own trains in 1871. The railway was soon extended westwards through Earl's Court to Fulham, Richmond, Ealing and Hounslow. After completing the inner circle and reaching Whitechapel in 1884, it was extended to Upminster in Essex in 1902.
The T Stock was a series of electric trains originally built in various batches by Metropolitan-Vickers and the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company for the Metropolitan Railway in 1927–31 for use on electric services from Baker Street and the City to Watford and Rickmansworth, though rarely some worked on the Uxbridge branch.
The London Underground R Stock electric multiple units were used on London Underground's District line from 1949 to 1983. Composed of new cars and converted Q38 Stock trailers, the cars were built and converted in three batches between 1949 and 1959. The cars were driving motors (DM) or non-driving motors (NDM), there being no unpowered trailers. The second batch, introduced in 1952, was constructed from aluminium, saving weight and one train was left unpainted as an experiment. Considered a success, trains were left unpainted or painted white or grey to match in 1963–68. Originally designed to operate in trains with six off-peak and eight cars during peak hours, the trains were reformed as fixed seven-car trains in 1971. R Stock trains were replaced by the D78 Stock and withdrawn between 1981 and 1983.
The London Underground O and P Stock electric multiple units were used on the London Underground from 1937 to 1981. O Stock trains were built for the Hammersmith & City line, using metadyne control equipment with regenerative braking, but the trains were made up entirely of motor cars and this caused technical problems with the traction supply so trailer cars were added. P Stock cars were built to run together with the O Stock cars now surplus on Metropolitan line Uxbridge services. The trains had air-operated sliding doors under control of the guard; the O Stock with controls in the cab whereas the P Stock controls in the trailing end of the motor cars. The P Stock was introduced with first class accommodation, but this was withdrawn in 1940.
An electric multiple unit (EMU) is an electric train capable of operating in multiple with other EMUs that does not have a separate locomotive, typically passenger trains with accommodation in every vehicle and a driving position at each end. The term can also be used to describe a train such as the Advanced Passenger Train that was a permanent formation with a non-driving power car. As of December 2010 two thirds of the passenger carriages in Britain are formed in EMUs.
Electric locomotives were first used on the London Underground when the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway (C&SLR), was opened in 1890. The first underground railways in London, the Metropolitan Railway (MR) and the District Railway (DR), used specially built steam locomotives to haul their trains through shallow tunnels which had many ventilation openings to allow steam and smoke to clear from the tunnels. It was impractical to use steam locomotives in the small unvented tubular tunnels of the deep-level lines, and the only options were rope haulage or electric locomotives.
The F Stock was built in 1920 and 1921 for the District Railway by the Metropolitan Carriage, Wagon and Finance Co. They were partly funded by the government as part of an initiative to help British industry recover from World War I. One hundred steel-bodied cars were built: 40 driving motors, 12 control trailers and 48 trailers with the first train entering service on 23 December 1920. The cars were built with manually-operated sliding doors.
The Central London Railway Stock were electric multiple units composed of trailers that had been converted from carriages designed to be hauled by electric locomotives with new motor cars. The Central London Railway opened in 1900 with electric locomotives hauling wooden carriages, but the heavy locomotives caused vibrations that could be felt in the buildings above the route. Following investigation it was found that conversion to electric multiple units solved the problem, so new motor cars were bought and replaced all the locomotives by June 1903. Trains normally ran with six-cars, four trailers and two motor-cars, although some trailers were equipped with control equipment to allow trains to be formed with 3 cars.
The London Underground Q Stock were trains used on the District line of the London Underground. First introduced in 1938, these electric multiple units were formed from cars built between 1923 and 1935 and new purpose-built cars, and fitted with electro-pneumatic brakes and guard controlled air-operated doors. Trains were made up from cars of different ages with differing appearances, the older ones with clerestory roofs and the newer ones with flared sides. Some units were withdrawn in the early 1960s, although six- and eight-car trains remained on the District line with use gradually diminishing to peak hours only, and four car units worked the East London line until 1971.
London's Metropolitan Railway (MR) amalgamated with other underground railways, tramway companies and bus operators on 1 July 1933, to form the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB); the MR became the Board's Metropolitan line.
Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives were used on London's Metropolitan Railway with conventional carriage stock. On the outer suburban routes an electric locomotive was used at the Baker Street end that was exchanged for a steam locomotive en route.
District Railway electric multiple units were used on London's Metropolitan District Railway after the lines were electrified in the early 20th century.
The history of the District line started in 1864 when the Metropolitan District Railway was created to create an underground 'inner circle' connecting London's railway termini. The first part of the line opened using Metropolitan Railway gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. The District introduced its own trains in 1871 and was soon extended westwards through Earl's Court to Fulham, Richmond, Ealing and Hounslow. After completing the 'inner circle' and reaching Whitechapel in 1884, it was extended to Upminster in East London in 1902. To finance electrification at the beginning of the 20th century, American financier Charles Yerkes took it over and made it part of his Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL) group. Electric propulsion was introduced in 1905, and by the end of the year electric multiple units operated all of the services.
The London Underground opened in 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. The Metropolitan and District railways both used carriages exclusively until they electrified in the early 20th century. The District railway replaced all its carriages for electric multiple units, whereas the Metropolitan still used carriages on the outer suburban routes where an electric locomotive at the Baker Street end was exchanged for a steam locomotive en route.
Snowdon, James (2001). Metropolitan Railway rolling stock. Wild Swan. ISBN 9781874103660.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metropolitan Railway .|