Micrommata virescens

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Micrommata virescens
Micrommata virescens Luc Viatour.jpg
Male of Micrommata virescens
Sparassidae - Micrommata virescens (8304371792).jpg
Female of Micrommata virescens
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Sparassidae
Genus: Micrommata
Species:
M. virescens
Binomial name
Micrommata virescens
Synonyms
  • Aranea rosea
  • Aranea smaragdula
  • Aranea virescens
  • Aranea viridissima
  • Araneus roseus
  • Araneus virescens
  • Micrommata rosea
  • Micrommata roseum
  • Micrommata smaragdina
  • Micrommata viridissima
  • Micrommata viridissima valvulata
  • Sparassus smaragdulus
  • Sparassus roseus
  • Sparassus virescens
An adult male photographed from above. The red- and yellow-striped male colouration differs greatly from the cryptic green female. M. virescens is thus an example for sexual dichromatism, where strong differences in colouration are present between the sexes. Micrommata male.jpg
An adult male photographed from above. The red- and yellow-striped male colouration differs greatly from the cryptic green female. M. virescens is thus an example for sexual dichromatism, where strong differences in colouration are present between the sexes.
An adult female photographed from above. The central paraxial stripe may serve as a disruptive visual element. Micrommata female.jpg
An adult female photographed from above. The central paraxial stripe may serve as a disruptive visual element.

Micrommata virescens, common name green huntsman spider, is a species of huntsman spiders belonging to the family Sparassidae.

Contents

Distribution

This species has a Palearctic distribution. [3] It occurs naturally in Northern and Central Europe, including Denmark and southern Britain. [4] [5] [6]

Description

In the females of Micrommata virescens the body length can reach 12–16 millimetres (0.47–0.63 in), while in the males it is about 7–10 millimetres (0.28–0.39 in). [7]

The cephalothorax and the long legs of the females are bright green, with a lighter green abdomen showing a darker green median stripe. The eight eyes are arranged in two rows and surrounded by white hairs. [4] Males are dark green-olive and have a narrower abdomen, with red sides and a red to red-brown median stripe bordered yellow. [8] Young spiders have a yellow-brown cephalothorax, with dark marginal and median stripes. Only after the last molting in the following spring the juveniles assume the typical coloration of the adults.

The green coloration is due to the bilin micromatabilin [9] and its conjugates in haemolymph, interstitial tissues and the yolk of oocytes. [10]

Habitat

These characteristic huntsman spiders can be found at the edges of forests, in dry meadows, in damp woodland clearings and rides, where they prefer grass and the lower branches of trees. [8]

Biology

These spiders are mainly diurnal. Like many other spiders, they do not build a web, and hunt insects in green vegetation, where they rely on their camouflage. Their green color makes them very difficult to be detected by predators. [8] They grow relatively slowly, taking 18 months to reach maturity. [4] Females are fertile from May through to September. A few days after mating, the males die. In July the females enclose the egg-sac into a few leaves stitched together. [6] Cocoons are guarded by females. After about 4 weeks eggs hatch about 40-50 young spiders. [4]

Related Research Articles

Huntsman spider Family of spiders (Sparassidae)

Huntsman spiders, members of the family Sparassidae, are known by this name because of their speed and mode of hunting. They are also called giant crab spiders because of their size and appearance. Larger species sometimes are referred to as wood spiders, because of their preference for woody places. In southern Africa the genus Palystes are known as rain spiders or lizard-eating spiders. Commonly, they are confused with baboon spiders from the Mygalomorphae infraorder, which are not closely related.

<i>Araneus quadratus</i> Species of spider

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<i>Piranthus</i> Genus of spiders

Piranthus is a genus of jumping spiders first described in 1895 by Tamerlan Thorell, who derived the name from Greek mythology. As of February 2019 this genus contains only two species.

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<i>Misumena vatia</i> Species of spider

Misumena vatia is a species of crab spider with a holarctic distribution. In North America, it is called the goldenrod crab spider or flower (crab) spider, as it is commonly found hunting in goldenrod sprays and milkweed plants. They are called crab spiders because of their unique ability to walk sideways as well as forwards and backwards. Both males and females of this species progress through several molts before reaching their adult sizes, though females must molt more to reach their larger size. Females can grow up to 10 mm (0.39 in) while males are quite small, reaching 5 mm (0.20 in) at most. Misumena vatia are usually yellow or white or a pattern of these two colours. They may also present with pale green or pink instead of yellow, again, in a pattern with white. They have the ability to change between these colors based on their surroundings with these color changes occur through the molting process. They have a complex visual system, with eight eyes, that they rely on for prey capture and for their color-changing abilities. Sometimes, if Misumena vatia consume colored prey, the spider itself will take on that color.

<i>Micrommata</i> Genus of spiders

Micrommata is a genus of huntsman spiders that was first described by Pierre André Latreille in 1804.

<i>Diaea dorsata</i> Species of spider

Diaea dorsata is one of the smaller crab spiders, with a palearctic distribution. Females can grow up to 6 mm, males up to 4 mm. Prosoma and legs are green, the opisthosoma is yellowish with a brown mark.

<i>Peucetia viridans</i> Species of spider

Peucetia viridans, the green lynx spider, is a bright-green lynx spider usually found on green plants. It is the largest North American species in the family Oxyopidae. This spider is common in the southern U.S., Mexico, Central America, and in many West Indie islands, especially Jamaica.

<i>Gasteracantha fornicata</i> Species of spider

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Bilin (biochemistry) Class of chemical compound

Bilins, bilanes or bile pigments are biological pigments formed in many organisms as a metabolic product of certain porphyrins. Bilin was named as a bile pigment of mammals, but can also be found in lower vertebrates, invertebrates, as well as red algae, green plants and cyanobacteria. Bilins can range in color from red, orange, yellow or brown to blue or green.

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<i>Heteropoda davidbowie</i> Species of spider

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Spider Order of arachnids

Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs, chelicerae with fangs generally able to inject venom, and spinnerets that extrude silk. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all orders of organisms. Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every land habitat. As of August 2021, 49,623 spider species in 129 families have been recorded by taxonomists. However, there has been dissension within the scientific community as to how all these families should be classified, as evidenced by the over 20 different classifications that have been proposed since 1900.

Pimoa cthulhu is a species of the spider family Pimoidae. It is one of twenty-one described species in the genus Pimoa.

<i>Carrhotus xanthogramma</i> Species of spider

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<i>Heliophanus tribulosus</i> Species of spider

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<i>Micrommata ligurina</i> Species of spider

Micrommata ligurina is a species of huntsman spider. It was first described by Carl Ludwig Koch in 1845.

Micromatabilin, the green pigment of the spider species Micrommata virescens, is characterized as a mixture of biliverdin conjugates. The two isolated fractions have identical absorption bands. Chromic acid degradation yields imides I, II, IIIa, and IIIb. Differences in the non-hydrolytic degradation and in polarity lead to the conclusion that fraction 1 is a monoconjugate and fraction 2a diconjugate of biliverdin.

Diminutella is a genus of spiders in the family Sparassidae. It was first described in 2018 by Rheims and Alayón. It is a monotypic genus with one described species, Diminutella cortina. It is endemic to Pinar del Rio, Cuba.

<i>Ebrechtella tricuspidata</i> Species of spider

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References

  1. 1 2 Oxford, G. S.; Gillespie, R. G. (January 1998). "Evolution and Ecology of Spider Coloration". Annual Review of Entomology. 43 (1): 619–643. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.619. ISSN   0066-4170. PMID   15012400.
  2. 1 2 Dollinger, C. (2018). Reproductive behaviour of the green huntsman spider Micrommata virescens and its implications for sexual dichromatism. EthoNews 79, 20-22.
  3. Platnick, Norman I. (10 December 2011). "Fam. Sparassidae". The World Spider Catalog, Version 12.5. New York, NY, USA: American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.iz.0001 . Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Natur-lexikon
  5. The Spiders of Europe and Greenland. Family: Sparassidae (Giant Crab Spiders) (list)
  6. 1 2 "Summary for Micrommata virescens (Araneae)". British Arachnological Society . Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  7. Araneae
  8. 1 2 3 A bug blog
  9. A. Holl & W. Rüdiger (1975). "Micromatabilin, a new biliverdin conjugate in the spider, Micromata rosea [sic] (Sparassidae)". Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 98 (2): 189–191. doi:10.1007/BF00706130. S2CID   13617757.
  10. G. S. Oxford & R. G. Gillespie (1998). "Evolution and ecology of spider coloration". Annual Review of Entomology. 43 (1): 619–643. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.619. PMID   15012400.

Further reading