Navojoa City Hall with a small replica of the Angel de la Independencia
La Perla del Mayo
|• Municipal president||Dr. Raul Silva Vela (PAN)|
|• City||4,380.69 km2 (1,691.39 sq mi)|
|Elevation||50 m (160 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC-7 (Pacific (US Mountain))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-7 (No DST)|
Navojoa is the fifth-largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and is situated in the southern part of the state. The city is the administrative seat of Navojoa Municipality, located in the Mayo River Valley.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Navojoa Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. As of 2015, the municipality had a total population of 163,650.
The city name derives from the native Mayo language meaning "Cactus House" or "Cactus Place" ("Navo"= Cactus, "Jova"= House). The valley has been continuously inhabited since pre-Hispanic times by the Mayo people.
Mayo is an Uto-Aztecan language. It is spoken by about 40,000 people, the Mexican Mayo or Yoreme Indians, who live in the South of the Mexican state of Sonora and in the North of the neighboring state of Sinaloa. Under the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples"Law of Linguistic Rights, it is recognized as a "national language" along with 62 other indigenous languages and Spanish which all have the same validity in Mexico. The language is considered 'critically endangered' by UNESCO.
A cactus is a member of the plant family Cactaceae, a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllales. The word "cactus" derives, through Latin, from the Ancient Greek κάκτος, kaktos, a name originally used by Theophrastus for a spiny plant whose identity is not certain. Cacti occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. Many live in extremely dry environments, even being found in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth. Cacti show many adaptations to conserve water. Almost all cacti are succulents, meaning they have thickened, fleshy parts adapted to store water. Unlike many other succulents, the stem is the only part of most cacti where this vital process takes place. Most species of cacti have lost true leaves, retaining only spines, which are highly modified leaves. As well as defending against herbivores, spines help prevent water loss by reducing air flow close to the cactus and providing some shade. In the absence of leaves, enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis. Cacti are native to the Americas, ranging from Patagonia in the south to parts of western Canada in the north—except for Rhipsalis baccifera, which also grows in Africa and Sri Lanka.
The Mayo or Yoreme are an indigenous group in Mexico, living in the states of southern Sonora, northern Sinaloa and small settlements in Durango.
In September 1536, Diego de Guzmán, a Spaniard, became the first known European to reach the valley and the first Jesuit missionaries started settling in the region in 1614. Several geoglyphs from the Mayo tribe can be found along the Mayo River.
Due to the city's distant location from Mexico City, the difficult times of Mexico's independence in the early 19th century were largely absent from the region. However, the city had some importance after the Mexican Revolution of 1910. The Mexican Revolutionary Álvaro Obregón was born in Hacienda Siquisiva, a small town near Navojoa. Álvaro Obregón became president of Mexico after the revolt and initiated an agricultural revolution in the Mayo/Yaqui Valley, introducing modern agricultural techniques and making this valley one of the most prosperous agricultural regions in Mexico.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.
Álvaro Obregón Salido was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated; he won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.
Navojoa is part of the large economic center known as the Mayo Valley, which together with Ciudad Obregón and the Yaqui Valley, form one of the most productive agricultural regions in Mexico.
Although agriculture remains the main source of income, the Navojoa region is increasingly dependent on industrial foreign investment and aquaculture, especially shrimp farming.
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats.
Two large swine production companies that export mainly to the United States, Germany and Japan, a recycled containerboard mill and box factory privately owned by Sonoran investors, as well as one brewery belonging to the FEMSA group (recently acquired from Heineken), are among the main industries in Navojoa.
Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V., doing business as FEMSA, is a Mexican multinational beverage and retail company headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico. It operates the largest independent Coca-Cola bottling group in the world and the largest convenience store chain in Mexico. It is also the second largest shareholder of Heineken International.
The city gains importance through its geographic diversity featuring close access to coastal, desert, and southwest mountainous areas as well as its close proximity to the United States and the neighboring state of Sinaloa. Navojoa is 64 kilometers (40 mi) south of Ciudad Obregón connected primarily by a toll highway (Mex. 15) that extends north across the state of Sonora to the Arizona border.
Ciudad Obregón International Airport (CEN) is the nearest commercial airport, 48 kilometers (30 mi) north of Navojoa. It receives flights from Guadalajara, Hermosillo, La Paz, Loreto, Los Cabos, Mexico City, Monterrey, and, internationally, from Los Angeles, Tucson, Phoenix and Houston in the United States. Airlines serving this airport include Aeromexico, AeroCalafia, Interjet, Volaris and low-cost airline VivaAerobus.
Alternate Airports to CEN are Hermosillo Intl. Airport (IATA: HMO) and in a lower sense Los Mochis (IATA: LMM). HMO also receives low cost airlines' flights incoming from the main cities of the Republic such as: Mexico City, Guadalajara, Querétaro, Monterrey, Tijuana, Puebla among others.
Navojoa also has a local airport (see: Navojoa Airport) next to the industrial sector, which is suitable for light private planes. It is about 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) south of the city center.
Several companies offer low, mid and luxury class bus services from Navojoa to the Mexican Republic and international destinations such as Tucson, Phoenix and Los Angeles in the US. Connections are offered by foreign partner companies to other USA and Canada destinations. A bus station was built in the north of the city; however it is not used and small stations in the city center are used instead.
Old public city buses have been replaced with new models with air conditioning, called SUBA. They run every few minutes and provide simple and cheap transport.
A north-south freight-only railroad is in operation, connecting to the Mexican border in Nogales and to Guadalajara, Jalisco.
The most important highway serving Navojoa is Mexican Federal Highway 15, a four-lane highway which connects it to north to Ciudad Obregón, Guaymas, Hermosillo, Nogales and the United States of America; and to the south to the states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, State of Mexico and Mexico City.
The main state routes serving Navojoa are Sonora State Highway 149 and Sonora State Highway 162.
Also, the Periférico is a semi-beltway encompassing some of Navojoa's southern and western neighborhoods and it is used as a truck route or bypass for Mexican Federal Highway 15. It is enlarged from 2 to 4 lanes in the western section between Centenario Boulevard and Sosa Chávez Boulevard with the project ending in december of 2017.
Although Navojoa's streets are almost all paved, horse-drawn carts are still used by the residents of the small surrounding communities (San Ignacio Cohuirimpo, etc.). Horse carts are numerous enough that there is a parking lot reserved for them on Hidalgo Avenue near the City Market in central Navojoa.
The following institutions of higher education are based in Navojoa:
Navojoa has many hotels with a range of cost and quality. Most hotels are located off Pesqueira Street, mainly between the 1-km-long area between Tecnológico Avenue and Centenario Boulevard.
The "Museo Regional del Mayo" (Mayo's Regional Museum) is located in the former railroad station building opposite Santa Fe Springs square. The Museum has 5 rooms which exhibit temporary paint, handicraft and sculpture expositions, pre-Hispanic and colonial objects, ethnographic expositions dedicated to the Mayos' culture and other objects related to Navojoa's history.
The Tehuelibampo Museum is an eco-museum with 89 petroglyphics carved in the stones over 500 years ago by the Mayo people. It is located next to the Mayo river, some kilometers north-west of Navojoa.
The city is near the Gulf of California which offers a variety of beaches. The surrounding country is also popular for hunting ducks, doves and deer.
Las Bocas, 30 miles south of Navojoa, is a small beach community on the Gulf of California that is frequently visited by the local residents of Navojoa during spring. (April–May). It is particularly popular during "Semana Santa" (Holy Week), when campers stay for seven days and then return to Navojoa for Easter celebrations.
Many people from Navojoa own a second house in Las Bocas.
Although one of the closer beaches to Navojoa is located about one hour away in a small town called Huatabampo. The beach is named after the town, hence the name, "Huatabampito" where many families gather year long to enjoy the beauty of the ocean.
The Adolfo Ruiz Cortines Dam, also called Mocúzarit, is a popular fishing spot and stores water used for irrigating the valley via the Mayo River. Other uses include kayaking, water-skiing, geoglyph-viewing and other leisure activities.
Navojoa also acts as a hub for those visiting the colonial town of Álamos, which is 48 kilometers (30 mi) inland toward the mountains of the Sierra Madre.
Navojoa has a borderline semi-arid climate/desert climate (Köppen climate classification BSh/BWh) with warm winters and hot summers.Precipitation is scarce, but is more common during the summer months during the monsoon season.
|Climate data for Navojoa, Sonora (1981-2010, extremes (1960-present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||25.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||17.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||9.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−3.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22.3|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.4||1.8||0.8||0.6||0.1||1.2||9.2||8.9||5.7||2.0||1.8||2.0||36.5|
|Source: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional|
There are two main public sports facilities in Navojoa.
One is "Unidad Deportiva Faustino Félix Serna" with many different baseball, baseball and softball fields, basketball courts, a pool, a professional baseball stadium, a professional basketball arena and many other sport facilities.
The other main sports center, "Unidad Deportiva Oriente" is located in the eastern part of the city.
Private sports centers are available too, one of them is the "Casino Social de Navojoa", located near downtown. Another one is "La Quinta Racquet Club" located in Los Naranjos neighborhood.
The city of Navojoa has its own baseball team called Mayos de Navojoa which is a member of the Liga Mexicana del Pacífico, the most important baseball league in México.
Well-known native baseball players, all of them played in MLB:
Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic, is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and largest city as well as the main economic center for the state and region. As of 2015, the city has a population of 812,229 inhabitants, making it the 16th largest city in Mexico. The recent city population spur is due to its recent strong industrialization, especially in the automotive industry.
Torreón is a city and seat of Torreón Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. As of 2015, the city's population was 679,288. The metropolitan population as of 2015 was 1,497,734, making it the ninth-biggest metropolitan area in the country and the largest metropolitan area in state of Coahuila, as well as one of Mexico's most important economic and industrial centers. The cities of Torreón, Gómez Palacio, Lerdo, Matamoros, Francisco I. Madero, San Pedro, Bermejillo, and Tlahualilo form the area of La Laguna or the Comarca Lagunera, a basin within the Chihuahuan Desert.
Huatabampo is a city in Huatabampo Municipality in the state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. It is situated on the Gulf of California, near the mouth of the Mayo River. It is located at latitude. Huatabampo is 34 km southwest of Navojoa via Sonora State Highway 56 and Sonora State Highway 149. Mexican Federal Highway 15 can be accessed via Sonora State Highway 176. It is notable as the home of revolutionary general Álvaro Obregón, a successful chickpea farmer before the Mexican Revolution, and now his burial site.
Ciudad Obregón is the second largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and named for Sonoran revolutionary general and president of Mexico, Álvaro Obregón. It is situated 525 km (326 mi) south of the state's northern border with the U.S. state of Arizona. It is also the municipal seat of Cajeme municipality, located in the Yaqui Valley.
The Sonora Institute of Technology is a Mexican public university based in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, with satellite campuses in Guaymas, Empalme and Navojoa. Founded in 1955 as a preparatory school called Justo Sierra Institute, it was initially sponsored by Lions International until 1956, when it renamed as Northwestern Institute of Technology. In 1962, Governor Luis Encinas Johnson approved a state law that restructured the institution and gave it its current name.
Federal Highway 15 is Mexico 15 International Highway or Mexico-Nogales Highway, is a primary north-south highway, and is a free part of the federal highways corridors of Mexico. The highway begins in the north at the Mexico–United States border at the Nogales Port of Entry in Nogales, Sonora, and terminates to the south in Mexico City.
Navojoa Airport or Navojoa National Airport is a small airport located 5 miles (8 km) south of Navojoa, a city located in the Mayo Valley, in the southern part of the Sonora State in Mexico.
The Universidad TecMilenio (UTM) is a private institution of higher education. The institution is part of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education TecMilenio University ITESM System, an educational system with national and international levels, through 30 campus and an online campus with a unique and innovative educational model that forms professionals with the skills needed by modern businesses and organizations. For-profit schools that have entered the country in recent years, the university serves some 21,000 students on its own at high school, undergraduate and postgraduate level, frequently through distance learning. Like most schools it now follows a semester model that replaced the original four-month terms.
Las Bocas is a small fishing village located in the south of the Mexican state of Sonora. It is part of the Huatabampo municipality. Despite being part of Huatabampo, most properties there are owned by families from Navojoa who have their second house next to the beach.
Quiriego Municipality is a municipality of southern Sonora state, in northwestern Mexico.
Vícam is a town in the Mexican state of Sonora located in the municipio of Guaymas. It is one of the main settlements of the Yaqui people. Historically the Yaqui also ranged through what is now the American Southwest, and there is a federally recognized tribe in the United States state of Arizona.
Northeast Hermosillo, also called El Noreste, Morelos and Gringorelos, is an unincorporated area in the Sonoran capital of Hermosillo. Its borders can be defined where the roads Reforma and Kino join, and so included some recognized neighborhoods such as Misión del Sol, Balderrama, Modelo, Pitic and La Joya. But also including several residential developments, which had a boom in residential developments in Hermosillo. Commercial centers are mostly found along major important roads like Blvd. Progreso, Blvd. Morelos and Blvd. Kino. Their development is such that many American franchises have invested in these centers, and often people call this zone the "Gringorelos", a portmanteau of Gringo and Blvd. Morelos.
Sylvia Aguilar Zéleny is a novelist and short story writer born in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, in 1973. She studied Hispanic literature at the Universidad de Sonora and began her career as a teacher,at the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey She has an MFAin creative writing from the University of Texas at El Paso. She learned to write through workshops given by other authors such as Abrigael Bohórquez, Héctor Manjarrez, David Martín del Cammpo and Cristina Rivera-Garza. Her works have appeared in Altanoche, La Tempestad, Las Hojas de la Mancuspia, Milenio, Néctar y Picnic and a large number of magazines. Her work has won Concurso de Libro Sonorense in 2003, the Concurso de Cuento Cristina Rivera-Garza in 2005, and an honorable mention in the Concurso de Libro Sonorense in 2000.
Héctor Martínez Arteche was a painter and muralist who was born in Mexico City in 1934, but has spent most of his life in the state of Sonora. Most of mural work can be seen in Hermosillo, Ciudad Obregón and Navojoa, totalling more than 4,000 meters squared. These include Energía, evolución y movimiento, La evolución mística del hombre venado, El universo del hombre, El pueblo de Cajeme and Comunicación I. In addition to this artwork, he has also had a long teaching career, which began in 1948 at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas at UNAM. His best known oils include Mujer con violeta and Mujer con cobalto. His work has received recognitions such as Concurso Nacional de Pintura Mural in 1953, Medalla de Plata from the state of Sonora in 1992 and was honored by the city of Cajeme for his artistic and teaching work in 2002. His most recent recognition was the Creador Emérito for 2008-2009 for the Region Sur de Sonora. Died on October 3, 2011 at 77.
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