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INPUT | OUTPUT | |

A | B | A OR B |

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

The **OR gate** is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunction –it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is high, a LOW output (0) results. In another sense, the function of OR effectively finds the *maximum* between two binary digits, just as the complementary AND function finds the *minimum*.^{ [1] }

There are two symbols of OR gates: the American (ANSI or 'military') symbol and the IEC ('European' or 'rectangular') symbol, as well as the deprecated DIN symbol.^{ [2] }^{ [3] } For more information see Logic Gate Symbols.

OR gates are basic logic gates, and are available in TTL and CMOS ICs logic families. The standard 4000 series CMOS IC is the 4071, which includes four independent two-input OR gates. The TTL device is the 7432. There are many offshoots of the original 7432 OR gate, all having the same pinout but different internal architecture, allowing them to operate in different voltage ranges and/or at higher speeds. In addition to the standard 2-input OR gate, 3- and 4-input OR gates are also available. In the CMOS series, these are:

- 4075: triple 3-input OR gate
- 4072: dual 4-input OR gate

Variations include:

- 74LS32: quad 2-input OR gate (low power Schottky version)
- 74HC32: quad 2-input OR gate (high speed CMOS version) - has lower current consumption/wider voltage range
- 74AC32: quad 2-input OR gate (advanced CMOS version) - similar to 74HC32, but with significantly faster switching speeds and stronger drive
- 74LVC32: low voltage CMOS version of the same.

is the analytical representation of OR gate:

If no specific OR gates are available, one can be made from NAND or NOR gates in the configuration shown in the image below. Any logic gate can be made from a combination of NAND or NOR gates.

Desired gate | NAND construction | NOR construction |
---|---|---|

With active low open collector logic outputs, as used for control signals in many circuits, an OR function can be produced by wiring together several outputs. This arrangement is called a *wired OR*. This implementation of an OR function typically is also found in integrated circuits of N or P-type only transistor processes.

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In electronics, a **logic gate** is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an **ideal logic gate**, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device.

**Transistor–transistor logic** (**TTL**) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the logic function and the amplifying function ; it is the same naming convention used in resistor–transistor logic (RTL) and diode–transistor logic (DTL).

**Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor** (**CMOS**), also known as **complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor** (**COS-MOS**), is a type of MOSFET fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions. CMOS technology is used for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips, including microprocessors, microcontrollers, memory chips, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, RF circuits, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication.

In digital logic, an **inverter** or **NOT gate** is a logic gate which implements logical negation. The truth table is shown on the right.

The **4000 series** is a CMOS logic family of integrated circuits (ICs) first introduced in 1968 by RCA. Almost all IC manufacturers active during this initial era fabricated models for this series. It is still in use today.

In digital electronics, the **fan-out** is the number of gate inputs that the output of a logic gate drives.

The **7400 series** of integrated circuits (ICs) are the most popular logic families. In 1964, Texas Instruments introduced the first members of their ceramic package SN5400 series transistor–transistor logic (TTL) logic chips, later a low-cost plastic package SN7400 series was introduced in 1966 which quickly gained over 50% of the logic chip market, and eventually becoming *de facto* standardized electronic components. Over the decades, many generations of pin-compatible descendant families evolved to include support for low power CMOS technology, lower supply voltages, and surface mount packages.

**Resistor–transistor logic** (**RTL**) is a class of digital circuits built using resistors as the input network and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) as switching devices. RTL is the earliest class of transistorized digital logic circuit used; other classes include diode–transistor logic (DTL) and transistor–transistor logic (TTL). RTL circuits were first constructed with discrete components, but in 1961 it became the first digital logic family to be produced as a monolithic integrated circuit. RTL integrated circuits were used in the Apollo Guidance Computer, whose design was begun in 1961 and which first flew in 1966.

In computer engineering, a **logic family** may refer to one of two related concepts. A logic family of monolithic digital integrated circuit devices is a group of electronic logic gates constructed using one of several different designs, usually with compatible logic levels and power supply characteristics within a family. Many logic families were produced as individual components, each containing one or a few related basic logical functions, which could be used as "building-blocks" to create systems or as so-called "glue" to interconnect more complex integrated circuits. A "logic family" may also refer to a set of techniques used to implement logic within VLSI integrated circuits such as central processors, memories, or other complex functions. Some such logic families use static techniques to minimize design complexity. Other such logic families, such as domino logic, use clocked dynamic techniques to minimize size, power consumption and delay.

In electronic logic circuits, a **pull-up resistor** or **pull-down resistor** is a resistor used to ensure a known state for a signal. It is typically used in combination with components such as switches and transistors, which physically interrupt the connection of subsequent components to ground or to V_{CC}. When the switch is closed, it creates a direct connection to ground or V_{CC}, but when the switch is open, the rest of the circuit would be left floating. For a switch that connects to ground, a pull-up resistor ensures a well-defined voltage across the remainder of the circuit when the switch is open. Conversely, for a switch that connects to V_{CC}, a pull-down resistor ensures a well-defined ground voltage when the switch is open.

The **AND gate** is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results only if all the inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If none or not all inputs to the AND gate are HIGH, a LOW output results. The function can be extended to any number of inputs.

In digital electronics, a **NAND gate** (**NOT-AND**) is a logic gate which produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that of an AND gate. A LOW (0) output results only if all the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if any input is LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results. A NAND gate is made using transistors and junction diodes. By De Morgan's theorem, a two-input NAND gate's logic may be expressed as AB=A+B, making a NAND gate equivalent to inverters followed by an OR gate.

**XOR gate** is a digital logic gate that gives a true output when the number of true inputs is odd. An XOR gate implements an exclusive or; that is, a true output results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is true. If both inputs are false (0/LOW) or both are true, a false output results. XOR represents the inequality function, i.e., the output is true if the inputs are not alike otherwise the output is false. A way to remember XOR is "must have one or the other but not both".

The NAND Boolean function has the property of functional completeness. This means, any Boolean expression can be re-expressed by an equivalent expression utilizing *only* NAND operations. For example, the function NOT(x) may be equivalently expressed as NAND(x,x). In the field of digital electronic circuits, this implies that we can implement any Boolean function using just NAND gates.

The **XNOR gate** is a digital logic gate whose function is the logical complement of the exclusive OR (XOR) gate. The two-input version implements logical equality, behaving according to the truth table to the right, and hence the gate is sometimes called an "equivalence gate". A high output (1) results if both of the inputs to the gate are the same. If one but not both inputs are high (1), a low output (0) results.

The **NOR gate** is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if both the inputs to the gate are LOW (0); if one or both input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. NOR is the result of the negation of the OR operator. It can also in some senses be seen as the inverse of an AND gate. NOR is a functionally complete operation—NOR gates can be combined to generate any other logical function. It shares this property with the NAND gate. By contrast, the OR operator is *monotonic* as it can only change LOW to HIGH but not vice versa.

In integrated circuit design, **dynamic logic** is a design methodology in combinatory logic circuits, particularly those implemented in MOS technology. It is distinguished from the so-called static logic by exploiting temporary storage of information in stray and gate capacitances. It was popular in the 1970s and has seen a recent resurgence in the design of high speed digital electronics, particularly computer CPUs. Dynamic logic circuits are usually faster than static counterparts, and require less surface area, but are more difficult to design. Dynamic logic has a higher toggle rate than static logic but the capacitative loads being toggled are smaller so the overall power consumption of dynamic logic may be higher or lower depending on various tradeoffs. When referring to a particular logic family, the dynamic adjective usually suffices to distinguish the design methodology, e.g. *dynamic CMOS* or *dynamic SOI* design.

**AND-OR-Invert** (AOI) logic and AOI gates are two-level compound logic functions constructed from the combination of one or more AND gates followed by a NOR gate. Construction of AOI cells is particularly efficient using CMOS technology where the total number of transistor gates can be compared to the same construction using NAND logic or NOR logic. The complement of AOI Logic is OR-AND-Invert (OAI) logic where the OR gates precede a NAND gate.

**HCMOS** is the set of specifications for electrical ratings and characteristics, forming the 74HC00 family, a part of the 7400 series of integrated circuits.

- ↑ "OR Gate". Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
- ↑ Harris, David Harris, Sarah (2007).
*Digital design and computer architecture*(1st ed.). San Francisco,Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann. p. 21. ISBN 9780123704979. - ↑ Brumbach, Michael E.
*Industrial electricity*(8th ed.). Clifton Park, N.Y.: Delmar. p. 546. ISBN 9781435483743.

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