Papuk

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Papuk
Papuk mt.jpg
The Flora of Papuk
Highest point
Elevation 953 m (3,127 ft) [1]
Listing List of mountains in Croatia
Coordinates 45°32′N17°39′E / 45.533°N 17.650°E / 45.533; 17.650 Coordinates: 45°32′N17°39′E / 45.533°N 17.650°E / 45.533; 17.650
Geography
Relief map of Croatia.png
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Papuk
Location of Papuk in Croatia
Location Slavonia, Croatia

Papuk is the largest mountain in the Slavonia region in eastern Croatia, near the city of Požega. It extends between Bilogora to the northwest, Krndija to the east, and Ravna gora and Psunj to the southwest.

Contents

The highest peak is the eponymous peak at 953 m.a.A. [1]

The area of Papuk is designated a nature park (park prirode), a kind of protected area in Croatia.

At the seventh European Geopark Network Open Conference, hosted by North West Highlands Geopark in September 2007, the Papuk Geopark became the first Croatian Geopark and 30th member of the European and UNESCO Global Geoparks Network.

Geopark Papuk was awarded licence second time from UNESCO in 2011. [2] [3]

Name

There are several supposed etymologies of the name "Papuk", it's almost certainly not of Croatian origin. One is that it comes by assimilation from earlier "Bapuk", where "Ba" is the name of the Celtic tribe that inhabited the region, and "Puk" comes from the Indo-European root *peiH, meaning "big". However, from the historical sources, it's visible that Papuk was originally a hydronym. [4] Based on that, it's been suggested that the name comes from the repetitive of the Indo-European root *bhogj (to flow), *bhebhogj, so that it means "that which flows and flows". However, there are several problems with that etymology. First, it's visible by hydronyms such as "Bosut" and "Bosna" that Indo-European *bh gave *b in the local language. Second, *bhebhogj would actually mean "flow and flow" and not "that which flows and flows", so the endings don't match. So, it's been suggested that the name is of Pre-Indo-European origin. [5] [ unreliable source? ]

Papuk Geopark

The Papuk Geopark ( 45°32′N17°39′E / 45.533°N 17.650°E / 45.533; 17.650 ) is a geopark in Croatia which is situated in two counties, Požega-Slavonia and Virovitica-Podravina, and includes upland forests of the Papuk and Krndija mountains, and edges of agricultural fields. The total area of the Geopark is 33,600 hectares (83,000 acres). In September 2007, the Papuk Geopark became the first Croatian geopark (an area with an expressed geological heritage and a strategy for a sustainable economical development) and the 30th member of the European Geoparks Network and a member of the UNESCO-assisted Global Geoparks Network.

The Papuk mountains belong to the Slavonia highlands which are in Pannonia, a low-lying area of Slavonia. Even though, the Slavonia highlands are not higher than 1,000 meters, their presence is very noticeable in the landscape. This is because the surrounding alluvial fields are at around 100 m height above sea level, while the hillsides are only 100 m above the fields. The highlands are mostly covered with forests, which differentiates them from the surrounding landscape.

Within the Slavonia highlands, the Papuk Mountain stretches from west to east and is the most spacious and most interesting mountain. From the main mountain-ridge well intended are two spurs and a tract watered by a drainage basin in the direction north south. As a remarkable point, emphasis lies on peaks Točak (887 m), Papuk (953 m), Ivačka glava (913 m), Češljakovački vis (820 m), and Kapovac (792 m), which are spread out continuously, and act as a drainage divide between the numerous tributary streams flowing to the river Drava to the north, and the river Sava to the south.

Ravna Gora

Ravna Gora
Relief map of Croatia.png
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Ravna Gora
Location of Ravna Gora in Croatia
Highest point
Elevation 854 m (2,802 ft) [6]
Listing List of mountains in Croatia
Geography
Location Slavonia, Croatia

Ravna Gora is a mountain in the Slavonia region in eastern Croatia. It is located between Psunj and Papuk, northeast of Pakrac and southeast of Daruvar. The highest peak is Čučevo at the altitude of 854 metres (2,802 ft). [6] [7] It is bound from the north by the Pakra river, and from the east by river Orljava.

Geographers usually classify Ravna Gora as mountain ridge of the Papuk mountain range. In its western part Papuk mountain range is about 20 km wide, formed by three parallel ridges: Lisina (Crni vrh 863 m), Ljutoč (716 m) and Ravna Gora.

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Croatia Geographic features of Croatia

The geography of Croatia is defined by its location—it is described as a part of Central Europe and Southeast Europe, a part of the Balkans and Mitteleuropa. Croatia's territory covers 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi), making it the 127th largest country in the world. Bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia in the east, Slovenia in the west, Hungary in the north and Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea in the south, it lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Croatia's territorial waters encompass 18,981 square kilometres (7,329 sq mi) in a 12 nautical miles wide zone, and its internal waters located within the baseline cover an additional 12,498 square kilometres (4,826 sq mi).

Slavonia Historical region of Croatia

Slavonia is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina and Vukovar-Syrmia, although the territory of the counties includes Baranya, and the definition of the western extent of Slavonia as a region varies. The counties cover 12,556 square kilometres or 22.2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806,192—18.8% of Croatia's population. The largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Brod and Vinkovci.

Požega, Croatia City in Požega-Slavonia, Croatia

Požega is a city in western Slavonia, eastern Croatia, with a total population of 26,248. It is the administrative center of the Požega-Slavonia County.

Sava River in Central Europe

The Sava is a river in Central and Southeast Europe, a right tributary of the Danube. It flows through Slovenia, Croatia and along its border with Bosnia and Herzegovina, and finally through Serbia, feeding into the Danube in its capital, Belgrade. The Sava forms the main northern limit of the Balkan Peninsula, and the southern edge of the Pannonian Plain.

Pannonian Sea Shallow ancient sea where the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe is today

The Pannonian Sea was a shallow ancient sea, where the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe is now. The Pannonian Sea existed during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, when marine sediments were deposited to a depth of 3–4 km (1.9–2.5 mi) in the Pannonian Basin.

Geography of Montenegro

Montenegro is a small, mountainous state in south-west Balkans. Montenegro borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Albania and the Adriatic Sea. While being a small country at 13,812 km2, it is very diverse regarding the terrain configuration.

Bosut (river)

The Bosut is a river in eastern Croatia and northwestern Serbia, a 186 km long left tributary of the Sava river. Its name from the Indo-European root *bhogj, meaning "to flow". The same root is seen in hydronym "Bosna".

Karašica (Drava)

Karašica is a river in eastern Croatia whose length, combined with its tributary Vučica is 150 kilometres (93 mi), and whose basin covers 2,347 square kilometres (906 sq mi).

Krndija

Krndija is a mountain in Slavonia, Croatia, extending eastwards from Papuk. It is located south of Orahovica and Našice and north of Požega.

Psunj

Psunj is a mountain in the southwestern Slavonia region in eastern Croatia. It is the highest mountain of Slavonia, with the highest peak of Brezovo polje at 984 m.a.s.l. In the north it extends to Ravna gora and Papuk, while otherwise it is surrounded by lowlands. It is located north of Nova Gradiška and southeast of Pakrac.

Požeška gora Mountain in Croatia

Požeška gora,, is a mountain located south of Požega, Croatia in the region of central Slavonia. The mountain is a part of Slavonian mountains enveloping the Požega Valley, located adjacent to Psunj to the east of Požeška gora, and to the west of Dilj. Požeška gora and Dilj are separated by a gap through which Orljava River flows south out of the Požega Valley. The highest peak of the mountain is Kapavac, 618 metres above sea level.

Operation Swath-10 Croatian War of Independence battle

Operation Swath-10 was a military offensive undertaken by the Croatian Army against the SAO Western Slavonia Territorial Defense Forces on Bilogora Mountain in western Slavonia. Occurring from 31 October to 4 November 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence, the operation was a Croatian victory and its success set the stage for follow-up advances by Croatian forces on Papuk Mountain in Operation Papuk-91 in late November and December. By the end of the year the HV gained control of Papuk, securing transport routes between eastern Slavonia and the rest of Croatia.

Operation Hurricane-91 Croatian War of Independence battle

Operation Hurricane-91 was a military offensive undertaken by the Croatian Army against the Yugoslav People's Army and SAO Western Slavonia Territorial Defense Forces in the Sava River valley, in the region of Western Slavonia during the Croatian War of Independence. The operation began on 29 October 1991 and ended on 3 January 1992 when a nationwide ceasefire was signed to implement the Vance plan. The offensive was aimed at recapturing the region, in conjunction with two other HV offensives launched against SAO Western Slavonia in the north of the region within days.

Croatia proper Historical region of Croatia

Croatia proper is one of the four historical regions of the Republic of Croatia, together with Dalmatia, Slavonia, and Istria. It is located between Slavonia in the east, the Adriatic Sea in the west, and Dalmatia to the south. The region is not officially defined, and its borders and extent are described differently by various sources. In contemporary geography, the terms Central Croatia and Mountainous Croatia are used to describe most of this area, the former referring to the northeastern part and the latter to the southwestern part; the far western part is known as the Croatian Littoral. Croatia proper is the most significant economic area of the country, contributing well over 50% of Croatia's gross domestic product. The capital of the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, is the largest city and most important economic centre in Croatia proper.

Orljava

Orljava is a river in Slavonia, eastern Croatia, a left tributary of Sava. It is 87.6 kilometres (54.4 mi) long and its basin covers an area of 1,618 square kilometres (625 sq mi).

Topography of Croatia

Topography of Croatia is defined through three major geomorphological parts of the country. Those are the Pannonian Basin, the Dinaric Alps, and the Adriatic Basin. The largest part of Croatia consists of lowlands, with elevations of less than 200 metres above sea level recorded in 53.42% of the country. Bulk of the lowlands are found in the northern regions of the country, especially in Slavonia, itself a part of the Pannonian Basin plain. The plains are interspersed by the horst and graben structures, believed to break the Pannonian Sea surface as islands. The greatest concentration of ground at relatively high elevations is found in Lika and Gorski Kotar areas in the Dinaric Alps, but such areas are found in all regions of Croatia to some extent. The Dinaric Alps contain the highest mountain in Croatia—1,831-metre (6,007 ft) Dinara, as well as all other mountains in Croatia higher than 1,500 metres. Croatia's Adriatic Sea mainland coast is 1,777.3 kilometres long, while its 1,246 islands and islets encompass further 4,058 kilometres of coastline—the most indented coastline in the Mediterranean. Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps, as well as throughout the coastal areas and the islands.

Požega Valley Geographic region of Slavonia in Croatia

The Požega Valley is a geographic microregion of Croatia, located in central Slavonia, encompassing the eastern part of the Požega-Slavonia County. It is located in the Pannonian Basin, bounded by Psunj, Papuk and Krndija mountains from west and north, and Požeška Gora and Dilj from south and east, as the Pannonian plain is interspersed by horst and graben structures. The largest settlement in the region is the city of Požega, followed by Pleternica and Kutjevo. The main watercourse in the region is Orljava River. The region covers 1,249 square kilometres and has a population of 60,599.

Londža is a river in Slavonia, eastern Croatia, a left tributary of Orljava. It is 47 kilometres (29 mi) long and its basin covers an area of 562 km2.

References

  1. 1 2 "Geographical and meteorological data" (PDF). Statistical Yearbook. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  2. Portal034
  3. Večernji list
  4. http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/64847
  5. "Croatian toponyms - Linguist Forum".
  6. 1 2 Hrvatski obiteljski leksikon - enciklopedija.lzmk.hr (in Croatian)
  7. Geomorfologija krša Papuka - kap krša u srcu Slavonije Archived 8 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Croatian)