This article needs additional citations for verification . (June 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Roman Republic||Forces of Fulvia and Lucius Antonius|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Octavian|| Fulvia |
The Perusine War (also Perusian or Perusinian War, or the War of Perusia) was a civil war of the Roman Republic, which lasted from 41 to 40 BC. It was fought by Lucius Antonius and Fulvia to support Mark Antony against his political enemy (and the future Emperor Augustus), Octavian.
Fulvia, who was married to Mark Antony at the time of the civil war, felt strongly that her husband should be the sole ruler of Rome instead of sharing power with the Second Triumvirate, especially Octavian.
Fulvia and Antony's younger brother, Lucius Antonius, raised eight legions in Italy. BC, Octavian's army laid siege to the city, finally causing it to surrender due to starvation when the besieged realized reinforcements from Italy or the East were not coming. The lives of Fulvia and Lucius Antonius were both spared, and Antonius was sent to govern a Spanish province as a gesture to his brother. Fulvia was exiled to Sicyon. Many inhabitants of the city were then butchered; they and others lost their land to veteran soldiers, as grimly remembered by the poet, Sextus Propertius, at the end of his first book of Elegies.The army held Rome for a brief time, but was then forced to retreat to the city of Perusia (modern Perugia, Italy). During the winter of 41–40
Fulvia died in 40 BC, and with her death came a peace between Antony and Octavian. The peace would be short-lived, however, as a civil war began a few years later.
Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader who became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.
Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
This article concerns the period 39 BC – 30 BC.
This article concerns the period 49 BC – 40 BC.
Year 40 BC was either a common year starting on Thursday, Friday or Saturday or a leap year starting on Thursday or Friday of the Julian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Calvinus and Pollio. The denomination 40 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Year 41 BC was either a common year starting on Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday of the Julian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Antonius and Vatia. The denomination 41 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
The Second Triumvirate was the political alliance between three of the Roman Republic's most powerful figures: Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus. Formally called the Triumvirate for Organizing the Republic, it was formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, and existed for two five-year terms, covering the period until 33 BC. Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate, the Second Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls.
Fulvia was an aristocratic Roman woman who lived during the Late Roman Republic. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Mark Antony. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Though she is more famous for her involvement in Antony's career, many scholars believe that she was politically active with all of her husbands.
Lucius Antonius was the younger brother and supporter of Mark Antony, a Roman politician. He was nicknamed Pietas as a young man.
The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. It is first mentioned in the account of the war of 310 or 309 BC between the Etruscans and the Romans. It took, however, an important part in the rebellion of 295 BC and was reduced, with Vulsinii and Arretium (Arezzo), to seek for peace in the following year.
Tiberius Claudius Nero, often known as Tiberius Nero and Nero was a politician who lived in the last century of the Roman Republic. He was the first husband of Livia, but was forced to divorce her in 38 BC so that she could marry the future emperor Augustus. Nero was the father of the second Roman emperor Tiberius,, and Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus. He was also the paternal grandfather of Emperor Claudius, General Germanicus, and Consul Drusus Julius Caesar, paternal great-grandfather of Emperor Caligula and Empresses Agrippina the Younger and Claudia Octavia and maternal great-great-grandfather of Emperor Nero.
Iullus Antonius, also known as Iulus, Julus or Jullus, was a magnate and poet in Ancient Rome. He was the second son of Roman general Mark Antony and Antony's third wife Fulvia. He is best known for being the famous lover of Julia the Elder. He was the full brother of Marcus Antonius Antyllus, half-brother of Clodia Pulchra through his mother's first marriage, half-brother of Antonia Major and Antonia Minor through his father's marriage to Octavia Minor, and half-brother of Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II and Ptolemy Philadelphus through his father's marriage to Cleopatra VII. His stepsiblings were Marcellus, Claudia Marcella Major, Caesarion and Claudia Marcella Minor. He was also stepson to Octavia Minor and Cleopatra VII.
The last war of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's Civil War or the War between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the civil wars of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony and Octavian. After the Roman Senate declared war on the Egyptian queen Cleopatra, Antony, her lover and ally, along with 40% of the Roman Senate and both consuls left Rome and joined the war on Antony’s side. After the decisive victory for Octavian at the Battle of Actium, Cleopatra and Antony withdrew to Alexandria, where Octavian besieged the city until both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
Quintus Salvidienus Rufus was a Roman general and one of the closest advisors of Caesar Octavian during the early years of his political activity.
Publius Ventidius Bassus, or in full, Publius Ventidius Publii filius Bassus, "Publius Ventidius, Publius's son, Bassus" was a Roman general and one of Julius Caesar's protégés. He won key victories against the Parthians which resulted in the deaths of key leaders – victories which redeemed the losses of Crassus and paved the way for Antony's incursions. According to Plutarch in his "Life of Antony", the three military victories of Ventidius over the Parthians singularly resulted in the only award to a Roman general of the triumphal ceremony for victory over Parthians.
Octavia the Younger was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, the half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and the fourth wife of Mark Antony. She was also the great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, maternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, and paternal great-grandmother and maternal great-great-grandmother of the Emperor Nero.
Clodia Pulchra, also known as Claudia, was the daughter of Fulvia by her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. She was the stepdaughter of Mark Antony and half-sister of his sons Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.
Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus was a Roman consul elected in 48 BC along with Gaius Julius Caesar. He is generally regarded as a puppet of Caesar, having a long friendship with the Dictator.
Claudia Marcella Major (PIR2 C 1102; Major Latin for the elder, born 41 BC) also known as Claudia Marcella Maior; Marcella Maior; Claudia Marcella the Elder and Marcella the Elder, was the eldest daughter of Octavia Minor and her first husband Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor.
Publius Servilius Rullus was a member of the Roman gens Servilia and in 40 BC a cavalry leader of Octavian.