Shilling (British coin)

Last updated
One shilling
United Kingdom
Mass(1816–1970) 5.66 g
Diameter(1816–1970) 23.60 mm
Years of mintingc.1548 1966
British shilling 1963 obverse.png
DesignProfile of the monarch (Elizabeth II design shown)
Designer Mary Gillick
Design date1953
British shilling 1963 reverse.png
DesignVarious (coat of arms of England design shown)
Designer William Gardner
Design date1947

The British shilling, abbreviated "1s" or "1/-", was a unit of currency and a denomination of sterling coinage worth 120 of one pound, or twelve pence. It was first minted in the reign of Henry VII as the testoon, and became known as the shilling, from the Old English scilling, [1] sometime in the mid-16th century. It circulated until 1990. The word bob was sometimes used for a monetary value of several shillings, e.g. "ten-bob note". Following decimalisation on 15 February 1971 the coin had a value of five new pence, and a new coin of the same value but labelled as "five new pence" or "five pence" was minted with the same size as the shilling until 1990, after which the shilling no longer remained legal tender. [2] It was made from silver from its introduction in or around 1503 until 1946, and thereafter in cupronickel.


Before Decimal Day in 1971, sterling used the Carolingian monetary system ("£sd"), under which the largest unit was a pound (£) divided into 20 shillings (s), each of 12 pence (d).

Although the coin was not minted until the 16th century, the value of a shilling had been used for accounting purposes since the early medieval period. The value of one shilling equalling 12 pence (12 d) was set by the Normans following the conquest; before this various English coins equalling 4, 5, and 12 pence had all been known as shillings. [3]

The notation ss/dd for a number of shillings and pence was widely used (e.g., "19/11" for nineteen shillings and eleven pence). The form ss/– was used for a number of shillings and zero pence (e.g., "5/–" for five shillings exactly).


Shilling of Edward VI, struck between 1551 and 1553 Edward VI 77001683.jpg
Shilling of Edward VI, struck between 1551 and 1553

The first coins of the pound sterling with the value of 12d were minted in 1503 [4] or 1504 [3] and were known as testoons. The testoon was one of the first English coins to bear a real (rather than a representative)[ clarification needed ] portrait of the monarch on its obverse, and it is for this reason that it obtained its name from an Italian coin known as the testone, or headpiece, which had been introduced in Milan in 1474. [5] Between 1544 and 1551 the coinage was debased repeatedly by the governments of Henry VIII and Edward VI in an attempt to generate more money to fund foreign wars. This debasement meant that coins produced in 1551 had one-fifth of the silver content of those minted in 1544, and consequently the value of new testoons fell from 12d to 6d. [6] The reason the testoon decreased in value is that unlike today, the value of coins was determined by the market price of the metal contained within them. This debasement was recognised as a mistake, and during Elizabeth's reign newly minted coins, including the testoon (now known as the shilling), had a much higher silver content and regained their pre-debasement value. [7]

Shillings were minted during the reigns of every English monarch after Edward VI, as well as during the Commonwealth, with a vast number of variations and alterations appearing over the years. The Royal Mint undertook a massive recoinage programme in 1816, with large quantities of gold and silver coin being minted. Previous issues of silver coinage had been irregular, and the last issue, minted in 1787, was not intended for issue to the public, but as Christmas gifts to the Bank of England's customers. [8] New silver coinage was to be of .925 (sterling) standard, with silver coins to be minted at 66 shillings to the troy pound. [9] Hence, newly minted shillings weighed 211  troy ounce, equivalent to 87.273 grains or 5.655 grams.

The Royal Mint debased the silver coinage in 1920 from 92.5% silver to 50% silver. Shillings of both alloys were minted that year. [10] [ self-published source? ] This debasement was done because of the rising price of silver around the world, and followed the global trend of the elimination, or the reducing in purity, of the silver in coinage. [11] The minting of silver coinage of the pound sterling ceased completely (except for the ceremonial Maundy Money) at the end of 1946 for similar reasons, exacerbated by the costs of the Second World War. New "silver" coinage was instead minted in cupronickel, an alloy of 75% copper and 25% nickel. [12]

Beginning with Lord Wrottesley's proposals in the 1820s there were various attempts to decimalise the pound sterling over the next century and a half. [13] [14] These attempts came to nothing significant until the 1960s when the need for a currency more suited to simple monetary calculations became pressing. The decision to decimalise was announced in 1966, with the pound to be redivided into 100, rather than 240, pence. [15] Decimal Day was set for 15 February 1971, and a whole range of new coins was introduced. Shillings continued to be legal tender with a value of 5 new pence until 31 December 1990. [2]


The Scottish reverse design of a 1966 shilling. Scottish Shilling Reverse.png
The Scottish reverse design of a 1966 shilling.

Testoons issued during the reign of Henry VII feature a right-facing portrait of the king on the obverse. Surrounding the portrait is the inscription HENRICUS DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRA, or similar, meaning "Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England and France". [5] All shillings minted under subsequent kings and queens bear a similar inscription on the obverse identifying the monarch (or Lord Protector during the Commonwealth), with the portrait usually flipping left-facing to right-facing or vice versa between monarchs. The reverse features the escutcheon of the Royal Arms of England, surrounded by the inscription POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM, or a variant, meaning "I have made God my helper". [16]

Henry VIII testoons have a different reverse design, featuring a crowned Tudor rose, but those of Edward VI return to the Royal Arms design used previously. [17] Starting with Edward VI the coins feature the denomination XII printed next to the portrait of the king. Elizabeth I and Mary I shillings are exceptions to this; the former has the denomination printed on the reverse, above the coat of arms, and the latter has no denomination printed at all. Some shillings issued during Mary's reign bear the date of minting, printed above the dual portraits of Mary and Philip. [17]

Early shillings of James I feature the alternative reverse inscription EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI, meaning "Let God arise and His enemies be scattered", becoming QVAE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, meaning "What God hath put together let no man put asunder" after 1604. [18] [19]

A sampler in the Guildhall Museum of Rochester illustrates the conversion between pence and shillings, going up in units of ten old pennies. Guildhall Museum Collection- Drusilla Dunford Money Table Sampler 3304.JPG
A sampler in the Guildhall Museum of Rochester illustrates the conversion between pence and shillings, going up in units of ten old pennies.

A slang name for a shilling was a "bob" (plural as singular, as in "that cost me two bob"). The first recorded use was in a case of coining heard at the Old Bailey in 1789, when it was described as cant, "well understood among a certain set of people", but heard only among criminals and their associates. [20]

In the Gambia, white people are called toubabs, which may derive from the colonial practice of paying locals two shillings for running errands. [21] An alternate etymology holds that the name is derived from French toubib, i.e. doctor. [22]

To "take the King's shilling" was to enlist in the army or navy, a phrase dating back to the early 19th century. [23]

To "cut someone off with a shilling", often quoted as "cut off without a shilling" means to disinherit. Although having no basis in English law, some believe that leaving a family member a single shilling in one's will ensured that it could not be challenged in court as an oversight. [24]

A popular legend holds that a shilling was the value of a cow in Kent, or a sheep elsewhere. [25]


[26] Victoria

Edward VII

George V

George VI

English Crest

  • 1937 - 8,359,524; 26,000 (Proof)
  • 1938 - 4,833,436
  • 1939 - 11,052,677
  • 1940 - 11,099,126
  • 1941 - 11,391,883
  • 1942 - 17,453,643
  • 1943 - 11,404,213
  • 1944 - 11,586,751
  • 1945 - 15,143,404
  • 1946 - 18,663,797
  • 1947 - 12,120,611
  • 1948 - 45,576,923
  • 1949 - 19,328,405
  • 1950 - 19,261,385; 17,500 (Proof)
  • 1951 - 9,956,930; 20,000 (Proof)

Scottish Crest

  • 1937 - 6,775,877; 26,000 (Proof)
  • 1938 - 4,797,852
  • 1939 - 10,263,892
  • 1940 - 9,913,089
  • 1941 - 8,086,830
  • 1942 - 13,676,759
  • 1943 - 9,824,214
  • 1944 - 10,990,167
  • 1945 - 15,106,270
  • 1946 - 16,381,501
  • 1947 - 12,283,223
  • 1948 - 45,351,937
  • 1949 - 21,243,074
  • 1950 - 14,299,614; 18,000 (Proof)
  • 1951 - 10,961,174; 20,000 (Proof)

Elizabeth II

English Shield

  • 1953 - 41,943,800; 40,000 (Proof)
  • 1954 - 30,162,032
  • 1955 - 45,259,908
  • 1956 - 44,970,009
  • 1957 - 42,774,217
  • 1958 - 14,392,305
  • 1959 - 19,442,778
  • 1960 - 27,027,932
  • 1961 - 39,816,907
  • 1962 - 36,704,374
  • 1963 - 44,714,000
  • 1964 - 13,617,440
  • 1965 - 11,236,000
  • 1966 - 15,002,000
  • 1970 - 750,476 (Proof only)

Scottish Shield

  • 1953 - 20,663,528; 40,000 (Proof)
  • 1954 - 26,771,735
  • 1955 - 27,950,906
  • 1956 - 42,853,639
  • 1957 - 17,959,988
  • 1958 - 40,822,557
  • 1959 - 1,012,988
  • 1960 - 14,375,932
  • 1961 - 2,762,558
  • 1962 - 18,967,310
  • 1963 - 32,300,000
  • 1964 - 5,246,560
  • 1965 - 31,364,000
  • 1966 - 15,604,000
  • 1970 - 750,476 (Proof only)


  1. 75% Cu and 25% Ni

Related Research Articles

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The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom, British Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories is denominated in pennies and pounds sterling, and ranges in value from one penny sterling to two pounds. Since decimalisation, on 15 February 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 (new) pence. Before decimalisation, twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shilling</span> Name for a coin or unit of currency

The shilling is a historical coin, and the name of a unit of modern currencies formerly used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, other British Commonwealth countries and Ireland, where they were generally equivalent to 12 pence or one-twentieth of a pound before being phased out during the 1960s and 1970s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ten pence (British coin)</span> British decimal coin

The British decimal ten pence coin is a denomination of sterling coinage worth 110 of a pound. Its obverse has featured the profile of Queen Elizabeth II since the coin's introduction in 1968, to replace the florin coin in preparation for decimalisation in 1971. It remained the same size as the florin coin until a smaller version was introduced 30 September 1992, with the older coins being withdrawn on 30 June 1993. Four different portraits of the Queen have been used on the coin; the latest design by Jody Clark was introduced in 2015. The second and current reverse, featuring a segment of the Royal Shield, was introduced in 2008.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Florin (British coin)</span> Former coin of the United Kingdom and other territories

The British florin, or two-shilling piece, was a coin worth 110 of one pound, or 24 pence. It was issued from 1849 until 1967, with a final issue for collectors dated 1970. It was the last coin circulating immediately prior to decimalisation to be demonetised, in 1993, having for a quarter of a century circulated alongside the ten-pence piece, identical in specifications and value.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Threepence (British coin)</span> Former coin of the United Kingdom and other territories

The British threepence piece, usually simply known as a threepence, thruppence, or thruppenny bit, was a denomination of sterling coinage worth 180 of one pound or 14 of one shilling. It was used in the United Kingdom, and earlier in Great Britain and England. Similar denominations were later used throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth countries, notably in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crown (British coin)</span> British coin introduced in 1707

The British crown was a denomination of sterling coinage worth 14 of one pound, or 5 shillings, or 60 (old) pence. The crown was first issued during the reign of Edward VI, as part of the coinage of the Kingdom of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pound sterling</span> Currency of the United Kingdom

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Decimal Day</span> 15 February 1971, when the UK and Ireland adopted decimal currency

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">£sd</span> Pre-decimal currencies

£sd, spoken as "pounds, shillings and pence", is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe. The abbreviation originates from the Latin currency denominations librae, solidi, and denarii. In the United Kingdom, these were referred to as pounds, shillings, and pence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Half crown (British coin)</span> Former coin of the United Kingdom and other territories

The British half crown was a denomination of sterling coinage worth 18 of one pound, or two shillings and six pence, or 30 pre-decimal pence. The half crown was first issued in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI. No half crowns were issued in the reign of Mary, but from the reign of Elizabeth I half crowns were issued in every reign except that of Edward VIII, until the coins were discontinued in 1970.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pound Scots</span> Currency in the Kingdom of Scotland until 1707

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sixpence (British coin)</span> Former coin of the United Kingdom and other territories

The British sixpence piece, sometimes known as a tanner or sixpenny bit, was a denomination of sterling coinage worth 140 of one pound or half of one shilling. It was first minted in 1551, during the reign of Edward VI, and circulated until 1980. The coin was made from silver from its introduction in 1551 until 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel.

The threepence or threepenny bit was a denomination of currency used by various jurisdictions in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, valued at 1/80 of a pound or 14 of a shilling until decimalisation of the pound sterling and Irish pound in 1971. It was also used in some parts of the British Empire, notably Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shilling (Australian)</span>

The shilling, informally called a "bob", was a type of silver coinage issued by the Commonwealth of Australia, that circulated prior to the decimalisation of Australian coinage. The Australian shilling was derived from the British pre-decimal sterling pound system and was first issued following the passing of the Australian Coinage Act 1909, which established Australia's first formal currency system. The shilling was issued as part of Australia's silver coinage, which included the two-shilling (florin), the sixpence and the threepence. The shilling was minted from 1910 until 1963. During this period there was one significant modification to the design of the Australian shilling, the change in its reverse design, which occurred in 1938 when the design was altered from the Australian coat of arms (1910–1936) to the visage of a Merino ram's head (1938–1963).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penny (British pre-decimal coin)</span> Former denomination of sterling coinage

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The English shilling was a silver coin of the Kingdom of England, when first introduced known as the testoon. A shilling was worth twelve pence, and there were 20 shillings to the pound sterling. The English shilling was introduced in the 16th century and remained in circulation until it became the British shilling as the result of the Union of England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coins of the New Zealand pound</span> Former New Zealand coinage

The first coinage of the New Zealand pound was introduced in 1933 in response to large-scale smuggling of prior British imperial coinage after devaluation of New Zealand exchange rates relative to the pound sterling and large influxes of other foreign coinage into circulation. The Coinage Act, 1933 outlined the weights and compositions of various denominations, out of which five silver issues entered circulation over the following year, after lengthy disagreement between rival coinage design committees. The copper penny and halfpenny entered circulation in 1940, corresponding to anniversary of the New Zealand centennial. An eighth denomination of coin, the five-shilling piece or crown, was produced solely through three commemorative issues. The first issue, the Waitangi crown, was produced in extremely limited quantities and sold to collectors. Later commemorative crown issues in 1949 and 1953 were produced for circulation.


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