Thrinax excelsa

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Thrinax excelsa
Thrinax excelsa1.jpg
Thrinax excelsa at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Florida, United States
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Genus: Thrinax
Species:
T. excelsa
Binomial name
Thrinax excelsa

Thrinax excelsa, commonly known as broad thatch, is a species of palm which is endemic to Jamaica.

Arecaceae family of plants

The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial plants. Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs, trees and stemless plants, all commonly known as palms. Those having a tree form are colloquially called palm trees. They are flowering plants, a family in the monocot order Arecales. Currently 181 genera with around 2600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts.

Endemism Ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location or habitat

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area.

Jamaica Country in the Caribbean

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola.

Contents

Description

Immature fruit of Thrinax excelsa Thrinax excelsa3.jpg
Immature fruit of Thrinax excelsa

Thrinax excelsa is a fan palm with solitary stems that range from 3 to 11 metres (9.8 to 36.1 ft) tall and 12.5 to 20 centimetres (4.9 to 7.9 in) in diameter. Plants have between 6 and 17 palmately compound leaves with 52 to 65 leaflets. The inflorescences are arched and are not longer than the leaves. The bisexual flowers are small. The fruit are small, single-seeded, globose and white when mature. [1]

Fan palm common name

Fan palm as a descriptive term can refer to any of several different kinds of palms (Arecaceae) in various genera with leaves that are palmately lobed. Most are members of the subfamily Coryphoideae, though a few genera in subfamily Calamoideae also have palmate leaves. Fan palm genera include:

Inflorescence Term used in botany to describe a cluster of flowers

An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern.

Distribution

The species is endemic to Jamaica, which it grows between 300 and 500 metres (980 and 1,640 ft) above sea level in the John Crow Mountains. [1]

John Crow Mountains mountain in Jamaica

The John Crow Mountains are a range of mountains in Jamaica. They extend parallel with the north east coast of the island, bounded to the west by the banks of the Rio Grande, and joining with the eastern end of the Blue Mountains in the southeast. The highest point in the range is a little over 3,750 feet (1,140 m).

Related Research Articles

<i>Juniperus excelsa</i> species of plant

Juniperus excelsa, commonly called the Greek juniper, is a juniper found throughout the eastern Mediterranean, from northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria across Turkey to Syria and Lebanon, Jordan and the Caucasus mountains.

Vallée de Mai protected area

Vallée de Mai Nature Reserve is a nature park and UNESCO World Heritage Site on the island of Praslin, Seychelles. It consists of a well-preserved palm forest, flagship species made up of the island endemic coco de mer, as well as five other endemic palms. The coco de mer, a monocot tree in the Arecaceae, has the largest seeds of any plant in the world. Also unique to the park is its wildlife, including birds such as the rare Seychelles black parrot, mammals, crustaceans, snails, and reptiles. There has been a determined effort to eliminate all the introduced exotic species of plants from the area but this has not been successful in eliminating coffee, pineapple, and ornamental palms thus far. This forest, with its peculiar plant and animal species, is a relict from the time when the supercontinent of Gondwana was divided into smaller parts, leaving the Seychelles islands between the present day Madagascar and India.

<i>Coccothrinax</i> genus of plants

Coccothrinax is a genus of palms in the family Arecaceae. There are more than 50 species described in the genus, plus many synonyms and subspecies. A new species was described as recently as 2017. Many Coccothrinax produce thatch. In Spanish-speaking countries, guano is a common name applied to Coccothrinax palms. The species are native throughout the Caribbean, the Bahamas, extreme southern Florida and southeastern Mexico, but most of the species are known only from Cuba.

Roystonea altissima is a species of palm which is endemic to hillsides and mountain slopes near the interior of Jamaica. The name altissima is Latin for "highest", however they are not the tallest species in the genus Roystonea. They are usually found just over sea-level to 760 metres (2,490 ft) in elevation.

<i>Brahea armata</i> species of plant

Brahea armata, commonly known as Mexican blue palm or blue hesper palm, is a large evergreen tree of the palm family Arecaceae, native to Baja California, Mexico. It is widely planted as an ornamental.

<i>Thrinax</i> genus of plants

Thrinax is a genus in the palm family, native to the Caribbean. It is closely related to the genera Coccothrinax, Hemithrinax and Zombia. Flowers are small, bisexual and are borne on small stalks.

<i>Zombia</i> genus of plants

Zombia antillarum, commonly known as the zombie palm, is a species of palm tree and the only member of the genus Zombia. It is endemic to the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. Usually found in dry, hilly areas of northern and southern Haiti and the northwest of the Dominican Republic, Z. antillarum is a relatively short fan palm with clustered stems and a very distinctive appearance caused by its persistent spiny leaf sheaths. Threatened by habitat destruction in Haiti, Z. antillarum is a popular ornamental species due to its distinctive appearance, low maintenance requirements and salt tolerance.

<i>Attalea crassispatha</i> palm species

Attalea crassispatha is a palm which is endemic to southwest Haiti. The most geographically isolated member of the genus, it is considered a critically endangered species and has been called one of the rarest palms in the Americas.

Phoenicophorium, thief palm, or latanier palm, is a monotypic genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family. The sole species is Phoenicophorium borsigianum.

<i>Coccothrinax clarensis</i> species of plant

Coccothrinax clarensis is a palm which is endemic to central and eastern Cuba. Its name suggests that it has small coconut-like fruit while clarensis comes from Santa Clara valley in Cuba where the species are found.

Coccothrinax jamaicensis, the silver thatch or Jamaican silver thatch, is a fan palm believed to be endemic to Jamaica. A slender palm growing up to 8 metres (26 ft) tall, it grows in coastal areas on limestone or sand.

<i>Sabal domingensis</i> species of plant

Sabal domingensis, the Hispaniola palmetto, is a species of palm which is native to Hispaniola and Cuba.

<i>Leucothrinax</i> species of plant

Leucothrinax morrisii, the Key thatch palm, is a small palm which is native to the Greater Antilles, northern Lesser Antilles, The Bahamas and the Florida Keys. Until 2008 it was known as Thrinax morrisii. It was split from the genus Thrinax after phylogenetic studies showed that its inclusion in Thrinax would render that genus paraphyletic. The generic name combines leuco with thrinax.

Roystonea princeps, commonly known as Morass cabbage palm or Morass royal palm, is a species of palm which is endemic to western Jamaica.

<i>Sabal maritima</i> species of plant

Sabal maritima, is a species of palm which is native to Jamaica and Cuba.

<i>Thrinax parviflora</i> species of plant

Thrinax parviflora is a palm which is endemic to the Mountains of Jamaica where it occurs in open and rocky, seasonally dry open deciduous forest up to 900 meters elevation. Some botanists recognize two subspecies, one being Thrinax parviflora subsp. parviflora.

<i>Thrinax radiata</i> species of plant

Thrinax radiata, the Florida thatch palm, is a medium to slow growing palm in the family Arecaceae. It is native to many Caribbean islands, Central America, and far southern Florida. Its natural habitat is sandy, calcareous soil in coastal areas.

<i>Hemithrinax compacta</i> species of plant

Hemithrinax compacta is a species of palm that is endemic to Cuba. Hemithrinax compacta flourishes on the mogotes of Cuba. Mogotes are dome-shaped hills in Cuba made up of coral rock. Hemithrinax compacta is the only species in its genus in Cuba that grows in the highlands, at an elevation of 450 metres (1,480 ft). Hemithrinax compacta needs to have more than 2,400 mm (94 in) per year of rainfall and a mean temperature of 22 degrees Celsius (72 °F). The leaves of the palm have an average length of 190 cm (75 in) and the inflorescence of the palm is tightly clustered, giving rise to the species name. A mature H. compacta can have a massive trunk of up to 10 cm (3.9 in) thick and more than 20 m (66 ft) in height. The genus Thrinax has been grown in gardens. In addition, in Thrinax the fruits are dispersed and eaten by red-bellied woodpeckers, birds, gray squirrels and lizards.

<i>Boronia excelsa</i> species of plant

Boronia excelsa is a plant in the citrus family Rutaceae and is endemic to a small area in Far North Queensland. It is an erect shrub with woolly-hairy branches, simple, stalkless, more or less hairless leaves, and pink to white, four-petalled flowers.

References

  1. 1 2 Henderson, Andrew; Gloria Galeano; Rodrigo Bernal (1995). Field Guide to the Palms of the Americas. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN   0-691-08537-4.