This article needs additional citations for verification .(May 2009)
天地會 (Chinese Traditional)
天地会 (Chinese Simplified)
|Heaven and Earth Society
|Thiên Địa Hội
|Hong Gate,Vast Gate,Floodgate
|Three Harmonies Society
The Tiandihui,the Heaven and Earth Society,also called Hongmen (the Vast Family),is a Chinese fraternal organization and historically a secretive folk religious sect in the vein of the Ming loyalist White Lotus Sect,the Tiandihui's ancestral organization.As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces,it branched off into many groups and became known by many names,including the Sanhehui. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept,although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups. Its current iteration is purely secular.
Under British rule in Hong Kong,all Chinese secret societies were collectively seen as criminal threats and were bundled together and defined as "Triads",although the Hongmen might be said to have differed in its nature from others. The name of the "Three Harmonies Society" (the "Sanhehui" grouping of the Tiandihui) is in fact the source of the term "Triad" that has become synonymous with Chinese organized crime. Because of that heritage,the Tiandihui (more commonly known there as "Triads') is both controversial and prohibited in Hong Kong.
Republican-era scholars generally thought that the Tiandihui was founded by Ming loyalists in the early Qing dynasty to resist the Manchu invasion of China. In 1964,scholar Cai Shaoqing published the article On the Origins of the Tiandihui (關於天地會的起源問題) based on his research of Qing archives (now known as the First Historical Archives) in Beijing. He concluded that the Tiandihui was founded in 1761 and its roots lay in mutual aid rather than national politics. His interpretation was further developed by his student Qin Baoqi and confirmed by independent research by the Taiwanese scholar Zhuang Jifa.
The founders of the Tiandihui—Ti Xi,Li Amin,Zhu Dingyuan,and Tao Yuan—were all from Zhangpu,Zhangzhou,Fujian,on the border with Guangdong. They left Zhangpu for Sichuan,where they joined a local cult and left disenchanted. Of the four,Ti Xi soon left for Guangdong,where he organized a group of followers in Huizhou. In 1761,he returned to Fujian and organized his followers from both provinces to form the Tiandihui.
A century earlier,the Qing dynasty made membership in such societies illegal,driving them into the arms of the anti-Qing resistance,for whom they now served as an organizational model. The 18th century saw a proliferation of such societies,some of which were devoted to overthrowing the Qing,such as the Tiandihui,which had established itself in the Zhangpu and Pinghe counties of Zhangzhou in 1766. By 1767,Lu Mao had organized within the Tiandihui a campaign of robberies to fund their revolutionary activities.
The Tiandihui began to claim that their society was born of an alliance between Ming dynasty loyalists and five survivors of the destruction of Shaolin Monastery—Cai Dezhong (蔡德忠),Fang Dahong (方大洪),Ma Chaoxing (馬超興),Hu Dedi (胡德帝),and Li Shikai (李式開)—by the Qing forged at the Honghua Ting ("Vast or Red Flower Pavilion"),where they swore to devote themselves to the mission of "Fan Qing Fu Ming" (Chinese :反淸復明;lit.'Oppose Qing and restore Ming').
In 1768 anti-Qing Tiandihui rebel Zhao Liangming claimed to be a descendant of the imperial house of the Song dynasty.
The merchant Koh Lay Huan,who had been involved in these subversive activities,had to flee China,arriving in Siam and the Malay States,to eventually settle in Penang as its first Kapitan China before dying in 1826.
During the late 19th century,branches of the Hongmen were formed by Chinese communities overseas,notably the United States,Canada,and Australia,where they are nowadays known as "Chinese Freemasons."
Following the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty of China in 1911,the Hongmen suddenly found themselves without purpose. From then on,the Hongmen diverged into various groups. When some Hongmen groups based within China could no longer rely on donations from sympathetic locals;being unable to resume normal civilian lives after years of hiding,they turned to illegal activities –thus giving birth to the modern Triads.[ citation needed ]
The Hongmen is believed to consist of about 300,000 members worldwide,members found in mainland China,Taiwan,and Chinese overseas communities. Membership is overwhelmingly ethnically Chinese but there are also Japanese members and a few white American members. The Hongmen are divided into branches,of which there are believed to be approximately 180. The largest of the branches,Wu Sheng Shan,consists of perhaps 180,000 members. Membership is said to be primarily working class,and is also said to include a considerable membership in the armed forces of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Hongmen members worldwide continue to observe certain common traditions:they all stress their patriotic origin;they all revere Lord Guan,a deified historic Chinese figure who embodies righteousness,patriotism,and loyalty;and they all share certain rituals and traditions such as the concept of brotherhood and a secret handshake.
Today,the Hongmen is an illegal society in Hong Kong because of its traditional association with the triads.
In Taiwan,by contrast,the Hongmen is not only legal,but politically influential;this is not surprising,since Sun Yat-sen,founding father of the Republic of China,was a senior figure within the Hongmen,as was nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek.[ citation needed ] Moreover,the Kuomintang,or Chinese Nationalist Party,was formed from the Xingzhonghui and Guangfuhui,groups not unlike the Hongmen.[ citation needed ]
Because of the Hongmen's revolutionary character and mysterious quality,their future was unclear after the Republic of China central government moved to Taiwan. For a long time,the Republic of China on Taiwan did not openly allow the Hongmen to operate. After martial law ended in 1989,Ge Shan Tang formed and started exchange with the outside world.
Under the influence of Chiang Kai-shek,the Hongmen attempted to remain somewhat secretive,but in recent years the organization's activities have been more transparent.
The organization also has numerous business interests,and is reportedly trying to open a martial arts school in Taiwan.
On 1 January 2004,Nan Hua Shan Tang was registered with Taiwan's Ministry of the Interior.
In Mainland China,the Hongmen is known as the Zhi Gong Party (simplified Chinese :致公党; traditional Chinese :致公黨),a political party that participates in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. Jiang Zuojun,chairman of the Zhi Gong Party,is currently the only non-Communist Party minister in the Chinese government.
The Canadian branch was established in 1863 in Barkerville,British Columbia. In 1971,Chinese Freemasons National Headquarters of Canada (加拿大洪門民治黨) was incorporated under the Canadian Corporations Act on 31 May 1971,and registered on 22 July 1971. The Barkerville headquarter was donated to British Columbia government.
The Hongmen continues to exist within numerous overseas Chinese communities,albeit with rapidly aging memberships;its main purposes today are to act as fraternities among overseas Chinese,and to participate in charitable activities. On 28 July 1992 the Hongmen held their 3rd Worldwide Hongmen Conference in the United States. Over 100 worldwide representatives attended for two days of discussion and adopted organizational rules,proclaimed the founding of a worldwide Hongmen association. First session President Li Zhipeng announced the construction of the Hongmen headquarters in Honolulu.
A secret society is an organization about which the activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies or guerrilla warfare insurgencies, that hide their activities and memberships but maintain a public presence.
A tong is a type of organization found among Chinese immigrants predominantly living in the United States, with smaller numbers in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom. In Chinese, the word tong means "hall" or "gathering place". These organizations are described as secret societies or sworn brotherhoods and are often tied to criminal activity. In the 1990s, in most American Chinatowns, clearly marked tong halls could easily be found, many of which have had affiliations with Chinese organized crime.
For most of its history, China was organized into various dynastic states under the rule of hereditary monarchs. Beginning with the establishment of dynastic rule by Yu the Great c. 2070 BC, and ending with the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor in AD 1912, Chinese historiography came to organize itself around the succession of monarchical dynasties. Besides those established by the dominant Han ethnic group or its spiritual Huaxia predecessors, dynasties throughout Chinese history were also founded by non-Han peoples.
Lieyu Township (Liehyu) is a rural township in Kinmen County (Quemoy), Fujian Province, Republic of China (Taiwan). It consists mainly of three islands located to the west of Greater Kinmen and immediately to the east of Xiamen (Amoy) of the People's Republic of China: Lesser Kinmen, Dadan, and Erdan.
The Deer and the Cauldron, also known as The Duke of Mount Deer, is a historical comedy novel by Jin Yong. It is the longest of his novels. Although the last to be published, it is the eighth of twelve in internal order. It was initially published in Hong Kong as a serial, running from 24 October 1969 to 23 September 1972 in the newspaper Ming Pao.
Small Swords Society or Small Sword Society was a political and military organisation active in Shanghai, China, and neighbouring areas amid the Taiping Rebellion, between about 1840 and 1855. Members of the society, rebelling against the Qing dynasty, occupied old Shanghai and many of the surrounding villages. Chinese gentry and merchants took refuge in the British and French concessions, which were regarded as the only safe places. The rebellion was suppressed and the society expelled from Shanghai in February 1855.
The History of Ming is the final official Chinese history included in the Twenty-Four Histories. It consists of 332 volumes and covers the history of the Ming dynasty from 1368 to 1644. It was written by a number of officials commissioned by the court of Qing dynasty, with Zhang Tingyu as the lead editor. The compilation started in the era of the Shunzhi Emperor and was completed in 1739 in the era of the Qianlong Emperor, though most of the volumes were written in the era of the Kangxi Emperor.
Iquan's Party is the name of an armed merchant company led by Zheng Zhilong that appears in the novel The chronicles of Zheng Zhilong. Although Zheng Zhilong was a real person the company as it is portrayed in the novel is fictional and not an actual historical organisation.
The House of Zhao was the imperial clan of the Song dynasty (960–1279) of China.
Tse Tsan-tai (Chinese: 謝纘泰 or 謝贊泰; pinyin: Xiè Zàntài; Sidney Lau: Je6 Juen2 Taai3; 16 May 1872 – 4 April 1938), courtesy name Sing-on (聖安), art-named Hong-yu (康如), was an Australian Chinese revolutionary, active during the late Qing dynasty. Tse had an interest in designing airships but none were ever constructed. His book The Chinese Republic: Secret History of the Revolution (中華民國革命秘史), published in 1924 by the South China Morning Post, of which he was co-founder, is an important source of studies on the anti-Qing revolution.
A triad is a Chinese transnational organized crime syndicate based in Greater China with outposts in various countries having significant Chinese diaspora populations.
Chinese salvationist religions or Chinese folk religious sects are a Chinese religious tradition characterised by a concern for salvation of the person and the society. They are distinguished by egalitarianism, a founding charismatic person often informed by a divine revelation, a specific theology written in holy texts, a millenarian eschatology and a voluntary path of salvation, an embodied experience of the numinous through healing and self-cultivation, and an expansive orientation through evangelism and philanthropy.
The Lin Shuangwen rebellion occurred in 1787–1788 in Taiwan under the rule of the Qing dynasty. The rebellion was started by the rebel Lin Shuangwen and was pacified by the Qianlong Emperor. Lin Shuangwen was then executed.
Philosophy in Taiwan is the set of philosophical traditions in Taiwan, while Taiwanese philosophy is taken to mean philosophical work from the country. Philosophical thought in Taiwan is diverse, drawing influence from Chinese philosophy during Qing rule from the 17th and 18th century, and Western philosophy through the Kyoto School during Japanese rule in the 19th and early 20th century. Taiwanese philosophy took a more endogenous turn during the modern era, with burgeoning philosophical debate regarding Taiwanese Gemeinschaft.
Cai Shaoqing was a Chinese historian and professor at Nanjing University, considered a leading authority on the history of Chinese secret societies. He pioneered the research of Tiandihui and other secret societies using Qing dynasty archives and overturned the findings of earlier Republican-era scholars. He also studied the links between the Warlord Era and banditry during the late Qing dynasty and early Republic of China. He received the Frederic Milton Thrasher Award for his research on Chinese secret societies.
The Heavenly Kingdom of the Great Mingshun, or the Shuntian Kingdom (順天國), was an attempt within Qing China by members of the Revive China Society to establish a Westernized constitutional monarchy with references to the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1903, founders of whom were Tse Tsan-tai, Li Ki-tong, and Hong Quanfu, a former Taiping general.
Jianguo Lu was the regnal year of Zhu Yihai, Prince of Lu of the Southern Ming.
The Chee Kung Tong, or Gee Kung Tong, was a Chinese secret society established in 1880 and holds an active presence still. In earlier years, the society has also been recognized as the "Chinese Masons" and has been identified under various names such as Hongmen, Hongshuntang, and Yixingtang. The fraternity founded its headquarters in San Francisco in the United States.
| Library resources about