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天地會(Chinese Traditional)
天地会(Chinese Simplified)
FoundedYear 1761

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  1. Alexander Wylie: Secret Societies in China, in China Researches, p131, 1897 Shanghai, reprinted in USA by Nabu Public Domain Reprints
  2. Ownby (1995).
  3. Ownby & Heidhues (1993), p.  10.
  4. Murray & Qin (1994), p. 10.
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. Murray & Qin (1994), p. 34.
  7. Ownby & Heidhues (1993), p.  185.
  8. Rites of Belonging: Memory, Modernity, and Identity in a Malaysian Chinese Community By Jean DeBernardi, Jean Elizabeth DeBernardi Published by Stanford University Press, 2004; ISBN   0-8047-4486-6, ISBN   978-0-8047-4486-7; p. 26
  9. The Straits Settlements, 1826–67: Indian Presidency to Crown Colony By Constance Mary Turnbull Published by Athlone Press, 1972; p. 9, 420
  10. Chinese Freemasons
  11. 百年历史的华人社团 加拿大洪门达权社
  12. 「唐人街之父」新書 揭早期洪門秘史
  13. 5月23日黎全恩博士讲座:【洪门及加拿大洪门史论】
  14. Lecture by Dr. David Chuenyan Lai: History of Hongmen and Chinese Freemasons in Canada 黎全恩博士講座:【洪門及加拿大洪門史論】

Further reading

Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 天地會
Simplified Chinese 天地会
Literal meaningHeaven and Earth Society