|West Australian seahorse|
Hippocampus angustus Günther, 1870
The tiger snout seahorse or West Australian seahorse (Hippocampus subelongatus) is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to south-western Australia, where it occurs from the Abrolhos Islands to Rockingham. Its natural habitats are the edges of rocky areas, muddy bottoms and areas with murky water caused by high sediment load, around jetty pilings and moorings; it is often associated with sponges or sea squirts and frequently attaches itself to man-made objects. In the winter they move to deeper water.
Hippocampus subelongatus participate in strictly monogamous relationships. There are more mated females than unmated females, however, the amount of mated and unmated males is roughly the same. This is a direct result of the substantial sexual selection on females -- the males have a preference when mating, they prefer larger females.
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Seahorse is the name given to 45 species of small marine fish in the genus Hippocampus. "Hippocampus" comes from the Ancient Greek hippokampos, itself from hippos meaning "horse" and kampos meaning "sea monster". Having a head and neck suggestive of a horse, seahorses also feature segmented bony armour, an upright posture and a curled prehensile tail.
The Syngnathidae is a family of fish which includes seahorses, pipefishes, and seadragons. The name is derived from Greek, σύν (syn), meaning "together", and γνάθος (gnathos), meaning "jaw". This fused jaw trait is something the entire family has in common.
The big-belly seahorse or pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis, is one of the largest seahorse species in the world with a length of up to 35 cm (14 in), and is the largest in Australia. Seahorses are members of the family Syngnathidae, and are teleost fishes. They are found in southeast Australia and New Zealand, and are listed on Appendix II of CITES.
Hippocampus bargibanti, also known as Bargibant's seahorse or the pygmy seahorse, is a seahorse of the family Syngnathidae found in the central Indo-Pacific area.
Hippocampus angustus, commonly known as the narrow-bellied seahorse, western Australian seahorse, or western spiny seahorse, is a species of marine fish of the family Syngnathidae. It is found in waters off of Australia, from Perth to Hervey Bay, and the southern portion of Papua New Guinea in the Torres Strait. It lives over soft-bottom substrates, adjacent to coral reefs, and on soft corals at depths of 3–63 metres (9.8–206.7 ft). It is expected to feed on small crustaceans, similar to other seahorses. This species is ovoviviparous, with males carrying eggs in a brood pouch before giving birth to live young. This type of seahorse is monogamous in its mating patterns. The males only fertilize one female's eggs for the mating season because of the population distribution. While some seahorses can be polygamous because they are denser in population, this type of seahorse is more sparsely distributed and the cost of reproduction is high. Therefore, the risk to reproduce due to predatory and distributary factors limits this breed to one mate, often finding the same mate season after season.
Barbour's seahorse is a species of fish of the family Syngnathidae.
The knobby seahorse, also known as the short-headed seahorse or short-snouted seahorse, is a species of marine fish of the family Syngnathidae. It inhabits coastal waters in southwestern and southeastern Australia, from Gregory to Bremer Bay, and from Denial Bay to Newcastle.
The giraffe seahorse is a species of fish of the family Syngnathidae. It is found in coastal waters off of the south and east coasts of Africa, from South Africa to Tanzania, and possibly north to Kenya. It lives in estuarine seagrass beds, algae beds, and shallow reefs to depths of 45 metres (148 ft), where it can grow to lengths of 10 centimetres (3.9 in). It is expected to feed on small crustaceans, similar to other seahorses. This species is ovoviviparous, with males carrying eggs in a brood pouch before giving birth to live young. Individuals are sexually mature at around 6.5 centimetres (2.6 in). Major threats to this species could be habitat loss, through coastal development and pollution, and overexploitation through bycatch. Some other threats include human use by drying out the seahorse for traditional medicine or as a curio.
The Knysna seahorse or Cape seahorse is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to the south coast of South Africa, where it has been found in only three brackish water habitats: the estuary of the Keurbooms River in Plettenberg Bay, the Knysna Lagoon, and the estuarine portion of the Swartvlei system in Sedgefield. The limited range of this seahorse puts it at great risk of extinction.
Hippocampus coronatus, commonly known as the high-crowned seahorse or crowned seahorse, is a species of fish of the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to the Pacific coastal waters of Japan, where it lives among Zostera seagrasses. It can grow to lengths of 10.8 centimetres (4.3 in), but is more commonly 6 centimetres (2.4 in). Individuals feed mainly on small crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods and copepods, although this can vary by size, with smaller individuals consuming copepods while larger individuals feed on amphipods and mysids. This species is ovoviviparous, with males brooding eggs in a brood pouch before giving birth to live young. Breeding season occurs from June to November, with females and males reaching sexual maturity at 6.9 centimetres (2.7 in) and 7.3 centimetres (2.9 in) respectively. Male brood size ranges from 12-46. The International trade in this species has been monitored through Appendix II of the CITES licensing system since 2004 and a minimum size of 10 centimetres (3.9 in) applies to traded specimens.
The Pacific seahorse, also known as the giant seahorse, is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. This species is the only seahorse species found in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
The great seahorse, also known as Kellogg's seahorse, is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. It is one of the largest of the 54 species of seahorse.
The hedgehog seahorse is a species of fish of the family Syngnathidae. It inhabits coastal waters from India and Sri Lanka to Taiwan and northern Australia. It is threatened by overfishing, as both targeted catch and bycatch. This species is ovoviviparous, with males carrying eggs in a brood pouch before giving birth to live young.
The flat-faced seahorse, longnose seahorse, low-crowned seahorse or three-spot seahorse is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. It is found in Australia, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, French Polynesia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is shallow seas. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The false-eye seahorse, or flatface seahorse is a species of marine fish of the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to Australia, from Shark Bay to Broome, where it is found in intertidal rockpools, shallow algae and weedy or rubble reef habitats. It is expected to feed on harpacticoid, calanoid, and cyclopoid copepods, caridean and gammaridean shrimps, and mysids, similar to other seahorses. This species is ovoviviparous, with males brooding eggs in a brood pouch before giving birth to live young.
The zebra seahorse is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to northern Australia.
The short-snouted seahorse is a species of seahorse in the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea and parts of the North Atlantic, particularly around Italy and the Canary Islands. In 2007, colonies of the species were discovered in the River Thames around London and Southend-on-Sea.
The lined seahorse, northern seahorse or spotted seahorse, is a species of fish that belongs to the family Syngnathidae. H. erectus is a diurnal species with an approximate length of 15 cm and lifespan of one to four years. The H. erectus species can be found with a myriad of colors, from greys and blacks to reds, greens, and oranges. The lined seahorse lives in the western Atlantic Ocean as far north as Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and Venezuela. It swims in an erect position and uses its dorsal and pectoral fins for guidance while swimming.
The paradoxical seahorse is a small seahorse in the genus Hippocampus. The only known specimen was captured in 1995 and remained unnoticed in a museum until 2006.
Hippocampus dahli is a fish species of the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to the Australian northeastern coast, from Darwin to Brisbane, where it inhabits estuarine channels and rubble or soft substrates to depths of 21 metres (69 ft). Little is known of its feeding habits, but it is likely to feed on small crustaceans such as copepods, amphipods, and gammarid, caprellid, and caridean shrimps, similar to other seahorses. This species is ovoviviparous, with males carrying eggs in a brood pouch before giving birth to live young. This species is not listed in FishBase and many authorities treat it as a synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus.
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