Last updated

Temporal range: Paleocene–Recent
Grosse Linde bei Teuchatz, 3.jpg
Tilia platyphyllos specimen in Franconia
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Tilioideae

Tiliaceae (partim)

Tilioideae is a flowering plant subfamily in the family Malvaceae, though it was formerly considered a large group, placed at family rank and called Tiliaceae .


Within the framework of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Groups III [1] & IV systems, [2] an extended family Malvaceae is recognized by uniting the core Malvales of the Cronquist system - Bombacaceae, Malvaceae sensu stricto, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. Within the APG classification, Malvaceae contains a clade of 3 living genera placed as the subfamily Tilioideae.

Genera and species

The subfamily includes Tilia , Craigia , and Mortoniodendron . [3] The majority of other genera historically included in the family rank "Tiliaceae" have been moved into two other subfamilies of Malvaceae, the Brownlowioideae and Grewioideae.




Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alismatales</span> Order of herbaceous flowering plants of marshy and aquatic habitats

The Alismatales (alismatids) are an order of flowering plants including about 4,500 species. Plants assigned to this order are mostly tropical or aquatic. Some grow in fresh water, some in marine habitats.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Commelinales</span> Order of flowering plants

Commelinales is an order of flowering plants. It comprises five families: Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Hanguanaceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae. All the families combined contain over 885 species in about 70 genera; the majority of species are in the Commelinaceae. Plants in the order share a number of synapomorphies that tie them together, such as a lack of mycorrhizal associations and tapetal raphides. Estimates differ as to when the Commelinales evolved, but most suggest an origin and diversification sometime during the mid- to late Cretaceous. Depending on the methods used, studies suggest a range of origin between 123 and 73 million years, with diversification occurring within the group 110 to 66 million years ago. The order's closest relatives are in the Zingiberales, which includes ginger, bananas, cardamom, and others.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malvales</span> Order of flowering plants

The Malvales are an order of flowering plants. As circumscribed by APG II-system, the order includes about 6000 species within 9 families. The order is placed in the eurosids II, which are part of the eudicots.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malvaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plants estimated to contain 244 genera with 4225 known species. Well-known members of economic importance include okra, cotton, cacao and durian. There are also some genera containing familiar ornamentals, such as Alcea (hollyhock), Malva (mallow), and Tilia. The largest genera in terms of number of species include Hibiscus, Sterculia, Dombeya, Pavonia and Sida.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francoaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

The Francoaceae are a small family of flowering plants in the order Geraniales, including the genera Francoa, commonly known as bridal wreaths, and Tetilla. The Francoaceae are recognized as a family under various classification schemes but under the APG III system the Francoaceae are included within the Melianthaceae. In the APG IV system the Francoaceae are again recognized as a family, with Melianthaceae included in the circumscription of Francoaceae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nyssaceae</span> Family of trees

Nyssaceae is a family of flowering trees sometimes included in the dogwood family (Cornaceae). Nyssaceae is composed of 37 known species in the following five genera:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Petrosaviaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Petrosaviaceae is a family of flowering plants belonging to a monotypic order, Petrosaviales. Petrosaviales are monocots, and are grouped within the lilioid monocots. Petrosaviales are a very small order of photosynthetic (Japonolirion) and rare leafless achlorophyllous, mycoheterotrophic plants (Petrosavia) found in dark montane rainforests in Japan, China, Southeast Asia and Borneo. They are characterised by having bracteate racemes, pedicellate flowers, six persistent tepals, septal nectaries, three almost distinct carpels, simultaneous microsporogenesis, monosulcate pollen, and follicular fruit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiliaceae</span> Family of plants

Tiliaceae is a family of flowering plants. It is not a part of the APG, APG II and APG III classifications, being sunk in Malvaceae mostly as the subfamilies Tilioideae, Brownlowioideae and Grewioideae, but has an extensive historical record of use.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Schisandraceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Schisandraceae is a family of flowering plants with 3 known genera and a total of 92 known species. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists, at least for the past several decades. Before that, the plants concerned were assigned to family Magnoliaceae and Illiciaceae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Juncaginaceae</span> Family of aquatic plants

Juncaginaceae is a family of flowering plants, recognized by most taxonomists for the past few decades. It is also known as the arrowgrass family. It includes 3 genera with a total of 34 known species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hypoxidaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Hypoxidaceae is a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cabombaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

The Cabombaceae are a family of aquatic, herbaceous flowering plants. A common name for its species is water shield. The family is recognised as distinct in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV system (2016). The family consists of two genera of aquatic plants, Brasenia and Cabomba, totalling six species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muntingiaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

The Muntingiaceae are a family of flowering plants, belonging to the rosid order Malvales. The family consists of three genera: Dicraspidia, Muntingia, and Neotessmannia, each with a single species. They are woody plants of the tropical regions of America. The older Cronquist system placed these genera in the family Tiliaceae, with which they share morphological similarities, but have no evolutionary affinity. Muntingia calabura is widely introduced in tropical regions, because of its edible fruit. Dicraspidia donnell-smithii and Neotessmannia uniflora are the other two species in the family, the latter only known from herbarium specimens.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Centrolepidaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Centrolepidaceae are a family of flowering plants now included in Restionaceae following APG IV (2016). The botanical name has been recognized by most taxonomists.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Loasaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Loasaceae is a family of 15–20 genera and about 200–260 species of flowering plants in the order Cornales, native to the Americas and Africa. Members of the family include annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous plants, and a few shrubs and small trees. Members of the subfamily Loasoideae are known to exhibit rapid thigmonastic stamen movement when pollinators are present.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paracryphiaceae</span> Family of shrubs

The Paracryphiaceae are a family of woody shrubs and trees native to Australia, southeast Asia, and New Caledonia. In the APG III system of 2009, the family is placed in its own order, Paracryphiales, in the campanulid clade of the asterids. In the earlier APG II system, the family was unplaced as to order and included only Paracryphia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Huaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Huaceae is a family of plant in the rosids group, which has been classed in the orders Malpighiales, Malvales, and Violales or in its own order Huales. The APG II system placed it in the clade eurosids I, whereas the APG III system of 2009 and APG IV (2016) place it within the Oxalidales. The family is endemic to central Africa. It contains four species in the following two genera:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Icacinales</span> Order of flowering plants

Icacinales is an order of Angiosperms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Petiveriaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Petiveriaceae is a family of flowering plants formerly included as subfamily Rivinoideae in Phytolaccaceae. The family comprises nine genera, with about 20 known species.

Mortoniodendron is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Malvaceae.


  1. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , 181 (1): 1–20, doi: 10.1111/boj.12385
  3. Stevens, P.F. (2015) [1st. Pub. 2001], Angiosperm Phylogeny Website , retrieved 28 January 2021